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ChmsTian Classics ErheneaL Liknany 


Ante-Nicene Fathers 
Volume 8^ 


Philip Schaff 


chmsTian Classics 




& Erbeneal Libnany 


ANF08. The Twelve Patriarchs, Excerpts and 
Epistles, The Clementia, Apocrypha, Decretals, 
Memoirs of Edessa and Syriac Documents, Remains 
of the First Age 


Author(s): Schaff, Philip (1819-1893) (Editor) 

Publisher: Grand Rapids, Ml: Christian Classics Ethereal Library 

Description: Originally printed in 1885, the ten-volume set, Ante-Nicene 

Fathers, brings together the work of early Christian thinkers. 
In particular, it brings together the writings of the early Church 
fathers prior to the fourth century Nicene Creed. These 
volumes are noteworthy for their inclusion of entire texts, and 
not simply fragments or excerpts from these great writings. 
The translations are fairly literal, providing both readers and 
scholars with a good approximation of the originals. These 
writings were heavily influential on the early Church, and for 
good reason, as they are inspirational and encouraging. 
These volumes also come with many useful notes, providing 
the reader with new levels of understanding. Overall, Ante- 
Nicene Fathers, or any part of it, is a welcome addition to 
one's reading list. 

Tim Perrine 
CCEL Staff Writer 


Subjects: Christianity 

Early Christian Literature. Fathers of the Church, etc. 


i 


Contents 


Title Pages. 1 

Introductory Notice. 3 

The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. 6 

Title Page. 6 

Introductory Notice. 7 

The Testament of Reuben Concerning Thoughts. 15 

The Testament of Simeon Concerning Envy. 19 

The Testament of Levi Concerning the Priesthood and Arrogance. 22 

The Testament of Judah Concerning Fortitude, and Love of Money, and 3 1 

Fornication. 

The Testament of Issachar Concerning Simplicity. 40 

The Testament of Zebulun Concerning Compassion and Mercy. 43 

The Testament of Dan Concerning Anger and Lying. 47 

The Testament of Naphtali Concerning Natural Goodness. 50 

The Testament of Gad Concerning Hatred. 54 

The Testament of Asher Concerning Two Faces of Vice and Virtue. 57 

The Testament of Joseph Concerning Sobriety. 60 

The Testament of Benjamin Concerning a Pure Mind. 67 

Note by the American Editor. 72 

Excerpts of Theodotus. 73 

Title Page. 73 

Introductory Notice. 74 

Excerpts of Theodotus. 75 

Two Epistles Concerning Virginity. 91 

Title Page. 91 

Introductory Notice. 92 

ii 



The First Epistle of the Blessed Clement, the Disciple of Peter the Apostle. 94 

The Salutation. 94 

For True Virginity Perfect Virtue is Necessary. 95 

True Virgins Prove Themselves Such by Self-Denial, as Does the True Believer 96 
by Good Works. 

Continuation of the Remarks on Self-Denial; Object and Reward of True Virgins. 98 

The Irksomeness and the Enemies of Virginity. 99 

Divinity of Virginity. 100 

The True Virgin. 101 

Virgins, by the Laying Aside of All Carnal Affection, are Imitators of God. 102 

Continuation of the Subject of Mortification; Dignity of Persons Consecrated 104 
to God. 

Denunciation of Dangerous and Scandalous Association with Maidens. 105 

Perniciousness of Idleness; Warning Against the Empty Longing to Be Teachers; 106 

Advice About Teaching and the Use of Divine Gifts. 

Rules for Visits, Exorcisms, and How People are to Assist the Sick, and to Walk 108 
in All Things Without Offence. 

What Priests Should Be and Should Not Be. 110 

The Second Epistle of the Same Clement. 1 12 

He Describes the Circumspectness of His Intercourse with the Other Sex, and 112 
Tells How in His Journeys He Acts at Places Where There are Brethren Only. 

His Behaviour in Places Where There Were Christians of Both Sexes. 113 

Rules for the Conduct of Celibate Brethren in Places Where There are Only 1 14 
Married Christians. 

Conduct of the Holy Man Where There are Women Only. 1 15 

Where There is Only One Woman, the Father Does Not Make a Stay; How 116 
Carefully Stumbling-Blocks Must Be Avoided. 

How Christians Should Behave Themselves Among Heathens. 117 

Uses of Considering Admonitory Examples, as Well as Instructive Patterns. 119 
Joseph and Potiphar's Wife; Of What Kind Love to Females Ought to Be. 120 

Samson's Admonitory Fall. 121 

David's Sin, So Admonitory to Us Weak Men. 122 

Admonitory History of the Incestuous Children of David. 123 

iii 



Solomon's Infatuation Through Women. 124 

The History of Susanna Teaches Circumspection with the Eyes and in Society. 125 
Examples of Circumspect Behaviour from the Old Testament. 126 

The Example of Jesus; How We May Allow Ourselves to Be Served by Women. 127 
Exhortation to Union and to Obedience; Conclusion. 128 

Pseudo-Clementine Literature. 129 

Title Page. 129 

Introductory Notice. 130 

The Recognitions of Clement. 134 

Introductory Notice. 134 

Preface. 137 

Book I. 140 

Clement's Early History; Doubts. 140 

His Distress. 141 

His Dissatisfaction with the Schools of the Philosophers. 142 

His Increasing Disquiet. 143 

His Design to Test the Immortality of the Soul. 144 

Hears of Christ. 145 

Arrival of Barnabas at Rome. 146 

His Preaching. 147 

Clement's Interposition on Behalf of Barnabas. 148 

Intercourse with Barnabas. 149 

Departure of Barnabas. 150 

Clement's Arrival at Caesarea, and Introduction to Peter. 151 

His Cordial Reception by Peter. 152 

His Account of Himself. 153 

Peter's First Instruction: Causes of Ignorance. 154 

Instruction Continued: the True Prophet. 155 

Peter Requests Him to Be His Attendant. 156 

His Profiting by Peter's Instruction. 157 

Peter's Satisfaction. 158 

Postponement of Discussion with Simon Magus. 1 59 


IV 



160 


Advantage of the Delay. 

Repetition of Instructions. 161 

Repetition Continued. 162 

Repetition Continued. 163 

Repetition Continued. 164 

Friendship of God; How Secured. 165 

Account of the Creation. 166 

Account of the Creation Continued. 167 

The Giants: the Flood. 168 

Noah's Sons. 169 

World After the Flood. 170 

Abraham. 171 

Abraham: His Posterity. 172 

The Israelites in Egypt. 173 

The Exodus. 174 

Allowance of Sacrifice for a Time. 175 

The Holy Place. 176 

Sins of the Israelites. 177 

Baptism Instituted in Place of Sacrifices. 178 

Advent of the True Prophet. 179 

Rejection of the True Prophet. 180 

Call of the Gentiles. 181 

Success of the Gospel. 182 

Challenge by Caiaphas. 183 

The True Prophet: Why Called the Christ. 184 

Anointing. 185 

Adam Anointed a Prophet. 186 

The True Prophet, a Priest. 187 

Two Comings of Christ. 188 

His Rejection by the Jews. 189 

The Only Saviour. 190 

The Saints Before Christ's Coming. 191 


v 



192 


Animosity of the Jews. 

Jewish Sects. 193 

Public Discussion. 194 

Sadducees Refuted. 195 

Samaritan Refuted. 196 

Scribes Refuted. 197 

Pharisees Refuted. 198 

Disciples of John Refuted. 199 

Caiaphas Answered. 200 

Foolishness of Preaching. 201 

Appeal to the Jews. 202 

Temple to Be Destroyed. 203 

Tumult Stilled by Gamaliel. 204 

Discussion Resumed. 205 

Speech of Gamaliel. 206 

The Rule of Faith. 207 

Two Comings of Christ. 208 

Tumult Raised by Saul. 209 

Flight to Jericho. 210 

Peter Sent to Caesarea. 211 

Welcomed by Zacchaeus. 212 

Simon Magus Challenges Peter. 213 

Book II. 214 

Power of Habit. 215 

Curtailment of Sleep. 216 

Need of Caution. 217 

Prudence in Dealing with Opponents. 218 

Simon Magus, a Formidable Antagonist. 219 

Simon Magus: His Wickedness. 220 

Simon Magus: His History. 221 

Simon Magus: His History. 222 

Simon Magus: His Profession. 223 


vi 



224 


Simon Magus: His Deception. 

Simon Magus, at the Head of the Sect of Dositheus. 225 

Simon Magus and Luna. 226 

Simon Magus: Secret of His Magic. 227 

Simon Magus, Professes to Be God. 228 

Simon Magus, Professed to Have Made a Boy of Air. 229 

Simon Magus: Hopelessness of His Case. 230 

Men Enemies to God. 231 

Responsibility of Men. 232 

Disputation Begun. 233 

The Kingdom of God and His Righteousness. 234 

Righteousness the Way to the Kingdom. 235 

Righteousness; What It is. 236 

Simon Refuses Peace. 237 

Peter's Explanation. 238 

Principles on Which the Discussion Should Be Conducted. 239 

Simon's Interruption. 240 

Questions and Answers. 241 

Consistency of Christ's Teaching. 242 

Peace and Strife. 243 

Peace to the Sons of Peace. 244 

Peace and War. 245 

Simon's Challenge. 246 

Authority. 247 

Order of Proof. 248 

How Error Cannot Stand with Truth. 249 

Altercation. 250 

Simon's Subtlety. 251 

Simon's Creed. 252 

Argument for Polytheism. 253 

Peter's Answer. 254 

The Answer, Continued. 255 

vii 



256 


Guardian Angels. 

No God But Jehovah. 257 

The Serpent, the Author of Polytheism. 258 

Polytheism Inexcusable. 259 

Christ Acknowledged the God of the Jews. 260 

Simon's Cavil. 261 

Peter's Answer. 262 

The Supreme Light. 263 

Simon's Presumption. 264 

The Sixth Sense. 265 

Reductio Ad Absurdum. 266 

Simon's Blasphemy. 267 

How Simon Learned from the Law What the Law Does Not Teach. 268 

Simon's Objections Turned Against Himself. 269 

No God Above the Creator. 270 

Simon's Inconsistency. 271 

Simon's God Unjust. 272 

The Creator Our Father. 273 

The Creator the Supreme God. 274 

Imagination. 275 

Peter's Experience of Imagination. 276 

Peter's Reverie. 277 

Andrew's Rebuke. 278 

Fallacy of Imagination. 279 

Existence and Conception. 280 

The Law Teaches of Immensity. 281 

The Visible and the Invisible Heaven. 282 

Faith and Reason. 283 

Adjournment. 284 

Separation from the Unclean. 285 

The Remedy. 286 

287 
viii 


Book III. 



Pearls Before Swine. 


287 


Second Day's Discussion. 288 

Simon a Seducer. 289 

Simon Claims the Fulfilment of Peter's Promise. 290 

Simon's Arrogance. 291 

Existence of Evil. 292 

Not Admitted by All. 293 

Manner of Conducting the Discussion. 294 

Desire of Instruction. 295 

Common Principles. 296 

Freedom of the Will. 297 

Responsibility. 298 

Origin of Evil. 299 

God the Author of Good, Not of Evil. 300 

“Who Hath Resisted His Will?” 301 

No Goodness Without Liberty. 302 

The Visible Heaven: Why Made. 303 

Why to Be Dissolved. 304 

Corruptible and Temporary Things Made by the Incorruptible and Eternal. 305 
How the Pure in Heart See God. 306 

Diligence in Study. 307 

Peter's Private Instruction. 308 

Learners and Cavillers. 309 

Against Order is Against Reason. 310 

Learning Before Teaching. 311 

Self- Evidence of the Truth. 312 

God Righteous as Well as Good. 313 

God’s Justice Shown at the Day of Judgment. 314 

Immortality of the Soul. 315 

Proved by the Success of the Wicked in This Life. 316 

Cavils of Simon. 317 

“Full of All Subtlety and All Mischief.” 318 


IX 



319 


Simon's Subterfuges. 

Sight or Hearing? 320 

A Home-Thrust. 321 

Simon's Rage. 322 

Simon's Vaunt. 323 

Attempts to Create a Disturbance. 324 

Simon's Retreat. 325 

Peter's Benediction. 326 

Peter's Accessibility. 327 

False Signs and Miracles. 328 

Self-Love the Foundation of Goodness. 329 

God to Be Supremely Loved. 330 

Ten Commandments Corresponding to the Plagues of Egypt. 331 

Simon Resisted Peter, as the Magicians Moses. 332 

Miracles of the Magicians. 333 

Truth Veiled with Love. 334 

Good and Evil in Pairs. 335 

Uselessness of Pretended Miracles. 336 

Ten Pairs. 337 

The Christian Life. 338 

A Deserter from Simon's Camp. 339 

Declaration of Simon's Wickedness. 340 

Peter Resolves to Follow Simon. 341 

Zacchaeus Made Bishop of Caesarea; Presbyters and Deacons Ordained. 342 

Invitation to Baptism. 343 

Twelve Sent Before Him. 344 

Arrangements Approved by All the Brethren. 345 

Departure of the Twelve. 346 

Peter Prepares the Caesareans for His Departure. 347 

More Than Ten Thousand Baptized. 348 

Tidings of Simon. 349 

Farewell to Caesarea. 350 


x 



Contents of Clement's Despatches to James. 

351 

Book IV. 

353 

Halt at Dora. 

353 

Reception in the House of Maro. 

354 

Simon's Flight. 

355 

The Harvest Plenteous. 

356 

Moses and Christ. 

357 

A Congregation. 

358 

The Sick Healed. 

359 

Providence Vindicated. 

360 

State of Innocence a State of Enjoyment. 

361 

Sin the Cause of Suffering. 

362 

Suffering Salutary. 

363 

Translation of Enoch. 

364 

Origin of Idolatry. 

365 

God Both Good and Righteous. 

366 

How Demons Get Power Over Men. 

367 

Why They Wish to Possess Men. 

368 

The Gospel Gives Power Over Demons. 

369 

This Power in Proportion to Faith. 

370 

Demons Incite to Idolatry. 

371 

Folly of Idolatry. 

372 

Heathen Oracles. 

373 

Why They Sometimes Come True. 

374 

Evil Not in Substance. 

375 

Why God Permits Evil. 

376 

Evil Beings Turned to Good Account. 

377 

Evil Angels Seducers. 

378 

Ham the First Magician. 

379 

Tower of Babel. 

380 

Fire-Worship of the Persians. 

381 

Hero-Worship. 

382 


XI 



383 


Idolatry Led to All Immorality. 

Invitation. 384 

The Weakest Christian More Powerful Than the Strongest Demon. 385 

Temptation of Christ. 386 

False Apostles. 387 

The Garments Unspotted. 388 

The Congregation Dismissed. 389 

BookV. 390 

Peter's Salutation. 390 

Suffering the Effect of Sin. 391 

Faith and Unbelief. 392 

Ignorance the Mother of Evils. 393 

Advantages of Knowledge. 394 

Free-Will. 395 

Responsibility of Knowledge. 396 

Desires of the Flesh to Be Subdued. 397 

The Two Kingdoms. 398 

Jesus the True Prophet. 399 

The Expectation of the Gentiles. 400 

Call of the Gentiles. 401 

Invitation of the Gentiles. 402 

Idols Unprofitable. 403 

Folly of Idolatry. 404 

God Alone a Fit Object of Worship. 405 

Suggestions of the Old Serpent. 406 

His First Suggestion. 407 

His Second Suggestion. 408 

Egyptian Idolatry. 409 

Egyptian Idolatry More Reasonable Than Others. 410 

Second Suggestion Continued. 411 

Third Suggestion. 412 

Fourth Suggestion. 413 

xii 



Fifth Suggestion. 414 

Sixth Suggestion. 415 

Creatures Take Vengeance on Sinners. 416 

Eternity of Punishments. 417 

God's Care of Human Things. 418 

Religion of Fathers to Be Abandoned. 419 

Paganism, Its Enormities. 420 

True Religion Calls to Sobriety and Modesty. 421 

Origin of Impiety. 422 

Who are Worshippers of God? 423 

Judgment to Come. 424 

Conclusion of Discourse. 425 

Book VI. 426 

Book VI. Diligence in Study. 426 

Much to Be Done in a Little Time. 427 

Righteous Anger. 428 

Not Peace, But a Sword. 429 

How the Fight Begins. 430 

God to Be Loved More Than Parents. 431 

The Earth Made for Men. 432 

Necessity of Baptism. 433 

Use of Baptism. 434 

Necessity of Good Works. 435 

Inward and Outward Cleansing. 436 

Importance of Chastity. 437 

Superiority of Christian Morality. 438 

Knowledge Enhances Responsibility. 439 

Bishops, Presbyters, Deacons, and Widows Ordained at Tripolis. 440 

Book VII. 441 

Journey from Tripolis. 441 

Disciples Divided into Two Bands. 442 

Order of March. 443 

xiii 



Clement's Joy at Remaining with Peter. 444 

Clement's Affection for Peter. 445 

Peter's Simplicity of Life. 446 

Peter's Humility. 447 

Clement's Family History. 448 

Disappearance of His Mother and Brothers. 449 

Disappearance of His Father. 450 

Different Effects of Suffering on Heathens and Christians. 451 

Excursion to Aradus. 452 

The Beggar Woman. 453 

The Woman's Grief. 454 

The Woman's Story. 455 

The Woman's Story Continued. 456 

The Woman's Story Continued. 457 

The Woman's Story Continued. 458 

Peter's Reflections on the Story. 459 

Peter's Statement to the Woman. 460 

A Discovery. 461 

A Happy Meeting. 462 

A Miracle. 463 

Departure from Aradus. 464 

Journeyings. 465 

Recapitulation. 466 

Recapitulation Continued. 467 

More Recognitions. 468 

“Nothing Common or Unclean.” 469 

“Who Can Forbid Water?” 470 

Too Much Joy. 471 

“He Bringeth Them Unto Their Desired Haven.” 472 

Another Wreck Prevented. 473 

Baptism Must Be Preceded by Fasting. 474 

Desiring the Salvation of Others. 475 


xiv 



476 


The Sons' Pleading. 

Peter Inexorable. 477 

Reward of Chastity. 478 

Book VIII. 479 

The Old Workman. 479 

Genesis. 480 

A Friendly Conference. 481 

The Question Stated. 482 

Freedom of Discussion Allowed. 483 

The Other Side of the Question Stated. 484 

The Way Cleared. 485 

Instincts. 486 

Simple and Compound. 487 

Creation Implies Providence. 488 

General or Special Providence. 489 

Prayer Inconsistent with Genesis. 490 

A Creator Necessary. 491 

Mode of Creation. 492 

Theories of Creation. 493 

The World Made of Nothing by a Creator. 494 

Doctrine of Atoms Untenable. 495 

The Concourse of Atoms Could Not Make the World. 496 

More Difficulties of the Atomic Theory. 497 

Plato's Testimony. 498 

Mechanical Theory. 499 

Motions of the Stars. 500 

Providence in Earthly Things. 501 

Rivers and Seas. 502 

Plants and Animals. 503 

Germination of Seeds. 504 

Power of Water. 505 

The Human Body. 506 


xv 



507 


Symmetry of the Body. 

Breath and Blood. 508 

The Intestines. 509 

Generation. 510 

Correspondences in Creation. 511 

Time of Making the World. 512 

A Contest of Hospitality. 513 

Arrangements for To-Morrow. 514 

“The Form of Sound Words, Which Ye Have Heard of Me.” 515 

The Chief Man's House. 516 

Recapitulation of Yesterday's Argument. 517 

Genesis. 518 

The Rainbow. 519 

Types and Forms. 520 

Things Apparently Useless and Vile Made by God. 521 

Ordinate and Inordinate. 522 

Motions of the Sun and Moon. 523 

Sun and Moon Ministers Both of Good and Evil. 524 

Chastisements on the Righteous and the Wicked. 525 

Chastisements for Sins. 526 

God's Precepts Despised. 527 

The Flood. 528 

Evils Brought in by Sin. 529 

“No Rose Without Its Thorn.” 530 

Everything Has Its Corresponding Contrary. 531 

An Illustration. 532 

The Two Kingdoms. 533 

Origin of Evil. 534 

The Old Man Unconvinced. 535 

Sitting in Judgment Upon God. 536 

The True Prophet. 537 

His Deliverances Not to Be Questioned. 538 


xvi 



539 


Ignorance of the Philosophers. 

End of the Conference. 540 

Book IX. 541 

An Explanation. 541 

Preliminaries. 542 

Beginning of the Discussion. 543 

Why the Evil Prince Was Made. 544 

Necessity of Inequality. 545 

Arrangements of the World for the Exercise of Virtue. 546 

The Old and the New Birth. 547 

Uses of Evils. 548 

“Conceived in Sin.” 549 

Tow Smeared with Pitch. 550 

Fear. 551 

Astrologers. 552 

Retribution Here or Hereafter. 553 

Knowledge Deadens Lusts. 554 

Fear of Men and of God. 555 

Imperfect Conviction. 556 

Astrological Lore. 557 

The Reply. 558 

Refutation of Astrology. 559 

Brahmans. 560 

Districts of Heaven. 561 

Customs of the Gelones. 562 

Manners of the Susidae. 563 

Different Customs of Different Countries. 564 

Not Genesis, But Free-Will. 565 

Climates. 566 

Doctrine of “Climates” Untenable. 567 

Jewish Customs. 568 

The Gospel More Powerful Than “Genesis.” 569 

xvii 



“Genesis” Inconsistent with God's Justice. 570 

Value of Knowledge. 571 

Stubborn Facts. 572 

An Approaching Recognition. 573 

The Other Side of the Story. 574 

Revelations. 575 

New Revelations. 576 

Another Recognition. 577 

“Angels Unawares.” 578 

Book X. 579 

Probation. 579 

A Difficulty. 580 

A Suggestion. 581 

Free Inquiry. 582 

Good and Evil. 583 

Peter's Authority. 584 

Clement's Argument. 585 

Admitted Evils. 586 

Existence of Evil on Astrological Principles. 587 

How to Make Progress. 588 

Test of Astrology. 589 

Astrology Baffled by Free-Will. 590 

People Admitted. 591 

No Man Has Universal Knowledge. 592 

Clement's Disclosure. 593 

“Would that All God's People Were Prophets.” 594 

Gentile Cosmogony. 595 

Family of Saturn. 596 

Their Destinies. 597 

Doings of Jupiter. 598 

A Black Catalogue. 599 

Vile Transformation of Jupiter. 600 

xviii 



Why a God? 

601 

Folly of Polytheism. 

602 

Dead Men Deified. 

603 

Metamorphoses. 

604 

Inconsistency of Polytheists. 

605 

Buttresses of Gentilism. 

606 

Allegories. 

607 

Cosmogony of Orpheus. 

608 

Hesiod's Cosmogony. 

609 

Allegorical Interpretation. 

610 

Allegory of Jupiter, Etc. 

611 

Other Allegories. 

612 

Uselessness of These Allegories. 

613 

The Allegories an Afterthought. 

614 

Like Gods, Like Worshippers. 

615 

Writings of the Poets. 

616 

All for the Best. 

617 

Further Information Sought. 

618 

Explanation of Mythology. 

619 

Interpretation of Scripture. 

620 

A Word of Exhortation. 

621 

Earnestness. 

622 

All Ought to Repent. 

623 

The Sure Word of Prophecy. 

624 

“A Faithful Saying, and Worthy of All Acceptation.” 

625 

Errors of the Philosophers. 

626 

God's Long-Suffering. 

627 

Philosophers Not Benefactors of Men. 

628 

Christ the True Prophet. 

629 

Appion and Anubion. 

630 

A Transformation. 

631 

Excitement in Antioch. 

632 


XIX 



A Stratagem. 633 

Simon's Design in the Transformation. 634 

Great Grief. 635 

How It All Happened. 636 

A Scene of Mourning. 637 

A Counterplot. 638 

A Mine Dug. 639 

A Case of Conscience. 640 

A Pious Fraud. 641 

A Competition in Lying. 642 

Success of the Plot. 643 

Truth Told by Lying Lips. 644 

Faustinianus is Himself Again. 645 

Peter's Entry into Antioch. 646 

Peter's Thanksgiving. 647 

Miracles. 648 

Success. 649 

Happy Ending. 650 

The Clementine Homilies. 651 

Introductory Notice. 651 

Epistle of Peter to James. 652 

Doctrine of Reserve. 652 

Misrepresentation of Peter's Doctrine. 653 

Initiation. 654 

An Adjuration Concerning the Receivers of the Book. 655 

The Adjuration Accepted. 657 

Epistle of Clement to James. 658 

Peter's Martyrdom. 658 

Ordination of Clement. 659 

Nolo Episcopari. 660 

The Recompense of the Reward. 661 

A Charge. 662 


xx 



The Duty of a Bishop. 

663 

Duties of Presbyters. 

664 

“Do Good Unto All?” 

665 

“Let Brotherly Love Continue.” 

666 

“Whatsoever Things are Honest.” 

667 

Doubts to Be Satisfied. 

668 

Duties of Deacons. 

669 

Duties of Catechists. 

670 

The Vessel of the Church. 

671 

Incidents of the Voyage. 

672 

The Bishop's Labours and Reward. 

673 

The People's Duties. 

674 

“As a Heathen Man and a Publican.” 

675 

Installation of Clement. 

676 

Clement's Obedience. 

677 

Homily I. 

678 

Boyish Questionings. 

678 

Good Out of Evil. 

679 

Perplexity. 

680 

More Perplexity. 

681 

A Resolution. 

682 

Tidings from Judaea. 

683 

The Gospel in Rome. 

684 

Departure from Rome. 

685 

Preaching of Barnabas. 

686 

Cavils of the Philosophers. 

687 

Clement's Zeal. 

688 

Clement's Rebuke of the People. 

689 

Clement Instructed by Barnabas. 

690 

Departure of Barnabas. 

691 

Introduction to Peter. 

692 

Peter's Salutation. 

693 


xxi 



694 


Questions Propounded. 

Causes of Ignorance. 695 

The True Prophet. 696 

Peter's Satisfaction with Clement. 697 

Unalterable Conviction. 698 

Thanksgiving. 699 

Homily II. 700 

Peter's Attendants. 700 

A Sound Mind in a Sound Body. 701 

Forewarned is Forearmed. 702 

A Request. 703 

Excellence of the Knowledge of the True Prophet. 704 

The True Prophet. 705 

Unaided Quest of Truth Profitless. 706 

Test of Truth. 707 

“The Weak Things of the World.” 708 

Test of the Prophet. 709 

Ignorance, Knowledge, Foreknowledge. 710 

Doctrine of the T rue Prophet. 711 

Future Rewards and Punishments. 712 

Righteousness and Unrighteousness. 713 

Pairs. 714 

Man's Ways Opposite to God's. 715 

First the Worse, Then the Better. 716 

Mistake About Simon Magus. 717 

Justa, a Proselyte. 718 

Divorced for the Faith. 719 

Justa's Adopted Sons, Associates with Simon. 720 

Doctrines of Simon. 721 

Simon a Disciple of the Baptist. 722 

Electioneering Stratagems. 723 

Simon's Deceit. 724 

xxii 



His Wickedness. 

725 

His Promises. 

726 

Fruitless Counsel. 

727 

Immortality of the Soul. 

728 

An Argument. 

729 

A Dilemma. 

730 

Simon's Prodigies. 

731 

Doctrine of Pairs. 

732 

Useless and Philanthropic Miracles. 

733 

Discussion Postponed. 

734 

All for the Best. 

735 

Spies in the Enemy's Camp. 

736 

Corruption of the Law. 

737 

Tactics. 

738 

Preliminary Instruction. 

739 

Asking for Information, Not Contradiction. 

740 

Right Notions of God Essential to Holiness. 

741 

A Priori Argument on the Divine Attributes. 

742 

The Same Continued. 

743 

How God is to Be Thought of. 

744 

Judgment to Come. 

745 

A Pertinent Question. 

746 

A Particular Case. 

747 

Reductio A.D. Absurdum. 

748 

A Satisfactory Answer. 

749 

Weigh in the Balance. 

750 

Sins of the Saints Denied. 

751 

Close of the Conference. 

752 

Homily III. 

753 

The Morning of the Discussion. 

753 

Simon's Design. 

754 

His Object. 

755 


xxiii 



756 


Snares Laid for the Gentiles. 

Use of Errors. 757 

Purgatory and Hell. 758 

What is Impiety? 759 

Wiles of the Devil. 760 

Uncertainty of the Scriptures. 761 

Simon's Intention. 762 

Distinction Between Prediction and Prophecy. 763 

The Same. 764 

Prophetic Knowledge Constant. 765 

Prophetic Spirit Constant. 766 

Christ's Prophecies. 767 

Doctrine of Conjunction. 768 

Whether Adam Had the Spirit. 769 

Adam Not Ignorant. 770 

Reign of Christ. 771 

Christ the Only Prophet Has Appeared in Different Ages. 772 

The Eating of the Forbidden Fruit Denied. 773 

Male and Female. 774 

Two Kinds of Prophecy. 775 

The Prophetess a Misleader. 776 

Cain's Name and Nature. 777 

Abel's Name and Nature. 778 

The Prophet and the Prophetess. 779 

Spiritual Adultery. 780 

The Signal Given. 781 

Apostolic Salutation. 782 

Faith in God. 783 

Invitation. 784 

Works of Creation. 785 

Extent of Creation. 786 

“These are a Part of His Ways.” 787 


xxiv 



Dominion Over the Creatures. 


788 


“Whom to Know is Life Eternal.” 

789 

Simon's Challenge. 

790 

Defects Ascribed to God. 

791 

Peter's Answer. 

792 

“Status Quaestionis.” 

793 

Was Adam Blind? 

794 

God's Foreknowledge. 

795 

God's Decrees. 

796 

Sacrifices. 

797 

Disparagements of God. 

798 

Foreknowledge of Moses. 

799 

Test of Truth. 

800 

The True Prophet. 

801 

His Teaching Concerning the Scriptures. 

802 

His Teaching Concerning the Law. 

803 

Other Sayings of Christ. 

804 

Other Sayings of Christ. 

805 

Other Sayings. 

806 

Teaching of Christ. 

807 

Teaching of Christ. 

808 

Teaching of Christ. 

809 

Flight of Simon. 

810 

Peter's Resolution to Follow. 

811 

Successor to Be Appointed. 

812 

Monarchy. 

813 

Obedience Leads to Peace. 

814 

Zacchaeus Appointed. 

815 

The Bishopric. 

816 

Nolo Episcopari. 

817 

Danger of Disobedience. 

818 

Duties of Church Office-Bearers. 

819 


XXV 



820 


“Marriage Always Honourable.” 

“Not Forsaking the Assembling of Yourselves Together.” 821 

“Hear the Bishop.” 822 

Various Duties of Christians. 823 

Ordination. 824 

Baptisms. 825 

Homily IV. 826 

Bernice's Hospitality. 826 

Simon's Practices. 827 

Object of the Mission. 828 

Simon's Doings. 829 

Discretion the Better Part of Valour. 830 

Simon's Departure. 831 

Appion's Salutation. 832 

A Challenge. 833 

Unworthy Ends of Philosophers. 834 

A Cool Retreat. 835 

Truth and Custom. 836 

Genesis. 837 

Destiny. 838 

“Doctrine According to Godliness.” 839 

Wickedness of the Gods. 840 

Wickedness of Jupiter. 841 

“Their Makers are Like Unto Them.” 842 

Second Nature. 843 

“Where Ignorance is Bliss.” 844 

False Theories of Philosophers. 845 

Evils of Adultery. 846 

A More Excellent Way. 847 

“Whither Shall I Go from Thy Presence?” 848 

Allegory. 849 

An Engagement for To-Morrow. 850 


xxvi 



Homily V. 

851 

Appion Does Not Appear. 

851 

Clement's Previous Knowledge of Appion. 

852 

Clement's Trick. 

853 

Appion's Undertaking. 

854 

Theory of Magic. 

855 

Scruples. 

856 

A Distinction with a Difference. 

857 

Flattery or Magic. 

858 

A Love-Letter. 

859 

The Lover to the Beloved One. 

860 

“All Uncleanness with Greediness.” 

861 

Jupiter's Amours. 

862 

Jupiter's Amours Continued. 

863 

Jupiter's Undisguised Amours. 

864 

Unnatural Lusts. 

865 

Praise of Unchastity. 

866 

The Constellations. 

867 

The Philosophers Advocates of Adultery. 

868 

Close of the Love-Letter. 

869 

The Use Made of It. 

870 

Answer to Appion's Letter. 

871 

Lying Fables. 

872 

The Gods No Gods. 

873 

If a Principle Be Good, Carry It Out. 

874 

Better to Marry Than to Burn. 

875 

Close of the Answer. 

876 

A Reason for Hatred. 

877 

The Hoax Confessed. 

878 

Appion's Resentment. 

879 

A Discussion Promised. 

880 

Homily VI. 

881 


XXV11 



Clement Meets Appion. 881 

The Myths are Not to Be Taken Literally. 882 

Appion Proceeds to Interpret the Myths. 884 

Origin of Chaos. 885 

Kronos and Rhea Explained. 886 

Phanes and Pluto. 887 

Poseidon, Zeus, and Metis. 888 

Pallas and Hera. 889 

Artemis. 890 

All Such Stories are Allegorical. 891 

Clement Has Heard All This Before. 892 

Epitome of Appion's Explanation. 893 

Kronos and Aphrodite. 894 

Peleus and Thetis, Prometheus, Achilles, and Polyxena. 895 

The Judgment of Paris. 896 

Hercules. 897 

They are Blameworthy Who Invented Such Stories. 898 

The Same. 899 

None of These Allegories are Consistent. 900 

These Gods Were Really Wicked Magicians. 901 

Their Graves are Still to Be Seen. 902 

Their Contemporaries, Therefore, Did Not Look on Them as Gods. 903 

The Egyptians Pay Divine Honours to a Man. 904 

What is Not God. 905 

The Universe is the Product of Mind. 906 

Peter Arrives from Caesarea. 907 

Homily VII. 908 

Peter Addresses the People. 908 

Reason of Simon's Power. 909 

The Remedy. 910 

The Golden Rule. 911 

Peter Departs for Sidon. 912 

xxviii 



Peter in Sidon. 

913 

The Two Paths. 

914 

The Service of God's Appointment. 

915 

Simon Attacks Peter. 

916 

Simon is Driven Away. 

917 

The Way of Salvation. 

918 

Peter Goes to Byblus and Tripolis. 

919 

Homily VIII. 

920 

Peter's Arrival at Tripolis. 

920 

Peter's Thoughtfulness. 

921 

A Conversation Interrupted. 

922 

Many Called. 

923 

Faith the Gift of God. 

924 

Concealment and Revelation. 

925 

Moses and Christ. 

926 

A Large Congregation. 

927 

“Vindicate the Ways of God to Men.” 

928 

The Original Law. 

929 

Cause of the Fall of Man. 

930 

Metamorphoses of the Angels. 

931 

The Fall of the Angels. 

932 

Their Discoveries. 

933 

The Giants. 

934 

Cannibalism. 

935 

The Flood. 

936 

The Law to the Survivors. 

937 

The Law to the Giants or Demons. 

938 

Willing Captives. 

939 

Temptation of Christ. 

940 

The Marriage Supper. 

941 

The Assembly Dismissed. 

942 

The Sick Healed. 

943 


XXIX 



944 


Homily IX. 


Peter's Discourse Resumed. 

944 

Monarchy and Polyarchy. 

945 

Family of Noe. 

946 

Zoroaster. 

947 

Hero-Worship. 

948 

Fire-Worship. 

949 

Sacrificial Orgies. 

950 

The Best Merchandise. 

951 

How Demons Get Power Over Men. 

952 

How They are to Be Expelled. 

953 

Unbelief the Demon's Stronghold. 

954 

Theory of Disease. 

955 

Deceits of the Demons. 

956 

More Tricks. 

957 

Test of Idols. 

958 

Powers of the Demons. 

959 

Reasons Why Their Deceits are Not Detected. 

960 

Props of the System. 

961 

Privileges of the Baptized. 

962 

“Not Almost, But Altogether Such as I Am.” 

963 

The Demons Subject to the Believer. 

964 

“Rather Rejoice.” 

965 

The Sick Healed. 

966 

Homily X. 

967 

The Third Day in Tripolis. 

967 

Ignorance and Error. 

968 

Man the Lord of All. 

969 

Faith and Duty. 

970 

The Fear of God. 

971 

Restoration of the Divine Image. 

972 

Unprofitableness of Idols. 

973 


xxx 



No Gods Which are Made with Hands. 974 

“Eyes Have They, But They See Not.” 975 

Idolatry a Delusion of the Serpent. 976 

Why the Serpent Tempts to Sin. 977 

Ignorantia Neminem Excusat. 978 

Condemnation of the Ignorant. 979 

Polytheistic Illustration. 980 

Its Inconclusiveness. 981 

Gods of the Egyptians. 982 

The Egyptians' Defence of Their System. 983 

Answer to the Egyptians. 984 

God's Peculiar Attribute. 985 

Neither the World Nor Any of Its Parts Can Be God. 986 

Idols Not Animated by the Divine Spirit. 987 

Confutation of Idol- Worship. 988 

Folly of Idolatry. 989 

Impotence of Idols. 990 

Servants Become Masters. 991 

The Sick Healed. 992 

Homily XI. 993 

Morning Exercises. 993 

“Giving All Diligence.” 994 

“Behold What Indignation.” 995 

The Golden Rule. 996 

Forasmuch as Ye Did It Unto One of These. 997 

Why God Suffers Objects of Idolatry to Subsist. 998 

“Let Both Grow Together Till the Harvest.” 999 

Liberty and Necessity. 1000 

God a Jealous God. 1001 

The Creatures Avenge God's Cause. 1002 

Immortality of the Soul. 1003 

Idols Unprofitable. 1004 


xxxi 



Arguments in Favour of Idolatry Answered. 1005 

Heathen Orgies. 1006 

Heathen Worshippers Under the Power of the Demon. 1007 

All Things Work for Good to Them that Love God. 1008 

Speaking the Truth in Love. 1009 

Charming of the Serpent. 1010 

Not Peace, But a Sword. 1011 

What If It Be Already Kindled? 1012 

“If I Be a Father, Where is My Fear?” 1013 

“The Gods that Have Not Made the Heavens.” 1014 

“To Whom Much is Given.” 1015 

“Born of Water.” 1016 

Good Works to Be Well Done. 1017 

Baptism. 1018 

All Need Baptism. 1019 

Purification. 1020 

Outward and Inward Purity. 1021 

“Whatsoever Things are Pure.” 1022 

“What Do Ye More Than Others?” 1023 

“To Whom Much is Given.” 1024 

The Queen of the South and the Men of Nineveh. 1025 

Peter's Daily Work. 1026 

“Beware of False Prophets.” 1027 

Farewell to Tripolis. 1028 

Homily XII. 1029 

Two Bands. 1029 

Love of Preachers and Their Converts. 1030 

Submission. 1031 

Clement's Joy. 1032 

Clement's Office of Service. 1033 

Peter's Frugality. 1034 

“Not to Be Ministered Unto, But to Minister.” 1035 

xxxii 



1036 


Family History. 

The Lost Ones. 1037 

The Seeker Lost. 1038 

The Afflictions of the Righteous. 1039 

A Pleasure Trip. 1040 

A Woman of a Sorrowful Spirit. 1041 

Balm in Gilead. 1042 

The Woman's Story. 1043 

The Shipwreck. 1044 

The Fruitless Search. 1045 

Trouble Upon Trouble. 1046 

Evasions. 1047 

Peter's Account of the Matter. 1048 

A Disclosure. 1049 

The Lost Found. 1050 

Reward of Hospitality. 1051 

All Well Arranged. 1052 

Philanthropy and Friendship. 1053 

What is Philanthropy. 1054 

Who Can Judge. 1055 

Difficulty of Judging. 1056 

Sufferings of the Good. 1057 

Offences Must Come. 1058 

“Howbeit, They Meant It Not.” 1059 

The Golden Rule. 1060 

Fear and Love. 1061 

Homily XIII. 1062 

Journey to Laodicea. 1062 

Peter Relates to Nicetas and Aquila the History of Clement and His Family. 1063 
Recognition of Nicetas and Aquila. 1064 

The Mother Must Not Take Food with Her Son. The Reason Stated. 1065 

Mattidia Wishes to Be Baptized. 1066 

xxxiii 



The Sons Reveal Themselves to the Mother. 


1067 


Nicetas Tells What Befell Him. 1068 

Nicetas Like to Be Deceived by Simon Magus. 1069 

The Mother Begs Baptism for Herself and Her Hostess. 1070 

Mattidia Values Baptism Aright. 1071 

Mattidia Has Unintentionally Fasted One Day. 1072 

The Difficulty Solved. 1073 

Peter on Chastity. 1074 

Peter's Speech Continued. 1075 

Peter's Speech Continued. 1076 

Peter's Speech Continued. 1077 

Peter's Speech Continued. 1078 

Peter's Speech Continued. 1079 

Peter's Speech Ended. 1080 

Peter Addresses Mattidia. 1081 

The Same Subject Continued. 1082 

Homily XIV. 1083 

Mattidia is Baptized in the Sea. 1083 

The Reason of Peter's Lateness. 1084 

The Old Man Does Not Believe in God or Providence. 1085 

Peter's Arguments Against Genesis. 1086 

Practical Refutation of Genesis. 1087 

The Old Man Opposes His Personal Experience to the Argument of Peter. 1088 
The Old Man Tells His Story. 1089 

The Old Man Gives Information in Regard to Faustus the Father of Clement. 1090 
Faustus Himself Appears. 1091 

Faustus Explains His Narrative to Peter. 1092 

Discussion on Genesis. 1093 

Clement Undertakes the Discussion. 1094 

Homily XV. 1095 

Peter Wishes to Convert Faustus. 1095 

Reason for Listening to Peter's Arguments. 1096 


xxxiv 



Obstacles to Faith. 1097 

Providence Seen in the Events of the Life of Faustus and His Family. 1098 

Difference Between the True Religion and Philosophy. 1099 

The Love of Man. 1100 

The Explanation of a Parable; The Present and the Future Life. 1101 

The Present and the Future. 1102 

Possessions are Transgressions. 1103 

Poverty Not Necessarily Righteous. 1104 

Exposition of the True Religion Promised. 1105 

Homily XVI. 1106 

Simon Wishes to Discuss with Peter the Unity of God. 1106 

The Same Subject Continued. 1107 

The Mode of the Discussion. 1108 

The Prejudices of Faustus Rather on the Side of Simon Than on that of Peter. 1109 

Peter Commences the Discussion. 1110 

Simon Appeals to the Old Testament to Prove that There are Many Gods. 1111 

Peter Appeals to the Old Testament to Prove the Unity of God. 1113 

Simon and Peter Continue the Discussion. 1114 

Simon T ries to Show that the Scriptures Contradict Themselves. 1115 

Peter's Explanation of the Apparent Contradictions of Scripture. 1116 

Gen. I. 26 Appealed to by Simon. 1117 

Peter's Explanation of the Passage. 1118 

The Contradictions of the Scriptures Intended to Try Those Who Read Them. 1119 

Other Beings Called Gods. 1120 

Christ Not God, But the Son of God. 1121 

The Unbegotten and the Begotten Necessarily Different from Each Other. 1122 

The Nature of God. 1123 

The Name of God. 1124 

The Shape of God in Man. 1125 

The Character of God. 1126 

Simon Promises to Appeal to the Teaching of Christ. Peter Dismisses the 1127 
Multitudes. 


xxxv 



1128 


Homily XVII. 

Simon Comes to Peter. 1128 

Simon's Speech Against Peter. 1129 

Simon's Accusation of Peter. 1130 

It is Asserted that Christ's Teaching is Different from Peter's. 1131 

Jesus Inconsistent in His Teaching. 1132 

Peter Goes Out to Answer Simon. 1133 

Man in the Shape of God. 1134 

God's Figure: Simon's Objection Therefrom Refuted. 1135 

God the Centre or Heart of the Universe. 1136 

The Nature and Shape of God. 1137 

The Fear of God. 1138 

The Fear and Love of God. 1139 

The Evidence of the Senses Contrasted with that from Supernatural Vision. 1 140 

The Evidence of the Senses More Trustworthy Than that of Supernatural 1141 
Vision. 

The Evidence from Dreams Discussed. 1 142 

None But Evil Demons Appear to the Impious. 1143 

The Impious See True Dreams and Visions. 1 144 

The Nature of Revelation. 1145 

Opposition to Peter Unreasonable. 1146 

Another Subject for Discussion Proposed. 1147 

Homily XVIII. 1148 

Simon Maintains that the Framer of the World is Not the Highest God. 1148 
Definition of Goodness and Justice. 1149 

God Both Good and Just. 1150 

The Unrevealed God. 1151 

Peter Doubts Simon's Honesty. 1152 

The Nature of Revelation. 1153 

Simon Confesses His Ignorance. 1154 

The Work of Revelation Belongs to the Son Alone. 1155 

How Simon Bears His Exposure. 1156 


xxxvi 



1157 


Peter's Reply to Simon. 

Simon Professes to Utter His Real Sentiments. 1158 

Simon's Opinions Expounded by Peter. 1159 

Peter's Explanation of the Passage. 1160 

Simon Refuted. 1161 

Matthew XI. 25 Discussed. 1162 

These Things Hidden Justly from the Wise. 1163 

The Way to the Kingdom Not Concealed from the Israelites. 1164 

Isaiah I. 3 Explained. 1165 

Misconception of God in the Old Testament. 1166 

Some Parts of the Old Testament Written to Try Us. 1167 

Simon's Astonishment at Peter's Treatment of the Scriptures. 1168 

Peter W orships One God. 1169 

Simon Retires. 1170 

Homily XIX. 1171 

Simon Undertakes to Prove that the Creator of the World is Not Blameless. 1171 
The Existence of the Devil Affirmed. 1172 

Peter Refuses to Discuss Certain Questions in Regard to the Devil. 1173 

Suppositions in Regard to the Devil's Origin. 1174 

God Not Deserving of Blame in Permitting the Existence of the Devil. 1175 

Peter Accuses Simon of Being Worse Than the Devil. 1176 

Peter Suspects Simon of Not Believing Even in a God. 1177 

Peter Undertakes to Discuss the Devil's Origin. 1178 

Theories in Regard to the Origin of the Devil. 1179 

The Absolute God Entirely Incomprehensible by Man. 1180 

The Application of the Attributes of Man to God. 1181 

God Produced the Wicked One, But Not Evil. 1182 

God the Maker of the Devil. 1183 

Is Matter Eternal? 1184 

Sin the Cause of Evil. 1185 

Why the Wicked One is Entrusted with Power. 1186 

The Devil Has Not Equal Power with God. 1187 

xxxvii 



Is the Devil a Relation? 


1188 


Some Actions Really Wicked. 1189 

Pain and Death the Result of Sin. 1190 

The Uses of Lust, Anger, Grief. 1191 

Sins of Ignorance. 1192 

The Inequalities of Lot in Human Life. 1193 

Simon Rebuked by Faustus. 1194 

Simon Retires. Sophonias Asks Peter to State His Real Opinions in Regard 1195 
to Evil. 

Homily XX. 1196 

Peter is Willing to Gratify Sophonias. 1196 

The Two Ages. 1197 

The Work of the Good One and of the Evil One. 1198 

Men Sin Through Ignorance. 1199 

Sophonias Maintains that God Cannot Produce What is Unlike Himself. 1200 
God's Power of Changing Himself. 1201 

The Objection Answered, that One Cannot Change Himself. 1202 

The Origin of the Good One Different from that of the Evil One. 1203 

Why the Wicked One is Appointed Over the Wicked by the Righteous God. 1204 
Why Some Believe, and Others Do Not. 1205 

Arrival of Appion and Annubion. 1206 

Faustus Appears to His Friends with the Face of Simon. 1207 

The Flight of Simon. 1208 

The Change in the Form of Faustus Caused by Simon. 1209 

The Repentance of Faustus. 1210 

Why Simon Gave to Faustus His Own Shape. 1211 

Annubion's Services to Faustus. 1212 

Peter Promises to Restore to Faustus His Own Shape. 1213 

Peter's Instructions to Faustus. 1214 

Faustus, His Wife, and Sons, Prepare to Go to Antioch. 1215 

Appion and Athenodorus Return in Quest of Faustus. 1216 

Appion and Athenodorus Return to Simon. 1217 


xxxviii 



Peter Goes to Antioch. 


1218 


Apocrypha of the New Testament. 1219 

Title Page. 1219 

Introductory Notice. 1220 

Translator's Introductory Notice. 1222 

Apocryphal Gospels. 1222 

The Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles. 1227 

Apocryphal Apocalypses. 1232 

The Protevangelium of James. 1235 

The Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew. 1247 

Preface. 1247 

Chapter 1. 1249 

Chapter 2. 1250 

Chapter 3. 1251 

Chapter 4. 1253 

Chapter 5. 1254 

Chapter 6. 1255 

Chapter 7. 1256 

Chapter 8. 1257 

Chapter 9. 1259 

Chapter 10. 1260 

Chapter 11. 1261 

Chapter 12. 1262 

Chapter 13. 1264 

Chapter 14. 1266 

Chapter 15. 1267 

Chapter 16. 1268 

Chapter 17. 1269 

Chapter 18. 1270 

Chapter 19. 1271 

Chapter 20. 1272 

Chapter 21. 1273 


XXXIX 



1274 


Chapter 22. 

Chapter 23. 1275 

Chapter 24. 1276 

Chapter 25. 1277 

Chapter 26. 1278 

Chapter 27. 1279 

Chapter 28. 1280 

Chapter 29. 1281 

Chapter 30. 1282 

Chapter 31. 1284 

Chapter 32. 1286 

Chapter 33. 1287 

Chapter 34. 1288 

Chapter 35. 1289 

Chapter 36. 1290 

Chapter 37. 1291 

Chapter 38. 1292 

Chapter 39. 1293 

Chapter 40. 1294 

Chapter 41. 1295 

Chapter 42. 1296 

The Gospel of the Nativity of Mary. 1297 

Chapter 1. 1297 

Chapter 2. 1298 

Chapter 3. 1299 

Chapter 4. 1300 

Chapter 5. 1301 

Chapter 6. 1302 

Chapter 7. 1303 

Chapter 8. 1304 

Chapter 9. 1305 

Chapter 10. 1307 

xl 



The History of Joseph the Carpenter. 1308 

The Gospel of Thomas: First Greek Form. 1320 

The Gospel of Thomas: Second Greek Form. 1326 

The Gospel of Thomas: Latin Form. 1329 

How Mary and Joseph Fled with Him into Egypt. 1329 

How a Schoolmaster Thrust Him Out of the City. 1330 

How Jesus Went Out of Egypt. 1331 

What the Lord Jesus Did in the City of Nazareth. 1332 

How the Citizens Were Enraged Against Joseph on Account of the Doings of 1333 
Jesus. 

How Jesus Was Treated by the Schoolmaster. 1334 

How Jesus Raised a Boy to Life. 1336 

How Jesus Healed a Boy's Foot. 1337 

How Jesus Carried Water in a Cloak. 1338 

How Jesus Sowed Wheat. 1339 

How Jesus Made a Short Piece of Wood of the Same Length as a Longer One. 1340 
How Jesus Was Handed Over to Learn His Letters. 1341 

How He Was Handed Over to Another Master. 1342 

How Jesus Delivered James from the Bite of a Serpent. 1343 

How Jesus Raised a Boy to Life. 1344 

The Arabic Gospel of the Infancy of the Saviour. 1345 

The Gospel of Nicodemus; Part I.--The Acts of Pilate: First Greek Form. 1364 

Prologue. 1364 

Chapter 1. 1366 

Chapter 2. 1368 

Chapter 3. 1370 

Chapter 4. 1371 

Chapter 5. 1372 

Chapter 6. 1373 

Chapter 7. 1374 

Chapter 8. 1375 

Chapter 9. 1376 

xli 



Chapter 10. 1378 

Chapter 11. 1379 

Chapter 12. 1380 

Chapter 13. 1381 

Chapter 14. 1382 

Chapter 15. 1383 

Chapter 16. 1386 

The Gospel of Nicodemus; Part I. --The Acts of Pilate: Second Greek Form. 1390 
Prologue. 1390 

Chapter 1. 1391 

Chapter 2. 1393 

Chapter 3. 1394 

Chapter 4. 1395 

Chapter 5. 1396 

Chapter 6. 1397 

Chapter 7. 1398 

Chapter 8. 1399 

Chapter 9. 1400 

Chapter 10. 1402 

Chapter 11. 1404 

Chapter 12. 1407 

Chapter 13. 1408 

Chapter 14. 1409 

Chapter 15. 1410 

Chapter 16. 1412 

The Gospel of Nicodemus; Part II. --The Descent of Christ into Hell: Greek Form. 1413 
Chapter 1. 1413 

Chapter 2. 1414 

Chapter 3. 1415 

Chapter 4. 1416 

Chapter 5. 1417 

Chapter 6. 1418 

xlii 



Chapter 7. 1419 

Chapter 8. 1420 

Chapter 9. 1421 

Chapter 10. 1422 

Chapter 11. 1423 

The Gospel of Nicodemus; Part I. --The Acts of Pilate: Latin Form. 1424 

Prologue. 1424 

Chapter 1. 1425 

Chapter 2. 1427 

Chapter 3. 1429 

Chapter 4. 1430 

Chapter 5. 1431 

Chapter 6. 1432 

Chapter 7. 1433 

Chapter 8. 1434 

Chapter 9. 1435 

Chapter 10. 1436 

Chapter 11. 1437 

Chapter 12. 1438 

Chapter 13. 1439 

Chapter 14. 1440 

Chapter 15. 1442 

Chapter 16. 1445 

The Gospel of Nicodemus; Part II.— Christ' s Descent into Hell: Latin. First Version. 1448 
Chapter 1. 1448 

Chapter 2. 1449 

Chapter 3. 1450 

Chapter 4. 1451 

Chapter 5. 1452 

Chapter 6. 1454 

Chapter 7. 1455 

Chapter 8. 1456 

xliii 



Chapter 9. 1458 

Chapter 10. 1459 

Chapter 11. 1460 

Chapter 12. 1461 

Chapter 13. 1463 

The Gospel of Nicodemus; Part II.--Christ's Descent into Hell: Latin. Second 1464 
Version. 

Chapter 1. 1464 

Chapter 2. 1467 

Chapter 3. 1468 

Chapter 4. 1469 

Chapter 5. 1470 

Chapter 6. 1471 

Chapter 7. 1472 

Chapter 8. 1473 

Chapter 9. 1474 

Chapter 10. 1475 

Chapter 11. 1476 

The Letter of Pontius Pilate, Which He Wrote to the Roman Emperor, Concerning 1477 
Our Lord Jesus Christ. 

The Report of Pilate the Procurator Concerning Our Lord Jesus Christ: First 1478 
Greek Form. 

The Report of Pilate the Procurator Concerning Our Lord Jesus Christ: Second 1481 
Greek Form. 

The Giving Up of Pontius Pilate. 1484 

The Death of Pilate, Who Condemned Jesus. 1487 

The Narrative of Joseph. 1490 

Chapter 1. 1490 

Chapter 2. 1492 

Chapter 3. 1494 

Chapter 4. 1496 

Chapter 5. 1497 


xliv 



The Avenging of the Saviour. 1498 

Acts of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul. 1506 

Acts of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul. 1506 

The Story of Perpetua. 1522 

Acts of Paul and Thecla. 1524 

The Acts of Barnabus. 1535 

The Acts of Philip. 1541 

Of the Journeyings of Philip the Apostle. 1541 

Acts of Saint Philip the Apostle When He Went to Upper Hellas. 1553 

Addition to Acts of Philip. 1560 

Acts and Martyrdom of the Holy Apostle Andrew. 1567 

Acts of Andrew and Matthias. 1577 

Acts of Peter and Andrew. 1593 

Acts and Martyrdom of St. Matthew the Apostle. 1597 

Acts of the Holy Apostle Thomas. 1609 

Acts of the Holy Apostle Thomas. 1609 

Acts of the Holy Apostle Thomas, When He Came into India, and Built the 1616 
Palace in the Heavens. 

When He Came into India, and Built the Palace in the Heavens. 1616 

About the Dragon and the Young Man. 1623 

About the Demon that Dwelt in the Woman. 1628 

About the Young Man Who Killed the Maiden. 1632 

Consummation of Thomas the Apostle. 1637 

Martyrdom of the Holy and Glorious Apostle Bartholomew. 1642 

Acts of the Holy Apostle Thaddaeus. 1650 

Acts of the Holy Apostle and Evangelist John the Theologian. 1653 

Revelation of Moses. 1660 

Revelation of Esdras. 1670 

Revelation of Paul. 1677 

Revelation of John. 1689 

The Book of John Concerning the Falling Asleep of Mary. 1698 

The Passing of Mary: First Latin Form. 1707 

xlv 



The Passing of Mary: Second Latin Form. 1713 

The Decretals. 1720 

Title Page. 1720 

Introductory Notice. 1721 

The Epistles of Zephyrinus. 1732 

To All the Bishops of Sicily. 1732 

To the Bishops of the Province of Egypt. 1735 

Preface. 1735 

On the Spoliation or Expulsion of certain Bishops. 1736 

On the Ordination of Presbyters and Deacons. 1739 

Notes by the American Editor. 1740 

The Epistles of Pope Callistus. 1741 

To Bishop Benedictus. 1741 

Preface. 1741 

Of the seasons for fasting. 1742 

Of accusations against doctors. 1743 

To All the Bishops of Gaul. 1745 

Preface. 1745 

Of those who conspire against bishops, or who take part with such. 1746 

Of those who have intercourse with excommunicated persons, or with 1747 

unbelievers. 

That no bishop should presume in anything pertaining to another's parish, 1748 
and of the transference of bishops. 

Of marriages among blood-relations, and of those who are born of them; and 1750 
of accusations which the laws reject. 

Of those who ought not to be admitted to prefer an accusation, or to bear 1751 
witness; and that evidence is not to be given but on things happening in the 
person's presence. 

As to whether a priest may minister after a lapse. 1753 

Note by the American Editor. 1756 

The Epistle of Pope Urban First. 1757 

Preface. 1757 


xlvi 



Of the life in common, and of the reason why the Church has begun to hold 1758 
property. 

Of the persons by whom, and the uses for which, ecclesiastical property should 1759 
be managed, and of the invaders thereof. 

As to any one's attempting to take from the Church the right of holding property. 1761 
Of the seats of the bishops. 1762 

That no one should have intercourse with those with whom the bishop has no 1763 
intercourse, or receive those whom he rejects. 

Of the engagement made in baptism, and of those who have given themselves 1764 
to the life in common. 

Of the imposition of the bishop's hand. 1766 

The Epistles of Pope Pontianus. 1767 

To Felix Subscribonius. 1767 

To All Bishops. 1769 

Note by the American Editor. 1773 

The Epistle of Pope Anterus. 1774 

The Epistles of Pope Fabian. 1781 

To All the Ministers of the Church Catholic. 1781 

To All the Bishops of the East. 1786 

Preface. 1786 

That new chrism should be made every year, and the old be burnt. 1787 

Of the right of bishops not to be accused or hurt by detraction. 1789 

To Bishop Hilary. 1795 

Preface. 1795 

Of those who ought not to be admitted to the right of accusation. 1796 

Of extraneous judgments. 1797 

Of the arraigned. 1798 

Of the case of any one bringing forward a charge in passion, or failing to prove 1799 
his allegations. 

On the question of an accused bishop appealing to the seat of the apostles. 1800 
Note by the American Editor. 1803 

Decrees of Fabian. 1804 

Taken from the Decretal of Gratian. 1804 


xlvii 



The Decrees of the Same, from the Codex of Decrees in Sixteen Books, from 1807 
the Fifth Book, and the Seventh and Ninth Chapters. 

Elucidations. 1808 

The Bishops of Rome. 1808 

Donation of Constantine. 1813 

Memoirs of Edessa And Other Ancient Syriac Documents. 1814 

Title Page. 1814 

Introductory Notice. 1815 

The Story Concerning the King of Edessa. 1819 

A Canticle of Mar Jacob the Teacher on Edessa. 1825 

Extracts from Various Books Concerning Abgar the King and Addaeus the Apostle. 1827 

Of the blessed Addaeus the apostle. From his teaching which he gave in Edessa 1827 
before Abgar the King and the assembly of the city. 

From the teaching of Addaeus the apostle, which was spoken in the city of Edessa. 1828 

From the epistle of Addaeus the apostle, which he spake in the city of Edessa. 1829 

Part IV. 1830 

PartV. 1831 

From the departure of Marath Mary from the world, and the birth and childhood 1832 
of our Lord Jesus Christ. Book the Second. 

From the homily composed by the holy Mar Jacob, the teacher, on the fall of 1834 
idols. 

From the homily about the town of Antioch. 1835 

The Teaching of Addaeus the Apostle. 1836 

The Teaching of Addaeus the Apostle. 1836 

Syriac Calendar. 1854 

The Teaching of the Apostles. 1855 

The Teaching of Simon Cephas in the City of Rome. 1866 

Acts of Sharbil, Who Was a Priest of Idols, and Was Converted to the Confession 1872 
of Christianity in Christ. 

Acts of Sharbil. 1872 

Further, the Martyrdom of Barsamya, the Bishop of the Blessed City Edessa. 1891 
Elucidation. 1899 

Martyrdom of Habib the Deacon. 1900 

xlviii 



Martyrdom of the Holy Confessors Shamuna, Guria, and Habib, from Simeon 1911 
Metaphrastes. 

Moses of Chorene: History of Armenia. 1921 

Reign of Abgar; Armenia becomes completely tributary to the Romans; war 1921 
with Herod's troops; his brother's son, Joseph, is killed. 

Founding of the town of Edessa; brief account of the race of our illuminator. 1922 

Abgar comes into the East, maintains Ardaches upon the throne of Persia; 1923 

reconciles his brothers from whom our illuminator and his relations are 
descended. 


Abgar returns from the east; he gives help to Aretas in a war against Herod the 1924 
Tetrarch. 

Abgar sends princes to Marinus; these deputies see our Saviour Christ; beginning 1925 


of the conversion of Abgar. 

Abgar's letter to the Saviour Jesus Christ. 1926 

Answer to Abgar's letter, which the apostle Thomas wrote to this prince by 1927 
command of the Saviour. 

Preaching of the apostle Thaddaeus at Edessa; copy of five letters. 1928 

Martyrdom of our apostles. 1931 

Reign of Sanadroug; murder of Abgar's children; the princess Helena. 1932 

Restoration of the town of Medzpine; name of Sanadroug; his death. 1933 

Homilies, Composed by Mar Jacob. 1934 

Homily on Habib the Martyr. 1934 

Homily on Guria and Shamuna. 1945 

Introduction to Ancient Syriac Documents. 1956 

Bardesan. The Book of the Laws of Divers Countries. 1959 

A Letter of Mara, Son of Serapion. 1981 

Ambrose. 1989 

Elucidations. 1995 

Part I. 1995 

Part II. 1997 

Remains of the Second and Third Centuries. 1998 

Title Page. 1998 

Introductory Notice. 1999 


xlix 



Quadratus, Bishop of Athens. 2001 

Aristo of Pella. 2002 

Melito, the Philosopher. 2004 

Introduction. 2004 

A Discourse Which Was in the Presence of Antoninus Caesar, and He Exhorted 2006 
The Said Caesar to Acquaint Himself with God, and Showed to Him the Way 
of Truth. 

From the Discourse on Soul and Body. 2016 

From the Discourse on the Cross. 2017 

On Faith. 2018 

PartV. 2019 

Part VI. 2021 

From the Work on the Passover. 2022 

From the Apology Addressed to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. 2023 

From the Same Apology. 2025 

From the Book of Extracts. 2026 

From the Catena on Genesis. 2027 

Two Scholia on Genesis XXII. 13. 2028 

On the Nature of Christ. 2029 

From the Oration on Our Ford's Passion. 2030 

From ’The Key.' 2031 

Hegesippus. 2035 

Introduction. 2035 

Fragments from His Five Books of Commentaries on the Acts of the Church. 2036 
Concerning the Martyrdom of James, the Brother of the Ford, from Book V. 2036 
Concerning the Relatives of Our Saviour. 2038 

Concerning the Martyrdom of Symeon the son of Clopas, Bishop of Jerusalem. 2039 
Concerning His Journey to Rome, and the Jewish Sects. 2040 

Dionysius, Bishop of Corinth. 2041 

Rhodon. 2043 

Maximus, Bishop of Jerusalem. 2045 

Claudius Apollinaris, Bishop of Hierapolis, and Apologist. 2055 


1 



2057 


Polycrates, Bishop of Ephesus. 


Theophilus, Bishop of Caesarea in Palestine. 

2060 

Serapion, Bishop of Antioch. 

2061 

Apollonius. 

2063 

Pantaenus, the Alexandrian Philosopher. 

2066 

Pseud-Irenaeus. 

2068 

Note by the American Editor. 

2081 

Elucidation. 

2082 

Note. 

2083 

Indexes 

2084 

Index of Scripture References 

2085 

Greek Words and Phrases 

2091 

Hebrew Words and Phrases 

2107 

German Words and Phrases 

2108 

French Words and Phrases 

2109 

Index of Pages of the Print Edition 

2110 


li 



m ChmsTian Classics 
£ T J ]eKea l Libnatiy 


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lii 


Title Pages. 


The Writings of the Fathers Down to A.D. 325 


ANTE-NICENE FATHERS 

VOLUME 8. 

The Twelve Patriarchs, Excerpts and Epistles, The Clementina, Apo- 
crypha, Decretals, Memoirs of Edessa and Syriac Documents, Remains 

of the First Ages 

Edited by 

ALEXANDER ROBERTS, D.D., and JAMES DONALDSON, LL.D. 

Revised and Chronologically Arranged, with Brief Prefaces and Occasional Notes by 

A. CLEVELAND COXE, D.D. 

T&T CLARK 
EDINBURGH 


WM. B. EERDMANS PUBLISHING COMPANY 
GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN 

— ^ 
iii 


FATHERS OF THE THIRD AND FOURTH CENTURIES: 


THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS, EXCERPTS AND EPISTLES, THE CLEMENTINA, APO- 
CRYPHA, DECRETALS, MEMOIRS OF EDESSA AND SYRIAC DOCUMENTS, REMAINS 

OF THE FIRST AGES. 


AMERICAN EDITION. 


l 



Title Pages. 


Chronologically Arranged, with Notes, Prefaces, and Elucidations, 


by 


A. CLEVELAND COXE, D.D. 

Toe apxotTot e'Gri Kporrerao. 

— The Nicene Council. 


2 



Introductory Notice. 


Introductory Notice. 


This volume completes the American series, according to our agreement. But it will be 
found to afford much material over and above what was promised, and the editorial labour 
it has exacted has been much greater than might at first be suspected. The Bibliography 
with which the work is supplemented, and which is the original work of Dr. Riddle, has 
been necessarily thrown into the Index by the overgrowth of this volume in original matter. 

The Apocryphal works of the Edinburgh collection have been here brought together, 
and “Fragments” have been sifted, and arranged on a plan strictly practical. To my valued 
collaborator Dr. Riddle I have committed a task which demanded a specialist of his eminent 
qualifications. He has had, almost exclusively, the task of editing the Pseudo-Clementina 
and the Apocryphal New Testament. To myself I assigned the T welve Patriarchs and Excerpts, 
the Edessene Memoirs and other Syriac Fragments, the False Decretals, and the Remains of 
the First Ages. I have reserved this retrospect of historic truth and testimony to complete 
the volume. As in music the tune ends on the note with which it began, so, after the greater 
part of the volume had been surrendered to forgery and fiction (valuable, indeed, for purposes 
of comparison and reference, but otherwise unworthy of a place among primitive witnesses), 
I felt it refreshing to return to genuine writings and to authentic histories. The pages of 
Melito and others will restore something of the flavour of the Apostolic Fathers to our taste, 
and the student will not close his review of the Ante-Nicene Fathers with last impressions 
derived only from their fraudulent imitators and corrupters. 

The editor-in-chief renews his grateful acknowledgments to those who have aided him 
in his undertaking, with whose honoured names the reader is already acquainted. Nor can 
he omit an expression of thanks to the reverend brother 1 2 to whom the hard work of the 
Indexes has been chiefly committed. It would be equally unjust not to mention his obligations 
to the meritorious press which has produced these pages with a general accuracy not easily 
ensured under difficulties such as have been inseparable from this undertaking.” The support 
which has been liberally afforded to the enterprise by Christians of divers names and com- 
munions ought not to be recognised by words of mere recognition: it is a token of their 
common interest in a common origin, and a sign, perhaps, of a longing for that precious 
unity and brotherhood which was the glory of the martyr ages, for which all should unite 
in praise to God. To the Christian press a grateful tribute is due from the editor and his 
publishers alike; more especially as it has encouraged, so generally, the production of another 
series, of which the first volume has already appeared, and which will familiarize the minds 


1 The Rev. C. W. Hayes, M.A., of Westfield, N.Y. 

2 The Boston Press of Rand Avery Company. 


3 



Introductory Notice. 


and hearts of thousands with the living thought and burning piety of those great doctors of 
the post-Nicene period, to whom the world owes such immense obligations, but who have 
been so largely unknown to millions even of educated men, except as bright and shining 
names. 

It is a cheering token, that, while the superficial popular mind may even be disposed to 
regard this collection as a mere museum of fossils, having little or no connection with any- 
thing that interests our age, there is a twofold movement towards a fresh investigation of 
the past, which it seems providentially designed to meet. Thus, among Christians there is 
a general appetite for the study of primitive antiquity, stimulated by the decadence of the 
Papacy, and by the agitations concerning the theology of the future which have arisen in 
Reformed communions; while, on the other hand, scientific thought has pushed inquiry as 
to the sources of the world’s enlightenment, and has found them just here, — in the school 
of Alexandria, and in the Christian writers of the first three centuries. “It is instructive,” 
says a forcible thinker, and a disciple of Darwin and Huxley, “to note how closely Athanas- 
ius approaches the confines of modern scientific thought.” And again he says: “The intel- 
lectual atmosphere of Alexandria for two centuries before and three centuries after the time 
of Christ was more modern than anything that followed, down to the days of Bacon and 
Descartes.” 

It would be unmanly in the editor to speak of the difficulties and hindrances through 
which he has been forced to push on his work, while engaged in other and very sacred duties. 
The conditions which alone could justify the publishers in the venture were quite inconsistent 
with such an editorial performance as might satisfy his own ideas of what should be done 
with such materials. Four years instead of two, he felt, should be bestowed on such a work; 
and he thought that two years might suffice only in case a number of collaborators could 
be secured for simultaneous employment. When it was found that such a plan was imprac- 
ticable, and that the idea must be abandoned if not undertaken and carried forward as it 
has been, then the writer most reluctantly assumed his great responsibility in the fear of 
God, and in dependence on His lovingkindness and tender mercy. Of the result, he can 
only say that “he has done what he could” in the circumstances. He is rewarded by the 
consciousness that at least he has enabled many an American divine and scholar to avail 
himself of the labours of the Edinburgh translators, and to feel what is due to them, when, 
but for this publication, he must have remained in ignorance of what their erudition has 
achieved and contributed to Christian learning in the English tongue. 

And how sweet and invigorating has been his task, as page after page of these treasures 
of antiquity has passed under his hand and eye! With unfailing appetite he has risen before 
daylight to his work; and far into the night he has extended it, with ever fresh interest and 


3 John Fiske, The Idea of God, Boston, 1886, pp. 73, 86. 


4 



Introductory Notice. 


delight. Obliged very often to read his proofs, or prepare his notes, at least in their first 
draught, while j ourneying by land or by water, he has generally found in such employments, 
not additional fatigue, but a real comfort and resource, a balance to other cares, and a sweet 
preparation and invigoration for other labours. Oh, how much he owes, under God, to 
these “guides, philosophers, and friends,” — these Fathers of old time, — and to “their Father 
and our Father, their God and our God”! What love is due from all who love Christ, for the 
words they have spoken, and the deeds they have done, to assure us that the Everlasting 
Word is He to whom alone we can go for the words of life eternal! 

A. C. C. 


5 



The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. 


THE TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS. 

[Translated by the Rev. Robert Sinker, M.A., Trinity College, Cambridge.] 



6 



Introductory Notice. 


Introductory Notice 


3 _ 

The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. 


This very curious fragment of antiquity deserves a few words in anticipation of the 
translator’s valuable preface. Grabe’s Spicilegium is there referred to; but it maybe well also 
to consult his citations, in elucidation, of Bull’s Defensio Fidei Niccence , 4 where he treats the 
work with respect. My most valued authority, however, on this subject, is Lardner, 5 who 
gives a very full account of the work with his usual candor and learning. He seems to treat 
the matter with a needless profusion of space and consideration; yet in a much later volume 
of his great treatise he recurs to the subject 6 7 8 with expressions of satisfaction that he had 
dealt with it so largely before. 

Cave placed the composition of the Testaments about a.d. 192, but concedes a much 
earlier origin to the first portion of the work. Origen quotes from it, and Tertullian is sup- 
posed to have borrowed from it one of his expositions, as will be noted in its place. Lardner 

n 

clears it from charges of Ebionitism, but thinks the author was so far in accord with that 
heresy as to use expressions savouring of “Unitarianism.” Of this charge he is not justly 
susceptible, it appears to me: quite otherwise. If we can imagine Trypho coming to the 

o 

light after his kindly parting with Justin, I can conceive of such a man as the author of this 
work. He is a Christian awakening to the real purport of the Old-Testament Scriptures, and 
anxious to lead rather than drive his brethren after the flesh to the discovery of Him “con- 
cerning whom Moses in the law and the prophets did write:” not a “Judaizing Christian,” 
as Cave imagined, but the reverse, — a Christianizing Jew. Now, I must think that such a 
writer would weave into his plan many accepted traditions of the Jews and many Rabbinical 
expositions of the sacred writers. He was doubtless acquainted with that remarkable passage 
in the Revelation in which the patriarchs are so honourably named, 9 and with that corres- 
ponding passage which seems to unite the twelve patriarchs with the twelve apostles. 10 St. 


4 Vol.v.p. 176, ed. 1827. 

5 Credib., vol. ii. pp. 345-364. 

6 Vol. vi. p. 384. 

7 The honour done to St. Paul is enough to settle any suspicion of this sort. 

8 See vol. i. p. 270, note 2, this series. 

9 Rev. vii. 4. Dan is excepted. 

10 Rev. iv. 4. See vol. vii. p. 348, this series. 


7 


Introductory Notice. 


Paul’s claim for the twelve tribes before Agrippa 11 would naturally impress itself on such a 
mind. Whether the product of such a character with such a disposition would naturally be 
such an affectionate and filial attempt as this to identify the religion of the Crucified with 
the faith of the Jewish fathers, may be judged of by my reader. 

It appears to me an ill-advised romance; not more a “pious fraud” than several fictions 
which have attracted attention in our own times, based on the traditions of the Hebrews. 
The legends of the “Wandering Jew” have grown out of corresponding instincts among 
Christians. To me they appear like the profane “Passion-plays” lately revived among 
Christians, — a most unwarrantable form of teaching even truth. But as to the work itself, 
seeing it exists, I must acknowledge that it seems to me a valuable relic of antiquity, and an 
interesting specimen of the feelings and convictions of those believers over whom St. James 

1 -3 

presided in Jerusalem: “Israelites indeed,” but “zealous of the law.” They were now con- 

vinced that Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, with Moses and all the prophets, looked for the 
Messiah who had appeared in Jesus of Nazareth. The author of this book was anxious to 
show that the twelve patriarchs were twelve believers in the Paschal Lamb, and that they 
died in Christian penitence and faith. 

He, then, who will read or study the following waif of the olden time, as I have done, 
will not find it unprofitable reading. It really supplies a key to some difficulties in the 
Scripture narrative. It suggests what are at least plausible counterparts of what is written. 
“To the pure all things are pure;” and I see nothing that need defile in any of the details 
which expose the sins, and magnify the penitence, of the patriarchs. In fact, Lardner’s ob- 
jection to one of the sections in the beautiful narrative of Joseph strikes me as extraordinary. 
It is the story of a heroic conflict with temptation, the like of which was doubtless not un- 
common in the days of early Christians living among heathens ; 14 and I think it was possibly 
written to inspire a Joseph-like chastity in Christian youth. “I do not suppose,” says Lardner, 
“that the virtue of any of these ancient Hebrews was complete according to the Christian 
rule.” I am amazed at this; I have always supposed the example of Joseph the more glorious 



1 1 Acts xxvi. 7. 

12 See The Christ of Jewish History in Stanley Leathes’ Bampton Lectures, p. 51, ed. New York, 1874; also 
Westcott, Introduction to Study of the Gospels, 3d ed., London, Macmillans, 1867. Note, on the Book of Henoch, 
pp. 69, 93-101; on the Book of Jubilees p. 109. He puts this book into the first century, later than Henoch, 
earlier than the Twelve Patriarchs. Consult this work on the Alexandrian Fathers, on inspiration of Scripture, 
etc.; and note the Jewish doctrine of the Messiah, pp. 86, 143, 151, also the apocryphal traditions of words of 
our Lord, p. 428. 

13 Acts xxi. 18-26. To my mind a most touching history, in which it is hard to say whether St. Paul or St. 
James is exhibited in the more charming light. It suggests the absolute harmony of their Epistles. 

14 Vol. i. Elucid. II. p. 57, this series. 


Introductory Notice. 


because he flourished as the flower of chastity in a gross and carnal age. Who so pure as he 
save John the Baptist, that morning star that shone so near the Sun of Righteousness in the 
transient beauty of his “heliacal rising”? Surely Joseph was a type of Christ in this as in 
other particulars, and our author merely enables us to understand the “fiery darts” which 
he was wont to hurl back at the tempter. I own (reluctantly, because I dislike this form of 
teaching) that for me the superlative ode of the dying Jacob receives a reflected lustre from 
this curious book, especially in the splendid eulogy with which the old patriarch blesses his 
beloved Joseph. “The author,” says Lardner, “in an indirect manner. . .bears a large testimony 
to the Christian religion, to the facts, principles, and books of the New Testament. He speaks 
of the nativity of Christ, the meekness and unblameableness of His life, His crucifixion at 
the instigation of the Jewish priests, the wonderful concomitants of His death, His resurrec- 
tion, and ascension. He represents the character of the Messiah as God and man: the Most 
High God with men, eating and drinking with them; the Son of God; the Saviour of the 
world, of the Gentiles and Israel; as Eternal High Priest and King. He likewise speaks of the 
effusion of the Holy Spirit upon the Messiah, attended with a voice from heaven; His un- 
righteous treatment by the Jews; their desolations and the destruction of the Temple upon 
that account; the call of the Gentiles; the illuminating them generally with new light; the 
effusion of the Spirit upon believers, but especially, and in a more abundant measure, upon 
the Gentiles.. . .There are allusions to the Gospels of St. Matthew, St. Luke and St. John, the 
Acts of the Apostles, and of the Epistles to Ephesians, First Thessalonians, First Timothy, 
Hebrews, and First St. John, also to the Revelation. So far as consistent with the assumed 
character of his work, the author declares the canonical authority of the Acts of the Apostles 
and the Epistles of St. Paul.” Of which of the minor writers among the Ante-Nicene Fathers 
can so much be said? 

Regarded as a sort of Jewish surrender to Justin’s argument with Trypho, this book is 
interesting, and represents, no doubt, the convictions of thousands of Jewish converts of 
the first age. It is, in short, worthy of more attention than it has yet received. 

Here follows Mr. Sinker’s valuable Introductory Notice: — 

The apocryphal work known as the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs professes to be, 
as its name implies, the utterances of the dying patriarchs, the sons of Jacob. In these they 
give some account of their lives, embodying particulars not found in the scriptural account, 
and build thereupon various moral precepts for the guidance of their descendants. The 
book partakes also of the nature of an Apocalypse: the patriarchs see in the future their 
children doing wickedly, stained with the sins of every nation; and thus they foretell the 
troubles impending on their race. Still at last God will put an end to their woe, and comfort 
is found in the promise of a Messiah 



9 



Introductory Notice. 


There can be little or no doubt that the author was a Jew, who, having been converted 
to Christianity, sought to win over his countrymen to the same faith, and thus employed 
the names of the patriarchs as a vehicle for conveying instruction to their descendants, as 
winning by this means for his teaching at any rate a prima facie welcome in the eyes of the 
Jewish people. 

It does not seem hard to settle approximately the limits of time within which the book 
was probably written. It cannot be placed very late in the second century, seeing that it is 
almost certainly quoted by Tertullian, 15 and that Origen 16 cites the Testaments by name, 
apparently indeed holding it in considerable respect. We can, however, approximate much 
more nearly than this; for the allusions to the destruction of Jerusalem assign to the Testa- 
ments a date subsequent to that event. This will harmonize perfectly with what is the natural 
inference from several passages, — namely, that the Gentiles now were a majority in the 
Church, — as well as with the presence of the many formulae to express the incarnation, and 

i n 

with the apparent collection of the books of the New Testament into a volume. 

On the other hand, important evidence as to the posterior limit of the date of writing 
may be derived from the language used with reference to the priesthood. Christ is both 
High Priest and King, and His former office is higher than the latter, and to Him the old 
priesthood must resign its rights. Now such language as this would be almost meaningless 
after Hadrian’s destruction of Jerusalem consequent on the revolt of Bar-Cochba (a.d. 135), 
after which all power of Judaism for acting directly upon Christianity ceased; and, indeed, 
on the hypothesis of a later date, we should doubtless find allusions to the revolt and its 
suppression. On the above grounds, we infer that the writing of the Testaments is to be 
placed in a period ranging from late in the first century to the revolt of Bar-Cochba; closer 

1 R 

than this it is perhaps not safe to draw our limits. 

The language in which the Testaments were written was no doubt the Hellenistic Greek 
in which we now possess them; presenting as they do none of the peculiar marks which 
characterize a version. Whether there were a Hebrew work on which the present was 
modelled — a supposition by no means improbable in itself — we cannot tell, nor is it a matter 
of much importance. The phenomena of the book itself may be cited in support of this 
conclusion: for instance, the use of the word SiaOqKq in its ordinary classical meaning of 
“testament,” not “covenant” as in Hellenistic Greek, for which former meaning there would 
be no strictly equivalent word in Hebrew; the numerous instances of paronomasia, such as 


15 Adv. Marcionem, v. 1; Scorpiace, 13; cf. Benj. 11. 

16 Horn, in Josuam, xv. 6; cf. Reub. 2, 3. 

17 Benj. 11. 

18 [Compare Westcott, Introduction to Study of the Gospels , p. 132, ed. Boston, 1862.] 


10 



Introductory Notice. 


aGereiv, vouGereiv, acpatpeaic;, avaipeaic;, Atpoc;, Aoipiop, ev recast, araKTOv, ra^ic;, 
ataxia; 23 the frequent use of the genitive absolute, and of the verb peAAetv; the use of various 
expressions pertaining to the Greek philosophy, as SidGeoip, ai'oGqoic;, cpuaic;, reAop. 

It seems doubtful how far we can attempt with safety to determine accurately the religious 
standpoint of the writer beyond the obvious fact of his Jewish origin, though some have at- 
tempted to show that he was a Nazarene, and others a Jewish Christian of Pauline tendencies. 
We shall therefore content ourselves with referring those who seek for more specific inform- 
ation on this point to the works mentioned below. 

To refer now briefly to the external history of our document, we meet with nothing 
definite, after its citation by Origen, for many centuries: there are possible allusions in 
Jerome 24 and in Procopius Gazaeus; 25 there is also a mention of narpidpxoci in the Synopsis 
Sacrce Scriptures found among the writings of Athanasius, as well as in the Stichometria of 
Nicephorus of Constantinople, on which it is probably based. Again, in the Canons of the 
Council of Rome (494 a.d.) under Gelasius, and of the Council of Bracara (563 a.d.), are 
possible references, though it is far from improbable that in some of the foregoing passages 
the reference maybe to a writing roov rpitov flctTpiapxdjv alluded to in the Apostolic Consti- 
tutions ,“ or is even of somewhat loose application. 

After this a blank ensues until the middle of the thirteenth century, when it was brought 
to the knowledge of Western Europe by Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln, the earliest 
of the great English reformers. We cite here the account of the matter given by Matthew 
Paris, although of course we need not accept all the opinions of the old chronicler respecting 
the document in question: “At this same time, Robert, Bishop of Lincoln, a man most deeply 
versed in Latin and Greek, accurately translated the Testaments of the XII. Patriarchs from 
Greek into Latin. These had been for a long time unknown and hidden through the j ealousy 
of the Jews, on account of the prophecies of the Saviour contained in them. The Greeks, 
however, the most unwearied investigators of all writings, were the first to come to a 
knowledge of this document, and translated it from Hebrew into Greek, and have kept it to 
themselves till our times. And neither in the time of the blessed Jerome nor of any other 


19 Benj. 4. 

20 Judah 23. 

21 Judah 23. 

22 Naph. 2. 

23 Naph. 3. 

24 Adv. Vigilantium, c. 6. 

25 Comm, in Genesin, c. 38. 

26 vi. 16. [See vol. vii. p. 457, this series.] 

27 [Of whom see Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, Part II. vol. i. p. 77, ed. London, 1885.] 


11 



Introductory Notice. 


holy interpreter could the Christians gain an acquaintance with it, through the malice of 
the ancient Jews. This glorious treatise, then, the aforesaid bishop (with the help of Master 
Nicolaus, a Greek, and a clerk of the Abbey of St. Alban’s) translated fully and clearly, and 
word for word, from Greek into Latin, to the strengthening of the Christian faith, and to 
the greater confusion of the Jews.” 

Again, after speaking of the death of “Master John de Basingstokes, Archdeacon of 
Leicester,” a man of very great learning in Latin and Greek, he proceeds: “This Master 

John had mentioned to Robert, Bishop of Lincoln, that when he was studying at Athens he 
had seen and heard from learned Greek doctors certain things unknown to the Latins. 
Among these he found the Testaments of the XII. Patriarchs, that is to say, of the sons of 
Jacob. Now it is plain that these really form part of the sacred volume, but have been long 
hidden through the jealousy of the Jews, on account of the evident prophecies about Christ 
which are clearly seen in them. Consequently this same bishop sent into Greece; and when 
he obtained them, he translated them from Greek into Latin, as well as certain other things.” 

After this it would seem as though the same fate still pursued our document, for the 
entire Greek text was not printed until the eve of the eighteenth century, when it was pub- 

on 

lished for the first time by Grabe, whose edition has been several times reprinted. 

Four Greek mss. of the Testaments are known to exist: — 

1. The ms. Ff. i. 24 in the University Library of Cambridge, to which it was given by 
Archbishop Parker, whose autograph it bears on its first page. It is a quarto on parchment, 
of 261 leaves (in which the Testaments occupy ff. 203a-261b), double columns, 20 lines in 
a column, handwriting of the tenth century. It is furnished with accents and breathings, 
and a fairly full punctuation. There are very strong grounds for believing that it was this 
ms. that Grosseteste’s version was made, exhibiting as it does a very large amount of curious 

o 1 

verbal coincidence with it. The text of this ms. has been that given in the various editions 

mentioned below. 

2. The ms. Barocci 133 in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, where it came with the rest 
of the Barocci collection from V enice, and was presented to the University by its Chancellor, 
the Earl of Pembroke. It is a quarto volume; and except a leaf or two of parchment, contain- 
ing writing of an older period, consists of a number of treatises on paper, apparently by 
several different hands, in the writing of the latter part of the fourteenth century. The 
Testaments occupy ff. 179n-203h. The amount of difference between this ms. and the pre- 


28 Historia Anglorum, a.d. 1242, p. 801, ed. London, 1571. 

29 Op. cit. a.d. 1252, p. 1112. 

30 Vide infra. 

31 [See, e.g., the curious reading in Levi 18, kou arr|aei, where the Latin mss. are unanimous in giving stare 
faciet; also the mistake of ’laK(f)(3 for ’Pou(3rjp in Issachar 1. 


12 



Introductory Notice. 


ceding is considerable, and is sufficient to show that it has had no direct communication 
with the latter. A large number of omissions occur in it, in some instances amounting to 
entire chapters. The variations of this ms. are given more or less fully in the various editions. 

3. A ms. in the Vatican Library at Rome, not yet edited. It is said to be a small quarto 
on paper, written in a very distinct hand, though unfortunately some leaves are damaged. 
It bears a subscription with the date 1235. I owe my knowledge of this ms. to an article by 
Dr. Vorstman in the Godgeleerde Bijdragen for 1866, p. 953 sqq. 

4. A ms. discovered by Tischendorf in the island of Patmos, of which no details have 
yet been published. 

The entire Greek text of the Testaments was first printed by Grabe in his Spicilegium 
Patrum et Hcereticorum, Oxford, 1698, professedly from the Cambridge ms., but in reality 
from some very inaccurate transcript of it, very possibly from one made by Abednego Seller, 
also in the Cambridge University Library, Oo. vi. 92. Grabe also gave a few of the variations 
of the Oxford ms. Fabricius, in his Codex Pseudepigraphus Veteris Testamenti, gives little 
more than a reprint from Grabe. In the second edition of the latter (1714) the true text has 
been restored in several passages; but in many places Grosseteste’s Latin version, which 
witnessed to the true reading, was altered to suit Grabe’s incorrect text. Fabricius’ second 
edition (1722) is perhaps, on the whole, less accurate than his first. Since then the text and 
notes, as given in Grabe’s second edition, have been reprinted, with but few additions, by 
Gallandi, in his Bibliotheca Veterum Patrum, vol. i. p. 193 sqq., Venice, 1765, and in Migne’s 
Patrologia Grceca, vol. ii., Paris, 1857. The text of the Cambridge ms. with a full statement 
of the variations of the Oxford ms., has recently been edited directly from the mss. by myself, 
Cambridge, 1869; from this edition the present translation has been made. 

The mss. of Grosseteste’s Latin version are numerous, there being no less than twelve 
in Cambridge alone and it has been frequently printed, both with the editions of the Greek 
text and independently. 34 

Besides the Latin version, the Testaments have also been translated into several European 
languages, in all cases apparently from the Latin. The English translation made by Arthur 
Golding was first printed by J ohn Daye in Aldersgate in 1 58 1 , and has since been frequently 
reproduced; the British Museum, which does not possess all the editions, having no less 
than eleven. 35 


32 See Tischendorf, Aus dem heiligen Lande , p. 341. 

33 Hamburgh, 1713. 

34 e.g., 1483; Hagenau, 1532; Paris, 1549; and often. 

35 This English translation having been made from the Latin, the printed editions of which swarm with inac- 
curacies (Grosseteste’s Latin version itself being a most exact translation), I have been able to make much less 
use of it than I could have desired. It has, however, been compared throughout. 


13 



Introductory Notice. 


The author of the French translation appears to believe, as the English translator had 
done, that we have here really the last words of the sons of Jacob. A German translation 

'in 

has also several times been published, and a German translation in ms. is to be found in 

oq 

the British Museum. We may further mention a Dutch translation (Antwerp, 1570), a 
Danish translation (1601), and a ms. Icelandic translation of the eighteenth century in the 
British Museum, add. mss 11,068. 

For further information on the subject of the Testaments, reference may be made, in 
addition to works already mentioned, to the following: — Nitzsch, Commentatio Critica de 
Testamentis XII. Patriarcharum, libro V. T. Pseudepigrapho (Wittenberg, 1810); Ritschl, Die 
Entstehung der altkatholischen Kirche (Bonn, 1850; ed. 2, 1857), p. 171 sqq.; Vorstman, 
Disquisitio de TestamentorumXII. Patriarcharum origine et pretio (Rotterdam, 1857); Kayser 
in Reuss and Cunitz’s Beitrdge zu den theol. Wissenschaften for 1851, pp. 107-140; 
l.ilckc, Einleitung in die Offenbarung des Joh., vol. i. p. 334 sqq., ed. 2. 

R. S. 

Trinity College, Cambridge. 

February 21, 1871. 


36 Monsieur Mace, Chefecier, cure de Saint Opportune, Paris, 1713. 

37 e.g., Vienna, 1544; Strasburgh, 1596; Hamburgh, 1637. 

38 mss. Hart, 1252. 


14 



The Testament of Reuben Concerning Thoughts. 


The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. 



I. — The Testament of Reuben Concerning Thoughts. 

1. The copy of the Testament of Reuben, what things he charged his sons before he 
died in the hundred and twenty- fifth year of his life. When he was sick two years after the 
death of Joseph, his sons and his sons’ sons were gathered together to visit him. And he 
said to them, My children, I am dying, and go the way of my fathers. And when he saw 
there Judah and Gad and Asher, his brethren, he said to them, Raise me up, my brethren, 
that I may tell to my brethren and to my children what things I have hidden in my heart, 
for from henceforth my strength faileth me. And he arose and kissed them, and said, 
weeping: Hear, my brethren, give ear to Reuben your father, what things I command you. 
And, behold, I call to witness against you this day the God of heaven, that ye walk not in 
the ignorance of youth and fornication wherein I ran greedily, and I defiled the bed of Jacob 
my father. Fori tell you that He smote me with a sore plague in my loins for seven months; 
and had not Jacob our father prayed for me to the Lord, surely the Lord would have destroyed 
me. For I was thirty years old when I did this evil in the sight of the Lord, and for seven 
months I was sick even unto death; and I repented for seven years in the set purpose of my 
soul before the Lord. Wine and strong drink I drank not, and flesh entered not into my 

■3Q 

mouth, and I tasted not pleasant food, mourning over my sin, for it was great. And it 
shall not so be done in Israel. 

2. And now hear me, my children, what things I saw in my repentance concerning the 
seven spirits of error. Seven spirits are given against man from Beliar, and they are chief of 
the works of youth; and seven spirits are given to him at his creation, that in them should 
be done every work of man. 40 The first (1) spirit is of life, with which man’s whole being 
is created. The second (2) spirit is of sight, with which ariseth desire. The third (3) spirit 
is of hearing, with which cometh teaching. The fourth (4) spirit is of smelling, with which 
taste is given to draw air and breath. The fifth (5) spirit is of speech, with which cometh 
knowledge. The sixth (6) spirit is of taste, with which cometh the eating of meats and drinks; 
and by them strength is produced, for in food is the foundation of strength. The seventh 


39 There seems a reminiscence here of the words of Dan. x. 3, LXX. [For proofs of penitence, see p. 1 1 , note 
3, infra.] 

40 For this use of Ttveupara as applied to the senses, we may cite Plutarch [De placitis philosophorum, iv. 21), 
who, speaking with reference to the Stoic philosophy, says, r| pev opaau; earl itveupa Staretvov onto rou 
riycpoviKou peypu; 6<p0ocApu>v. 


15 


The Testament of Reuben Concerning Thoughts. 


(7) spirit is of begetting and sexual intercourse, with which through love of pleasure sin also 
entereth in: wherefore it is the last in order of creation, and the first of youth, because it is 
filled with ignorance, which leadeth the young as a blind man to a pit, and as cattle to a 
precipice. 

3. Besides all these, there is an eighth (8) spirit of sleep, with which is created entrance- 
ment of man’s nature, and the image of death. With these spirits are mingled the spirits of 
error. The first (1), the spirit of fornication, dwelleth in the nature and in the senses; the 
second (2) spirit of insatiateness in the belly; the third (3) spirit of fighting in the liver and 
the gall. The fourth (4) is the spirit of fawning and trickery, that through over-officiousness 
a man may be fair in seeming. The fifth (5) is the spirit of arrogance, that a man may be 
stirred up and become high-minded. The sixth (6) is the spirit of lying, in perdition and in 
jealousy to feign words, and to conceal 41 words from kindred and friends. The seventh (7) 
is the spirit of injustice, with which are theft and pilferings, that a man may work the desire 
of his heart; for injustice worketh together with the other spirits by means of craft. Besides 
all these, the spirit of sleep, the eighth (8) spirit, is conjoined with error and fantasy. And 
so perisheth every young man, darkening his mind from the truth, and not understanding 
the law of God, nor obeying the admonitions of his fathers, as befell me also in my youth. 

And now, children, love the truth, and it shall preserve you. I counsel you, hear ye Re- 
uben your father. Pay no heed to the sight of a woman, nor yet associate privately with a 
female under the authority of a husband, nor meddle with affairs of womankind. For had 
I not seen Bilhah bathing in a covered place, I had not fallen into this great iniquity. 42 For 
my mind, dwelling on the woman’s nakedness, suffered me not to sleep until I had done 
the abominable deed. For while Jacob our father was absent with Isaac his father, when we 
were in Gader, near to Ephratha in Bethlehem, Bilhah was drunk, and lay asleep uncovered 
in her chamber; and when I went in and beheld her nakedness, I wrought that impiety, and 
leaving her sleeping I departed. And forthwith an angel of God revealed to my father Jacob 
concerning my impiety, and he came and mourned over me, and touched her no more. 43 

4. Pay no heed, therefore, to the beauty of women, and muse not upon their doings; 
but walk in singleness of heart in the fear of the Lord, and be labouring in works, and 
roaming in study and among your flocks, until the Lord give to you a wife whom He will, 
that ye suffer not as I did. Until my father’s death I had not boldness to look stedfastly into 
the face of Jacob, or to speak to any of my brethren, because of my reproach; and even until 
now my conscience afflicteth me by reason of my sin. And my father comforted me; for he 


41 This clause is only found in Cd. Oxon.; it seems demanded by the following onto 

42 Cf. Gen. xxxv. 22. The Gader mentioned below is the Edar of ver. 21, the Hebrew V being reproduced, 
as often, by y. 

43 [This section is censured by Lardner as unsuitable to dying admonitions. He forgets Oriental simplicity.] 

16 


The Testament of Reuben Concerning Thoughts. 


prayed for me unto the Lord, that the anger of the Lord might pass away from me, even as 
the Lord showed me. From henceforth, then, I was protected, and I sinned not. Therefore, 
my children, observe all things whatsoever I command you, and ye shall not sin. For fornic- 
ation is the destruction of the soul, separating it from God, and bringing it near to idols, 
because it deceiveth the mind and understanding, and bringeth down young men into hell 
before their time. For many hath fornication destroyed; because, though a man be old or 
noble, it maketh him a reproach and a laughing-stock with Beliar and the sons of men. For 
in that Joseph kept himself from every woman, and purged his thoughts from all fornication, 
he found favour before the Lord and men. For the Egyptian woman did many things unto 
him, and called for magicians, and offered him love potions, and the purpose of his soul 
admitted no evil desire. Therefore the God of my fathers delivered him from every visible 
and hidden death. For if fornication overcome not the mind, neither shall Beliar overcome 
you. 

5. Hurtful are women, my children; because, since they have no power or strength over 
the man, they act subtilly through outward guise how they may draw him to themselves; 
and whom they cannot overcome by strength, him they overcome by craft. For moreover 
the angel of God told me concerning them, and taught me that women are overcome by the 
spirit of fornication more than men, and they devise in their heart against men; and by 
means of their adornment they deceive first their minds, and instil the poison by the glance 
of their eye, and then they take them captive by their doings, for a woman cannot overcome 
a man by force. 

Therefore flee fornication, my children, and command your wives and your daughters 
that they adorn not their heads and their faces; because every woman who acteth deceitfully 
in these things hath been reserved to everlasting punishment. For thus they allured the 
Watchers 44 before the flood; and as these continually beheld them, they fell into desire each 
of the other, and they conceived the act in their mind, and changed themselves into the 
shape of men, and appeared to them in their congress with their husbands; and the women, 
having in their minds desire toward their apparitions, gave birth to giants, for the Watchers 
appeared to them as reaching even unto heaven. 45 


44 This name, occurring once again in the Testaments ( Naph . 3), is one frequently found applied to the angels 
as the custodians of the world and of men. Thus, in the Chaldee of Daniel (iv. 10, 14, 20: 13, 17, 23, Eng. Ver.), 

we find the expression "Tl?, which Aquila and Symmachus render eypHYOpcx;. The corresponding Ethiopic 
term is of frequent occurrence in the book of Enoch, not only of the fallen angels (e.g., x. 9, 15, xvi. 1, etc.), but 

of the good (xii. 2, 3, etc., ed. Dillmann). See also Gesenius, Thesaurus, s.v. “TSJ. 

45 [Gen. vi. 4; Revised margin, 1 Cor. xi. 10; Jude 6, 7.] 


17 


The Testament of Reuben Concerning Thoughts. 


6. Beware, therefore, of fornication; and if you wish to be pure in your mind, guard 
your senses against every woman. And command them likewise not to company with men, 
that they also be pure in their mind. For constant meetings, even though the ungodly deed 
be not wrought, are to them an irremediable disease, and to us an everlasting reproach of 
Beliar; for fornication hath neither understanding nor godliness in itself, and all jealousy 
dwelleth in the desire thereof. Therefore ye will be jealous against the sons of Levi, and will 
seek to be exalted over them; but ye shall not be able, for God will work their avenging, and 
ye shall die by an evil death. For to Levi the Lord gave the sovereignty, and to Judah, 46 and 
to me also with them, 47 and to Dan and Joseph, that we should be for rulers. Therefore I 
command you to hearken to Levi, because he shall know the law of the Lord, and shall give 
ordinances for judgment and sacrifice for all Israel until the completion of the times of 
Christ, the High Priest whom the Lord hath declared. I adjure you by the God of heaven 
to work truth each one with his neighbour; and draw ye near to Levi in humbleness of heart, 
that ye may receive a blessing from his mouth. For he shall bless Israel; and specially Judah, 
because him hath the Lord chosen to rule over all the peoples. And worship we his Seed, 
because He shall die for us in wars visible and invisible, and shall be among you an everlasting 
king. 

7. And Reuben died after that he had given command to his sons; and they placed him 
in a coffin until they bore him up from Egypt, and buried him in Hebron in the double 
cave where his fathers were. 


46 [See Lardner on this root idea of our author, vol. ii. p. 353; but he is wrong as to Levi and Mary. Also 
Joseph , sec. 19, note 2, infra.] 

47 The reading of Cd. Oxon., per’ aurov, is doubtless to be preferred. 

48 i.e., Machpelah, which in Hebrew means double, and is so rendered by the LXX., e.g., Gen. xxiii. 9. 


18 


The Testament of Simeon Concerning Envy. 


II. — The Testament of Simeon Concerning Envy. 

1. The copy of the words of Simeon, what things he spake to his sons before he died, 
in the hundred and twentieth year of his life, in the year in which Joseph died. For they 
came to visit him when he was sick, and he strengthened himself and sat up and kissed them, 
and said to them: — 

2. Hear, O my children, hear Simeon your father, what things I have in my heart. I was 
born of Jacob my father, his second son; and my mother Leah called me Simeon, because 
the Lord heard her prayer. 49 I became strong exceedingly; I shrank from no deed, nor was 
I afraid of anything. For my heart was hard, and my mind was unmoveable, and my bowels 
unfeeling: because valour also has been given from the Most High to men in soul and in 
body. And at that time I was jealous of Joseph because our father loved him; 50 and I set my 
mind against him to destroy him, because the prince of deceit sent forth the spirit of jealousy 
and blinded my mind, that I regarded him not as a brother, and spared not Jacob my father. 
But his God and the God of his fathers sent forth His angel, and delivered him out of my 
hands. For when I went into Shechem to bring ointment for the flocks, and Reuben to 
Dotham, where were our necessaries and all our stores, Judah our brother sold him to the 
Ishmaelites. And when Reuben came he was grieved, for he wished to have restored him 
safe to his father. 51 But I was wroth against Judah in that he let him go away alive, and for 
five months I continued wrathful against him; but God restrained me, and withheld from 
me all working of my hands, for my right hand was half withered for seven days. And I 
knew, my children, that because of Joseph this happened to me, and I repented and wept; 
and I besought the Lord that He would restore my hand unto me, and that I might be kept 
from all pollution and envy, and from all folly. For I knew that I had devised an evil deed 
before the Lord and Jacob my father, on account of Joseph my brother, in that I envied him. 

3. And now, children, take heed of the spirit of deceit and of envy. For envy ruleth over 
the whole mind of a man, and suffereth him neither to eat, nor to drink, nor to do any good 
thing: it ever suggesteth to him to destroy him that he envieth; and he that is envied ever 
flourisheth, but he that envieth fades away. Two years of days I afflicted my soul with fasting 
in the fear of the Lord, and I learnt that deliverance from envy cometh by the fear of God. 


49 Gen. xxix. 33. 

50 That Simeon was prominent in the hostility to Joseph, is perhaps implied by his detention in Egypt as a 
surety for the return of the others; and Jewish tradition generally accords with this view. Cf. the Targum of the 
Pseudo-Jonathan on Gen. xxxvii. 19: “Simeon and Levi, who were brothers in counsel, said one to another, Let 
us kill him.” Also this same Targum on Gen. xlii. 24: “And he took from them Simeon, who had counselled to 
kill him.” Cf. also Breshith Rabba, § 91. 

51 [Gen. xxxvii. 22, 29; xlii. 22.] 


19 


The Testament of Simeon Concerning Envy. 


If a man flee to the Lord, the evil spirit runneth away from him, and his mind becometh 
easy. And henceforward he sympathizeth with him whom he envied, and condemneth not 
those who love him, and so ceaseth from his envy. 

4. And my father asked concerning me, because he saw that I was sad; and I said, I am 
pained in my liver. For I mourned more than they all, because I was guilty of the selling of 
Joseph. And when we went down into Egypt, and he bound me as a spy, I knew that I was 
suffering justly, and I grieved not. Now Joseph was a good man, and had the Spirit of God 
within him: compassionate and pitiful, he bore not malice against me; nay, he loved me 
even as the rest of his brothers. Take heed, therefore, my children, of all jealousy and envy, 
and walk in singleness of soul and with good heart, keeping in mind the brother of your 
father, that God may give to you also grace and glory, and blessing upon your heads, even 
as ye saw in him. All his days he reproached us not concerning this thing, but loved us as 
his own soul, and beyond his own sons; and he glorified us, and gave riches, and cattle, and 
fruits freely to us all. Do ye then also, my beloved children, love each one his brother with 
a good heart, and remove from you the spirit of envy, for this maketh savage the soul and 
destroyeth the body; it turneth his purposes into anger and war, and stirreth up unto blood, 
and leadeth the mind into frenzy, and suffereth not prudence to act in men: moreover, it 
taketh away sleep, and causeth tumult to the soul and trembling to the body. For even in 
sleep some malicious jealousy, deluding him, gnaweth at his soul, and with wicked spirits 
disturbeth it, and causeth the body to be troubled, and the mind to awake from sleep in 
confusion; and as though having a wicked and poisonous spirit, so appeareth it to men. 

5. Therefore was Joseph fair in appearance, and goodly to look upon, because there 
dwelt not in him any wickedness; for in trouble of the spirit the face declareth it. And now, 
my children, make your hearts good before the Lord, and your ways straight before men, 
and ye shall find grace before God and men. And take heed not to commit fornication, for 
fornication is mother of all evils, separating from God, and bringing near to Beliar. For I 
have seen it inscribed in the writing of Enoch that your sons shall with you be corrupted 
in fornication, and shall do wrong against Levi with the sword. But they shall not prevail 
against Levi, for he shall wage the war of the Lord, and shall conquer all your hosts; and 

ri 

there shall be a few divided in Levi and Judah, and there shall be none of you for sover- 
eignty, even as also my father Jacob prophesied in his blessings. 

6. Behold, I have foretold you all things, that I may be clear from the sin of your souls. 
Now, if ye remove from you your envy, and all your stiffneckedness, as a rose shall my bones 
flourish in Israel, and as a lily my flesh in Jacob, and my odour shall be as the odour of 
Libanus; and as cedars shall holy ones be multiplied from me for ever, and their branches 


52 [See Speaker’s Com., N.T., vol. iv. p. 387, ed. Scribners.] 

53 The Cam. ms. seems wrongly to omit the negative here. The reference is doubtless to Gen. xlix. 7. 


20 


The Testament of Simeon Concerning Envy. 


shall stretch afar off. Then shall perish the seed of Canaan, and a remnant shall not be to 
Amalek, and all the Cappadocians 54 shall perish, and all the Hittites 55 shall be utterly des- 
troyed. Then shall fail the land of Ham, and every people shall perish. Then shall all the 
earth rest from trouble, and all the world under heaven from war. Then shall Shem be 
glorified, because the Lord God, the Mighty One of Israel, shall appear upon earth as man, 56 

rn 

and saved by Him Adam. Then shall all the spirits of deceit be given to be trampled under 
foot, and men shall rule over the wicked spirits. Then will I arise in joy, and will bless the 
Most High because of His marvellous works, because God hath taken a body and eaten with 
men and saved men. 

r o 

7. And now, my children, obey Levi, and in Judah shall ye be redeemed: and be not 

lifted up against these two tribes, for from them shall arise to you the salvation of God. For 
the Lord shall raise up from Levi as it were a Priest, 59 and from Judah as it were a King, God 
and man. 60 So shall He save all the Gentiles and the race of Israel. Therefore I command 
you all things, in order that ye also may command your children, that they may observe 
them throughout their generations. 

8. And Simeon made an end of commanding his sons, and slept with his fathers, being 
an hundred and twenty years old. And they laid him in a coffin of incorruptible wood, to 
take up his bones to Hebron. And they carried them up in a war of the Egyptians secretly: 
for the bones of Joseph the Egyptians guarded in the treasure-house of the palace; for the 
sorcerers told them that at the departure of the bones of Joseph there should be throughout 
the whole of Egypt darkness and gloom, and an exceeding great plague to the Egyptians, so 
that even with a lamp a man should not recognise his brother. 

9. And the sons of Simeon bewailed their father according to the law of mourning, and 
they were in Egypt until the day of their departure from Egypt by the hand of Moses. 


54 The reference seems to be to the Philistines. Cf. Deut. ii. 23; Amos ix. 7, where the LXX. reads KannaSoKia. 

55 [For modern views of these, see Encyc. Brit., s.v. “Hittites.”] 

56 [Two of the many passages that leave no room for Lardner’s imaginary “Unitarianism” in this author.] 

57 The construction here is awkward of the participles after on: possibly a clause may have dropped out after 
’A5ap. 

58 [See p. 10, note 5, supra.] 

59 John the Baptist. His greatness is declared by Christ Himself.] 

60 [Two of the many passages that leave no room for Lardner’s imaginary “Unitarianism” in this author.] 

21 


The Testament of Levi Concerning the Priesthood and Arrogance. 


III. — The Testament of Levi Concerning the Priesthood and Arrogance. 

1. The copy of the words of Levi, what things he appointed to his sons, according to all 
that they should do, and what things should befall them until the day of judgment. He was 
in sound health when he called them to him, for it had been shown to him that he should 
die. And when they were gathered together he said to them: — 

2. I Levi was conceived in Haran and born there, and after that I came with my father 
to Shechem. And I was young, about twenty years of age, when with Simeon I wrought the 
vengeance on Hamor for our sister Dinah. And when we were feeding our flocks in Abel- 
Maul, a spirit of understanding of the Lord came upon me, 61 and I saw all men corrupting 
their way, and that unrighteousness had built to itself walls, and iniquity sat upon towers; 
and I grieved for the race of men, and I prayed to the Lord that I might be saved. Then there 
fell upon me a sleep, and I beheld a high mountain: this is the mountain of Aspis in Abel- 
Maul. And behold, the heavens were opened, and an angel of God said to me, Levi, enter. 
And I entered from the first heaven into the second, and I saw there water hanging between 
the one and the other. And I saw a third heaven far brighter than those two, for there was 
in it a height without bounds. And I said to the angel, Wherefore is this? And the angel 
said to me, Marvel not at these, for thou shalt see four other heavens brighter than these, 
and without comparison, when thou shalt have ascended thither: because thou shalt stand 
near the Lord, and shalt be His minister, and shall declare His mysteries to men, and shalt 

zro 

proclaim concerning Him who shall redeem Israel; and by thee and Judah shall the Lord 
appear among men, saving in them every race of men; and of the portion of the Lord shall 
be thy life, and He shall be thy field and vineyard, fruits, gold, silver. 

3. Hear, then, concerning the seven 64 heavens. The lowest is for this cause more gloomy, 
in that it is near all the iniquities of men. The second hath fire, snow, ice, ready for the day 
of the ordinance of the Lord, in the righteous judgment of God: in it are all the spirits of 
the retributions for vengeance on the wicked. In the third are the hosts of the armies which 
are ordained for the day of judgment, to work vengeance on the spirits of deceit and of 
Beliar. And the heavens up to the fourth above these are holy, for in the highest of all 
dwelleth the Great Glory, in the holy of holies, far above all holiness. In the heaven next to 
it are the angels of the presence of the Lord, who minister and make propitiation to the Lord 
for all the ignorances of the righteous; and they offer to the Lord a reasonable sweet-smelling 


61 [Isa. xi. 2.] 

62 See below, c. 6. 

63 Cf. Luke xxiv. 21. 

64 For the Jewish idea of seven heavens, cf. Clement of Alexandra, Strom., iv. 7; and Wetstein’s note on 2 Cor. 
xii. 2; [also vol. vii. note 11, this series; and vol. ii. note 7, p. 438, this series]. 


22 


The Testament of Levi Concerning the Priesthood and Arrogance. 


savour, and a bloodless offering. And in the heaven below this are the angels who bear the 
answers to the angels of the presence of the Lord. And in the heaven next to this are thrones, 
dominions, in which hymns are ever offered to God. Therefore, whenever the Lord looketh 
upon us, all of us are shaken; yea, the heavens, and the earth, and the abysses, are shaken at 
the presence of His majesty; but the sons of men, regarding not these things, sin, and provoke 
the Most High. 

4. Now, therefore, know that the Lord will execute judgment upon the sons of men; 
because when the rocks are rent, 65 and the sun quenched, and the waters dried up, and the 
fire trembling, and all creation troubled, and the invisible spirits melting away, and the 
grave spoiled in the suffering of the Most High, men unbelieving will abide in their 
iniquity, therefore with punishment shall they be judged. Therefore the Most High hath 
heard thy prayer, to separate thee from iniquity, and that thou shouldest become to Him a 
son, and a servant, and a minister of His presence. A shining light of knowledge shalt thou 
shine in Jacob, and as the sun shalt thou be to all the seed of Israel. And a blessing shall be 
given to thee, and to all thy seed, until the Lord shall visit all the heathen in the tender 
mercies of His Son, even for ever. Nevertheless thy sons shall lay hands upon Him to crucify 
Him; and therefore have counsel and understanding been given thee, that thou mightest 
instruct thy sons concerning Him, because he that blesseth Him shall be blessed, but they 
that curse Him shall perish. 

5. And the angel opened to me the gates of heaven, and I saw the holy temple, and the 
Most High upon a throne of glory. And He said to me, Levi, I have given thee the blessings 
of the priesthood until that I shall come and sojourn in the midst of Israel. Then the angel 
brought me to the earth, and gave me a shield and a sword, and said, Work vengeance on 
Shechem because of Dinah, and I will be with thee, because the Lord hath sent me. And I 

/TO 

destroyed at that time the sons of Hamor, as it is written in the heavenly tablets. And I 
said to Him, I pray Thee, O Lord, tell me Thy name, that I may call upon Thee in a day of 
tribulation. And He said, I am the angel who intercedeth for the race of Israel, that He smite 


65 [Matt, xxvii. 51-53.] 

66 [Hades, rather.] 

67 [sTtx Tto Ttd0£i rou 'Yvjnaou. Compare Tatian, vol. ii. p. 71, this series.] 

68 This document, the idea of which is that of a book containing what is fore-ordained in heaven as to the 
course of the future, is one often appealed to in Apocalyptic literature, when some oracular declaration of weighty 
import is needed. Thus, in the Book of Enoch, the angel Uriel tells Enoch that the tablets contain all wisdom, 
the dying Enoch tells his children that the tablets are the source of all understanding, etc. (see, e.g., cc. 81. 1; 93. 
2; 106. 19, ed. Dillmann). In the Book of Jubilees, again, it is said that inscribed on the tablets are, e.g., the 
punishment of the angels who sinned with mortal women, the plan of the division of weeks, the name of Abraham 
as the friend of God, etc. (cc. 5, 6, 19). See also Test. Asher , 2, 7, infra. 


23 


The Testament of Levi Concerning the Priesthood and Arrogance. 


them not utterly, because every evil spirit attacketh it. And after these things I was as it were 
awaked, and blessed the Most High, and the angel that intercedeth for the race of Israel, and 
for all the righteous. 69 

6. And when I came to my father I found a brazen shield; wherefore also the name 

of the mountain is Aspis, which is near Gebal, on the right side of Abila; and I kept these 

words in my heart. I took counsel with my father, and with Reuben my brother, that he 

should bid the sons of Hamor that they should be circumcised; for I was jealous because of 

the abomination which they had wrought in Israel. And I slew Shechem at the first, and 

Simeon slew Hamor. And after this our brethren came and smote the city with the edge of 

the sword; and our father heard it and was wroth, and he was grieved in that they had received 

the circumcision, and after that had been put to death, and in his blessings he dealt otherwise 

with us. For we sinned because we had done this thing against his will, and he was sick upon 

that day. But I knew that the sentence of God was for evil upon Shechem; for they sought 

to do to Sarah as they did to Dinah our sister, and the Lord hindered them. And so they 

persecuted Abraham our father when he was a stranger, and they harried his flocks when 

they were multiplied upon him; and Jeblae his servant, born in his house, they shamefully 

handled. And thus they did to all strangers, taking away their wives by force, and the men 

themselves driving into exile. But the wrath of the Lord came suddenly upon them to the 
71 

uttermost. 

7. And I said to my father, Be not angry, sir, because by thee will the Lord bring to 
nought the Canaanites, and will give their land to thee, and to thy seed after thee. For from 
this day forward shall Shechem be called a city of them that are without understanding; for 
as a man mocketh at a fool, so did we mock them, because they wrought folly in Israel to 
defile our sister. And we took our sister from thence, and departed, and came to Bethel. 

8. And there I saw a thing again even as the former, after we had passed seventy days. 
And I saw seven men in white raiment saying to me, Arise, put on the robe of the priesthood, 
and the crown of righteousness, and the breastplate of understanding, and the garment of 
truth, and the diadem of faith, and the tiara of miracle, and the ephod of prophecy. And 



69 [Gen. xlviii. 16. The Jehovah-Angel.] 

70 dairiq. The Latin version gives the other meaning to dairiq here, of asp or viper. The epithet xocA.Kfjv, 
however, renders “shield” much more probable, as there seems nothing in the context pointing to the “brazen 
serpent.” 

71 A quotation from 1 Thess. ii. 16, where the context also is similar to the present. [See Lardner’s refutation 
of the learned Grabe on this quotation, vol. ii. p. 359.] 

72 With the whole of this passage we may compare the description of the vestments of Aaron. See especially 
Ex. xxix. 5, 6 (LXX.). The iteraAov is the translation of the plate of gold on the forehead of the high priest 


24 


The Testament of Levi Concerning the Priesthood and Arrogance. 


each one of them bearing each of these things put them on me, and said, From henceforth 
become a priest of the Lord, thou and thy seed for ever. And the first anointed me with 
holy oil, and gave to me the rod of judgment. The second washed me with pure water, and 

H'l 

fed me with bread and wine, the most holy things, and clad me with a holy and glorious 
robe. The third clothed me with a linen vestment like to an ephod. The fourth put round 
me a girdle like unto purple. The fifth gave to me a branch of rich olive. The sixth placed 
a crown on my head. The seventh placed on my head a diadem of priesthood, and filled 
my hands with incense, so that I served as a priest to the Lord. And they said to me, Levi, 
thy seed shall be divided into three branches, 74 for a sign of the glory of the Lord who is to 
come; and first shall he be that hath been faithful; no portion shall be greater than his. The 
second shall be in the priesthood. The third — a new name shall be called over Him, because 
He shall arise as King from Judah, and shall establish a new priesthood, after the fashion of 

nr n/r 

the Gentiles, to all the Gentiles. And His appearing shall be unutterable, as of an exalted 
prophet of the seed of Abraham our father. Every desirable thing in Israel shall be for thee 
and for thy seed, and everything fair to look upon shall ye eat, and the table of the Lord shall 
thy seed apportion, and some of them shall be high priests, and judges, and scribes; for by 
their mouth shall the holy place be guarded. And when I awoke, I understood that this 
thing was like unto the former. And I hid this also in my heart, and told it not to any man 
upon the earth. 

9. And after two days I and Judah went up to Isaac after our father; and the father of 
my father blessed me according to all the words of the visions which I had seen: and he 
would not come with us to Bethel. And when we came to Bethel, my father Jacob saw in a 
vision concerning me, that I should be to them for a priest unto the Lord; and he rose up 
early in the morning, and paid tithes of all to the Lord through me. And we came to Hebron 
to dwell there, and Isaac called me continually to put me in remembrance of the law of the 
Lord, even as the angel of God showed to me. And he taught me the law of the priesthood, 
of sacrifices, whole burnt- offerings, first-fruits, free-will offerings, thank-offerings. And 


over the mitre. The Aoylov, or AoyeTov, is the breastplate, with the Urim and Thummim. For the Tto5rjpr|<;, see 
Ex. xxviii. 27 (LXX.). 

73 On the possible reference here to the elements of the Eucharist, see Grabe’s note, Spicilegium, in loc. 

74 Nitzsch (p. 19, n. 37) explains this division into three dpxocl, as referring to the three orders of the Christian 
priesthood. This, however, seems improbable. Cf. Kayser, p. 119; Vorstman, p. 41. It is far more probable that 
the reference is to Moses, Aaron, and Christ. Thus with Ttioreuaai; we may compare Num. xii. 7. For this use 
of dpxtj, cf. Gen. ii. 10. [Isa. lxvi. 21.] 

75 [Rom. xvi. 15, 16, 17, Greek. Compare Heb. v. 1.] 

76 Or, if we follow the reading of Cd. Oxon., “Prophet of the Most High.” 

77 Or rather, with Cd. Oxon., “with our father.” 


25 


The Testament of Levi Concerning the Priesthood and Arrogance. 


each day he was instructing me, and was busied for me before the Lord. And he said to me, 
Take heed, my child, of the spirit of fornication; for this shall continue, and shall by thy seed 
pollute the holy things. Take therefore to thyself, while yet thou art young, a wife, not having 
blemish, nor yet polluted, nor of the race of the Philistines or Gentiles. And before entering 

no 

into the holy place, bathe; and when thou offerest the sacrifice, wash; and again when thou 
finishest the sacrifice, wash. Of twelve trees ever having leaves, offer up the fruits to the 
Lord, as also Abraham taught me; and of every clean beast and clean bird offer a sacrifice 
to the Lord, and of every firstling and of wine offer first-fruits; and every sacrifice thou shalt 
salt with salt. 79 

10. Now, therefore, observe whatsoever I command you, children; for whatsoever things 
I have heard from my fathers I have made known to you. I am clear from all your ungodliness 
and transgression which ye will do in the end of the ages against the Saviour of the world, 

on 

acting ungodly, deceiving Israel, and raising up against it great evils from the Lord. And 
ye will deal lawlessly with Israel, so that Jerusalem shall not endure your wickedness; but 
the veil of the temple shall be rent, so as not to cover your shame. And ye shall be scattered 
as captives among the heathen, and shall be for a reproach and for a curse, and for a 
trampling under foot. For the house which the Lord shall choose shall be called Jerusalem, 

o l 

as is contained in the book of Enoch the righteous. 

11. Therefore, when I took a wife I was twenty-eight years old, and her name was 
Melcha. And she conceived and bare a son, and she called his name Gersham, for we were 
sojourners in our land: for Gersham is interpreted sojourning. And I saw concerning him 
that he would not be in the first rank. And Kohath was born in my thirty- fifth year, towards 
the east. And I saw in a vision that he was standing on high in the midst of all the congreg- 
ation. Therefore I called his name Kohath, which meaneth, beginning of majesty and in- 
struction. And thirdly, she bare to me Merari, in the fortieth year of my life; and since his 
mother bare him with difficulty, she called him Merari, which meaneth my bitterness, because 
he also died. And Jochebed was born in my sixty-fourth year, in Egypt, for I was renowned 
then in the midst of my brethren. 


78 We constantly find Peter, in the Clementine Homilies and Recognitions, combining with the Agapae the 
practice of bathing. Cf., e.g., Recog., iv. 3, v. 36. 

79 Cf. Horn., xiv. 1. [Lev. ii. 13; Mark ix. 49.] 

80 [Annas and Caiaphas. Johnxix.il.] 

81 This document is frequently quoted in the Testaments: cf. Sim. 5; Levi 14, 16; Judah 18; Dan 5; Naph. 4; 
Benj. 9. Most of these citations, however, are not to be found in the work as it has come down to us. We must 
therefore either assume the reference to some other books of Enoch not now extant, or rather perhaps that they 
are general appeals to the spirit of the book, regarded as a great fount of prophecy. 


26 


The Testament of Levi Concerning the Priesthood and Arrogance. 


12. And Gersham took a wife, and she bare to him Lomni and Semei. And the sons of 
Kohath, Ambram, Isaar, Chebro, and Ozel. And the sons of Merari, Mooli and Homusi. 
And in my ninety-fourth year Ambram took Jochebed my daughter to him to wife, for they 
were born in one day, he and my daughter. Eight years old was I when I went into the land 
of Canaan, and eighteen years when I slew Shechem, and at nineteen years I became priest, 
and at twenty-eight years I took a wife, and at forty years I went into Egypt. And behold, 
ye are my children, my children even of a third generation. In my hundred and eighteenth 
year Joseph died. 

13. And now, my children, I command you that ye fear our Lord with your whole heart, 

on 

and walk in simplicity according to all His law. And do ye also teach your children 
learning, that they may have understanding in all their life, reading unceasingly the law of 
God; for every one who shall know the law of God shall be honoured, and shall not be a 
stranger wheresoever he goeth. Yea, many friends shall he gain more than his forefathers; 
and many men shall desire to serve him, and to hear the law from his mouth. Work right- 
eousness, my children, upon the earth, that ye may find treasure in the heavens, and sow 
good things in your souls, that ye may find them in your life. For if ye sow evil things, ye 
shall reap all trouble and affliction. Get wisdom in the fear of God with diligence; for though 
there shall be a leading into captivity, and cities be destroyed, and lands and gold and silver 
and every possession shall perish, the wisdom of the wise none can take away, save the 
blindness of ungodliness and the palsy of sin: for even among his enemies shall it be to him 
glorious, and in a strange country a home, and in the midst of foes shall it be found a friend. 
If a man teach these things and do them, he shall be enthroned with kings, as was also Joseph 
our brother. 

14. And now, my children, I have learnt from the writing of Enoch that at the last ye 
will deal ungodly, laying your hands upon the Lord in all malice; and your brethren shall 
be ashamed because of you, and to all the Gentiles shall it become a mocking. For our 
father Israel shall be pure from the ungodliness of the chief priests who shall lay their hands 
upon the Saviour of the world. Pure is the heaven above the earth, and ye are the lights of 
the heaven as the sun and the moon. What shall all the Gentiles do if ye be darkened in 
ungodliness? So shall ye bring a curse upon our race for whom came the light of the world, 

on 

which was given among you for the lighting up of every man. Him will ye desire to slay, 

teaching commandments contrary to the ordinances of God. The offerings of the Lord will 
ye rob, and from His portion will ye steal; and before ye sacrifice to the Lord, ye will take 


82 Read aurou with Cd. Oxon. 

83 [John i. 4-9; viii. 12; ix. 5, etc.] 


27 


The Testament of Levi Concerning the Priesthood and Arrogance. 


OA 

the choicest parts, in despitefulness eating them with harlots. Amid excesses will ye teach 
the commandments of the Lord, the women that have husbands will ye pollute, and the 
virgins of Jerusalem will ye defile; and with harlots and adulteresses will ye be joined. The 
daughters of the Gentiles will ye take for wives, purifying them with an unlawful purification; 
and your union shall be like unto Sodom and Gomorrah in ungodliness. And ye will be 
puffed up because of the priesthood lifting yourselves up against men. And not only so, but 
being puffed up also against the commands of God, ye will scoff at the holy things, mocking 
in despitefulness. 

15. Therefore the temple which the Lord shall choose shall be desolate in uncleanness, 
and ye shall be captives throughout all nations, and ye shall be an abomination among them, 
and ye shall receive reproach and everlasting shame from the righteous judgment of God; 
and all who see you shall flee from you. And were it not for Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob our 
fathers, not one from my seed should be left upon the earth. 

16. And now I have learnt in the book of Enoch that for seventy weeks will ye go astray, 
and will profane the priesthood, and pollute the sacrifices, and corrupt the law, and set at 
nought the words of the prophets. In perverseness ye will persecute righteous men, and 
hate the godly; the words of the faithful will ye abhor, and the man who reneweth the law 

o r 

in the power of the Most High will ye call a deceiver; and at last, as ye suppose, ye will slay 
Him, not understanding His resurrection, wickedly taking upon your own heads the innocent 

Q/r 

blood. Because of Him shall your holy places be desolate, polluted even to the ground, 
and ye shall have no place that is clean; but ye shall be among the Gentiles a curse and a 
dispersion, until He shall again look upon you, and in pity shall take you to Himself through 

on 

faith and water. 

17. And because ye have heard concerning the seventy weeks, hear also concerning the 
priesthood; for in each jubilee there shall be a priesthood. In the first jubilee, the first who 
is anointed into the priesthood shall be great, and shall speak to God as to a Father; and his 
priesthood shall be filled with the fear of the Lord, and in the day of his gladness shall he 
arise for the salvation of the world. In the second jubilee, he that is anointed shall be con- 
ceived in the sorrow of beloved ones; and his priesthood shall be honoured, and shall be 
glorified among all. And the third priest shall be held fast in sorrow; and the fourth shall 
be in grief, because unrighteousness shall be laid upon him exceedingly, and all Israel shall 


84 The word TtAeov^ia, like the English “excess,” has not unfrequently special reference to sins of sensuality. 
Cf. 1 Cor. v. 11; Eph. iv. 19; v. 3, 5; Col. iii. 5; 1 Thess. iv. 6, the context in all of which passages points strongly 
to this conclusion. See Suicer’s Thesaurus, s.v. 

85 Cf. Matt, xxvii. 63, where eKetvoq 6 TtMvoq is said of our Lord. 

86 [Matt, xxvii. 25.] 

87 [John iii. 5; Isa. xii. 3; 1 Pet. iii. 20.] 


28 


The Testament of Levi Concerning the Priesthood and Arrogance. 


hate each one his neighbour. The fifth shall be held fast in darkness, likewise also the sixth 
and the seventh. And in the seventh there shall be such pollution as I am not able to express, 
before the Lord and men, for they shall know it who do these things. Therefore shall they 
be in captivity and for a prey, and their land and their substance shall be destroyed. And 
in the fifth week they shall return into their desolate country, and shall renew the house of 
the Lord. And in the seventh week shall come the priests, worshippers of idols, contentious, 
lovers of money, proud, lawless, lascivious, abusers of children and beasts. 

18. And after their punishment shall have come from the Lord, then will the Lord raise 
up to the priesthood a new Priest, to whom all the words of the Lord shall be revealed; and 

QQ 

He shall execute a judgment of truth upon the earth, in the fulness of days. And His star 
shall arise in heaven, as a king shedding forth the light of knowledge in the sunshine of 
day, and He shall be magnified in the world until His ascension. He shall shine forth as the 
sun in the earth, and shall drive away all darkness from the world under heaven, and there 
shall be peace in all the earth. The heavens shall rejoice in His days, and the earth shall be 
glad, and the clouds shall be joyful, and the knowledge of the Lord shall be poured forth 
upon the earth, as the water of seas; and the angels of the glory of the presence of the Lord 
shall be glad in Him. The heavens shall be opened, and from the temple of glory shall the 
sanctification come upon Him with the Father’s voice, as from Abraham the father of Isaac. 
And the glory of the Most High shall be uttered over Him, and the spirit of understanding 
and of sanctification shall rest upon Him in the water. He shall give the majesty of the Lord 
to His sons in truth for evermore; and there shall none succeed Him for all generations, 
even for ever. 90 And in His priesthood shall all sin come to an end, and the lawless shall 
rest from evil, and the just shall rest in Him. And He shall open the gates of paradise, and 
shall remove 91 the threatening sword against Adam; and He shall give to His saints to eat 
from the tree of life, and the spirit of holiness shall be on them. And Beliar shall be bound 


88 [Jer. xxxiii. 15.] 

89 [Matt. ii. 2. Constant references to the Gospels proofs of text.] 

90 An additional clause occurs here in Cd. Oxon., which generally has a tendency to omit; the copyist of Cd. 
Cam. having possibly looked on to the same initial words in the next clause: “And in His priesthood shall the 
Gentiles be multiplied in knowledge on the earth and shall be enlightened through the grace of the Lord; but 
Israel shall be minished in ignorance, and be darkened in sorrow.” 

91 The reading of Cd. Oxon. here, dTTOarfjaei, is to be preferred to Cd. Cam., arrjaet. Grosseteste’s Latin 
version, in all probability made from the latter, has stare faciet. [See p. 7, note 1, supra.] 

92 [Rev. ii. 7.] 


29 


The Testament of Levi Concerning the Priesthood and Arrogance. 


go 

by Him, and He shall give power to His children to tread upon the evil spirits. And the 
Lord shall rejoice in His children, and the Lord shall be well pleased in His beloved for ever. 
Then shall Abraham and Isaac and Jacob be joyful, and I will be glad, and all the saints shall 
put on gladness. 

19. And now, my children, ye have heard all; choose therefore for yourselves either the 
darkness or the light, either the law of the Lord or the works of Beliar. And we answered 
our father, saying, Before the Lord will we walk according to His law. And our father said, 
The Lord is witness, and His angels are witnesses, and I am witness, and ye are witnesses, 
concerning the word of your mouth. And we said, We are witnesses. And thus Levi ceased 
giving charge to his sons; and he stretched out his feet, and was gathered to his fathers, after 
he had lived a hundred and thirty- seven years. And they laid him in a coffin, and afterwards 
they buried him in Hebron, by the side of Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob. 


93 [Luke x. 18, 19.] 


30 


The Testament of Judah Concerning Fortitude, and Love of Money, and For... 


IV. — The Testament of Judah Concerning Fortitude, and Love of 

Money, and Fornication. 

1. The copy of the words of Judah, what things he spake to his sons before he died. 
They gathered themselves together, and came to him, and he said to them: I was the fourth 
son born to my father, and my mother called me Judah, saying, I give thanks to the Lord, 
because He hath given to me even a fourth son. 94 I was swift and active in my youth, and 
obedient to my father in everything. And I honoured my mother and my mother’s sister. 
And it came to pass, when I became a man, that my father Jacob prayed over me, saying, 
Thou shalt be a king, and prosperous in all things. 

2. And the Lord showed me favour in all my works both in the field and at home. When 
I saw that I could run with the hind, then I caught it, and prepared meat for my father. I 
seized upon the roes in the chase, and all that was in the plains I outran. A wild mare I 
outran, and I caught it and tamed it; and I slew a lion, and plucked a kid out of its mouth. 

I took a bear by its paw, and rolled it over a cliff; and if any beast turned upon me, I rent it 
like a dog. I encountered the wild boar, and overtaking it in the chase, I tore it. A leopard 
in Hebron leaped upon the dog, and I caught it by the tail, and flung it from me, and it was 
dashed to pieces in the coasts of Gaza. A wild ox feeding in the field I seized by the horns; 
and whirling it round and stunning it, I cast it from me, and slew it. 

3. And when the two kings of the Canaanites came in warlike array against our flocks, 
and much people with them, I by myself rushed upon King Sur and seized him; and I beat 
him upon the legs, and dragged him down, and so I slew him. And the other king, Taphue, 95 
I slew as he sat upon his horse, and so I scattered all the people. Achor the king, a man of 
giant stature, hurling darts before and behind as he sat on horseback, I slew; for I hurled a 
stone of sixty pounds weight, and cast it upon his horse, and killed him. And I fought with 
Achor for two hours, and I killed him; and I clave his shield into two parts, and I chopped 
off his feet. And as I stripped off his breastplate, behold, eight men his companions began 
to fight with me. I wound round therefore my garment in my hand; and I slang stones at 
them, and killed four of them, and the rest fled. And Jacob my father slew Beelisa, king of 
all the kings, a giant in strength, twelve cubits high; and fear fell upon them, and they ceased 
from making war with us. Therefore my father had no care in the wars when I was among 
my brethren. For he saw in a vision concerning me, that an angel of might followed me 
everywhere, that I should not be overcome. 


94 Gen. xxix. 35. [The name = "Praise". So Gen. xlix. 3.] 

95 In c. 5 we find this name, with a slight variety of spelling, as that of a place over which this king may have 
ruled. It is doubtless equivalent to the Hebrew Tappuah, a name of several cities mentioned in the Old Testament. 
See Josh. xv. 34; xvi. 8; xvii. 8; 1 Chron. ii. 43. Cf. Thapha, Jubilees, 34. 


31 


The Testament of Judah Concerning Fortitude, and Love of Money, and For... 


4. And in the south there befell us a greater war than that in Shechem; and I joined in 
battle array with my brethren, and pursued a thousand men, and slew of them two hundred 
men and four kings. And I went up against them upon the wall, and two other kings I slew; 
and so we freed Hebron, and took all the captives of the kings. 

5. On the next day we departed to Areta, 96 a city strong and walled and inaccessible, 
threatening us with death. Therefore I and Gad approached on the east side of the city, and 
Reuben and Levi on the west and south. And they that were upon the wall, thinking that 
we were alone, charged down upon us; and so our brethren secretly climbed up the wall on 
both sides by ladders, and entered into the city, while the men knew it not. And we took it 
with the edge of the sword; and those who had taken refuge in the tower, — we set fire to the 
tower, and took both it and them. And as we were departing the men of Thaffu set upon 
our captives, and we took it with our sons, and fought with them even to Thaffu; and we 
slew them, and burnt their city, and spoiled all the things that were therein. 

6. And when I was at the waters of Chuzeba, the men of Jobel came against us to 
battle, and we fought with them; and their allies from Selom we slew, and we allowed them 
no means of escaping, and of coming against us. And the men of Machir" came upon us 
on the fifth day, to carry away our captives; and we attacked them, and overcame them in 
fierce battle: for they were a host and mighty in themselves, and we slew them before they 
had gone up the ascent of the hill. And when we came to their city, their women rolled 
upon us stones from the brow of the hill on which the city stood. And I and Simeon hid 
ourselves behind the town, and seized upon the heights, and utterly destroyed the whole 
city. 

7. And the next day it was told us that the cities 100 of the two kings with a great host 
were coming against us. I therefore and Dan feigned ourselves to be Amorites, and went 
as allies into their city. And in the depth of night our brethren came, and we opened to 
them the gates; and we destroyed all the men and their substance, and we took for a prey 
all that was theirs, and their three walls we cast down. And we drew near to Thamna, 101 

96 Cd. Oxon. reads erepav; but cf. Aresa, Jubilees, 34. 

97 Cf. c. 12; also Chezib (Gen. xxxviii. 5), Chozeba (1 Chron. iv. 22), and Achzib (Josh. xv. 44; Mic. i. 14), all 
of which are probably different names for the same place, and all connected with Judah. 

98 Cf. Selo , Jubilees, l.c. 

99 Cf. 1 Chron. xi. 36. [Here the translator supplies a note of doubt — an interrogation-point.] 

100 Cd. Oxon. reads Taac; tcoAic; [laaiAiwv. Cf. Josh. xxiv. 30; Judg. ii. 9; 2 Sam. xxiii. 30. Cf. also “Gaiz,” Ju- 
bilees, l.c. 

101 The Timnah of the Old Testament, which name is, however, borne by several places. Most probably it 
is the Timnah near Bethshemesh, on the north frontier of Judah, in the neighbourhood, that is, of many of the 
other localities mentioned in the Testaments. This may be the same as the Timnathah on the Danite frontier 
(Josh. xix. 43), and with the Timnathah where Samson’s wife dwelt (Judg. xiv. 1 sqq ). The geographical position 

32 


The Testament of Judah Concerning Fortitude, and Love of Money, and For... 


where was all the refuge of the hostile kings. Then having received hurt I was wroth, and 
charged upon them to the brow of the hill; and they slang at me with stones and darts; and 
had not Dan my brother aided me, they would have been able to slay me. We came upon 
them therefore with wrath, and they all fled; and passing by another way, they besought my 
father, and he made peace with them, and we did to them no hurt, but made a truce with 
them, and restored to them all the captives. And I built Thamna, and my father built 
Rhambael. I was twenty years old when this war befell, and the Canaanites feared me 
and my brethren. 

8. Moreover, I had much cattle, and I had for the chief of my herdsmen Iran the 
Adullamite. And when I went to him I saw Barsan, king of Adullam, and he made us a feast; 
and he entreated me, and gave me his daughter Bathshua to wife. She bare me Er, and Onan, 
and Shelah; and the two of them the Lord smote that they died childless: for Shelah lived, 
and his children are ye. 

9. Eighteen years we abode at peace, our father and we, with his brother Esau, and his 
sons with us, after that we came from Mesopotamia, from Laban. And when eighteen years 
were fulfilled, in the fortieth year of my life, Esau, the brother of my father, came upon us 
with much people and strong; and he fell by the bow of Jacob, and was taken up dead in 
Mount Seir: even as he went above Iramna 104 was he slain. And we pursued after the sons 
of Esau. Now they had a city with walls of iron and gates of brass; and we could not enter 
into it, and we encamped around, and besieged them. And when they opened not to us 
after twenty days, I set up a ladder in the sight of all, and with my shield upon my head I 
climbed up, assailed with stones of three talents’ weight; and I climbed up, and slew four 
who were mighty among them. And the next day Reuben and Gad entered in and slew sixty 
others. Then they asked from us terms of peace; and being aware of our father’s purpose, 
we received them as tributaries. And they gave us two hundred cors of wheat, five hundred 
baths of oil, fifteen hundred measures of wine, until we went down into Egypt. 

10. After these things, my son Er took to wife Tamar, from Mesopotamia, a daughter 
of Aram. 105 Now Er was wicked, and he doubted concerning Tamar, because she was not 
of the land of Canaan. And on the third day an angel of the Lord smote him in the night, 


of Timnath-serah is against the allusion being to it here. Cf., however, Jubilees, c. 34, where Thamnathares is 
one of the hostile towns. 

102 Cf. Robel, Jubilees, l.c. 

103 Cf. Gen. xxxviii. 1. 

104 Cd. Oxon. ev ’Avovipdp, probably per incuriam scribce, for emtvw ’Ipap 

105 This seems to arise from the wish to disconnect Israel as far as possible from non-Shemite associations. 
Cf. the Targum of Onkelos on Gen. xxxviii. 6. “Judah took a wife for Er, his first-born, a daughter of the great 
Shem, whose name was Tamar.” 


33 


The Testament of Judah Concerning Fortitude, and Love of Money, and For... 


and he had not known her, according to the evil craftiness of his mother, for he did not wish 
to have children from her. In the days of the wedding-feast I espoused Onan to her; and he 
also in wickedness knew her not, though he lived with her a year. And when I threatened 
him, he lay with her, 106 . . .according to the command of his mother, and he also died in his 
wickedness. And I wished to give Shelah also to her, but my wife Bathshua suffered it not; 
for she bore a spite against Tamar, because she was not of the daughters of Canaan, as she 
herself was. 

11. And I knew that the race of Canaan was wicked, but the thoughts of youth blinded 
my heart. And when I saw her pouring out wine, in the drunkenness of wine was I deceived, 
and I fell before her. And while I was away, she went and took for Shelah a wife from the 
land of Caanan. And when I knew what she had done, I cursed her in the anguish of my 
soul, and she also died in the wickedness of her sons. 

12. And after these things, while Tamar was a widow, she heard after two years that I 
was going up to shear my sheep; then she decked herself in bridal array, and sat over against 
the city by the gate. For it is a law of the Amorites, that she who is about to marry sit in 
fornication seven days by the gate. I therefore, being drunk at the waters of Chozeb, re- 
cognised her not by reason of wine; and her beauty deceived me, through the fashion of her 
adorning. And I turned aside to her, and said, I would enter in to thee. And she said to me, 
What wilt thou give me? And I gave her my staff, and my girdle, and my royal crown; and 
I lay with her, and she conceived. I then, not knowing what she had done, wished to slay 
her; but she privily sent my pledges, and put me to shame. And when I called her, I heard 
also the secret words which I spoke when lying with her in my drunkenness; and I could 
not slay her, because it was from the Lord. For I said, Lest haply she did it in subtlety, and 
received the pledge from another woman: but I came near her no more till my death, because 
I had done this abomination in all Israel. Moreover, they who were in the city said that 
there was no bride in the city, because she came from another place, and sat for awhile in 
the gate, and she thought that no one knew that I had gone in to her. And after this we 
came into Egypt to Joseph, because of the famine. Forty and six years old was I, and seventy 
and three years lived I there. 

13. And now, my children, in what things so ever I command you hearken to your 
father, and keep all my sayings to perform the ordinances of the Lord, and to obey the 
command of the Lord God. And walk not after your lusts, nor in the thoughts of your 
imaginations in the haughtiness of your heart; and glory not in the works of the strength of 
youth, for this also is evil in the eyes of the Lord. For since I also gloried that in wars the 


106 5i£<p0ape 5e to oiteppa £iti rr|v yr|v 

107 [Herod, i., cap. 199; Baruch vi. 43.] 

108 [To this section Lardner objects. But compare Gen. xxxviii. 12.] 


34 


The Testament of Judah Concerning Fortitude, and Love of Money, and For... 


face of no woman of goodly form ever deceived me, and upbraided Reuben my brother 
concerning Bilhah, the wife of my father, the spirits of jealousy and of fornication arrayed 
themselves within me, until I fell before Bathshua the Canaanite, and Tamar who was es- 
poused to my sons. And I said to my father-in-law, I will counsel with my father, and so 
will I take thy daughter. And he showed me a boundless store of gold in his daughter’s behalf, 
for he was a king. And he decked her with gold and pearls, and caused her to pour out wine 
for us at the feast in womanly beauty. And the wine led my eyes astray, and pleasure blinded 
my heart; and I loved her, and I fell, and transgressed the commandment of the Lord and 
the commandment of my fathers, and I took her to wife. And the Lord rewarded me accord- 
ing to the thought of my heart, insomuch that I had no joy in her children. 

14. And now, my children, be not drunk with wine; for wine turneth the mind away 
from the truth, and kindleth in it the passion of lust, and leadeth the eyes into error. For 
the spirit of fornication hath wine as a minister to give pleasures to the mind; for these two 
take away the power from a man. For if a man drink wine to drunkenness, he disturbeth 
his mind with filthy thoughts to fornication, and exciteth his body to carnal union; and if 
the cause of the desire be present, he worketh the sin, and is not ashamed. Such is wine, my 
children; for he who is drunken reverenceth no man. For, lo, it made me also to err, so that 
I was not ashamed of the multitude in the city, because before the eyes of all I turned aside 
unto Tamar, and I worked a great sin, and I uncovered the covering of the shame of my 
sons. After that I drank wine I reverenced not the commandment of God, and I took a 
woman of Canaan to wife. Wherefore, my children, he who drinketh wine needeth discretion; 
and herein is discretion in drinking wine, that a man should drink as long as he keepeth 
decency; but if he go beyond this bound, the spirit of deceit attacketh his mind and worketh 
his will; and it maketh the drunkard to talk filthily, and to transgress and not to be ashamed, 
but even to exult in his dishonour, accounting himself to do well. 

15. He that committeth fornication, and 109 uncovereth his nakedness, hath become 
the servant of fornication, and escapeth not 110 from the power thereof, even as I also was 
uncovered. For I gave my staff, that is, the stay of my tribe; and my girdle, that is, my power; 
and my diadem, that is, the glory of my kingdom. Then I repented for these things, and 
took no wine or flesh until my old age, nor did I behold any joy. And the angel of God 
showed me that for ever do women bear rule over king and beggar alike; and from the king 
they take away his glory, and from the valiant man his strength, and from the beggar even 
that little which is the stay of his poverty. 


109 Cd. Oxon. here reads the additional clause ijr|pioup£vo<; ouk ataSdvsrat tcai aSo^ov ouk alaxuverat. Kav 
yap ru; (3aaiA£uar|, Ttopveutov — perhaps omitted from Cd. Cant, through the homoeoteleuton. 

110 Cd. Oxon. omits the negative. The (laatAeta will then be that from which the man falls by his sin. 


35 



The Testament of Judah Concerning Fortitude, and Love of Money, and For... 


16. Observe therefore, my children, moderation in wine; for there are in it four evil 
spirits — of (1) lust, of (2) wrath, of (3) riot, of (4) filthy lucre. If ye drink wine in gladness, 
with shamefacedness, with the fear of God, ye shall live. For if ye drink not with shamefaced- 
ness, and the fear of God departeth from you, then cometh drunkenness, and shamelessness 
stealeth in. But 1 1 1 even if ye drink not at all, take heed lest ye sin in words of outrage, and 
fighting, and slander, and transgression of the commandments of God; so shall ye perish 
before your time. Moreover, wine revealeth the mysteries of God and men to aliens, even 
as I also revealed the commandments of God and the mysteries of Jacob my father to the 
Canaanitish Bathshua, to whom God forbade to declare them. And wine also is a cause of 
war and confusion. 

17. I charge you, therefore, my children, not to love money, nor to gaze upon the beauty 
of women; because for the sake of money and beauty I was led astray to Bathshua the 
Canaanite. For I know that because of these two things shall ye who are my race fall into 
wickedness; for even wise men among my sons shall they mar, and shall cause the kingdom 

119 

of Judah to be diminished, which the Lord gave me because of my obedience to my father. 

For I never disobeyed a word of Jacob my father, for all things whatsoever he commanded 
I did. And Abraham, the father of my father, blessed me that I should be king in Israel, and 
Isaac further blessed me in like manner. And I know that from me shall the kingdom be 
established. 

18. For I have read also in the books of Enoch the righteous what evils ye shall do in 
the last days. Take heed, therefore, my children, of fornication and the love of money; 
hearken to Judah your father, for these things do withdraw you from the law of God, and 
blind the understanding of the soul, and teach arrogance, and suffer not a man to have 
compassion upon his neighbour: they rob his soul of all goodness, and bind him in toils 
and troubles, and take away his sleep and devour his flesh, and hinder the sacrifices of God; 
and he remembereth not blessing, and he hearkeneth not to a prophet when he speaketh, 
and is vexed at the word of godliness. For one who serveth two passions contrary to the 
commandments of God cannot obey God, because they have blinded his soul, and he walketh 
in the day-time as in the night. 

19. My children, the love of money leadeth to idols; because, when led astray through 
money, men make mention of those who are no gods, and it causeth him who hath it to fall 
into madness. For the sake of money I lost my children, and but for the repentance of my 
flesh, and the humbling of my soul, and the prayers of Jacob my father, I should have died 
childless. But the God of my fathers, who is pitiful and merciful, pardoned me, because I 
did it in ignorance. For the prince of deceit blinded me, and I was ignorant as a man and 



111 Cd. Oxon. reads ri 5 e Aiyw; unS’ o Xixic; Tnvete, which seems much more suitable to the context. 

112 [1 Kings xi. 1, and ver. 11.] 

113 [Num. xv. 25 and Acts iii. 17.] 

36 


The Testament of Judah Concerning Fortitude, and Love of Money, and For... 


as flesh, being corrupted in sins; and I learnt my own weakness while thinking myself un- 
conquerable. 114 

20. 1 15 Learn therefore, my children, that two spirits wait upon man — the spirit of truth 
and the spirit of error; and in the midst is the spirit of the understanding of the mind, to 
which it belongeth to turn whithersoever it will. And the works of truth and the works of 
error are written upon the breast of men, and each one of them the Lord knoweth. And 
there is no time at which the works of men can be hid from Him; for on the bones of his 
breast hath he been written down before the Lord. And the spirit of truth testifieth all things, 
and accuseth all; and he who sinneth is burnt up by his own heart, and cannot raise his face 
unto the Judge. 

2 1 . And now, my children, love Levi, that ye may abide, and exalt not yourselves against 
him, lest ye be utterly destroyed. For to me the Lord gave the kingdom, and to him the 
priesthood, and He set the kingdom beneath the priesthood. To me He gave the things 
upon the earth; to him the things in the heavens. As the heaven is higher than the earth, so 
is the priesthood of God higher than the kingdom upon the earth. For the Lord chose him 
above thee, to draw near to Him, and to eat of His table and first-fruits, even the choice 
things of the sons of Israel, and thou shalt be to them as a sea. For as, on the sea, just and 
unjust are tossed about, some taken into captivity while others are enriched, so also shall 
every race of men be in thee, some are in jeopardy and taken captive, and others shall grow 
rich by means of plunder. For they who rule will be as great sea-monsters, swallowing up 
men like fishes: free sons and daughters do they enslave; houses, lands, flocks, money, will 
they plunder; and with the flesh of many will they wrongfully feed the ravens and the cranes; 
and they will go on further in evil, advancing on still in covetousness. And there shall be 
false prophets like tempests, and they shall persecute all righteous men. 

22. And the Lord shall bring upon them divisions one against another, and there shall 
be continual wars in Israel; and among men of other race shall my kingdom be brought to 
an end, until the salvation of Israel shall come, until the appearing of the God of righteous- 
ness, that Jacob and all the Gentiles may rest in peace. 116 And he shall guard the might of 
my kingdom for ever: for the Lord sware to me with an oath that the kingdom should 
never fail from me, and from my seed for all days, even for ever. 

23. Now I have much grief, my children, because of your lewdness, and witchcrafts, 
and idolatries, which ye will work against the kingdom, following them that have familiar 


114 [See cap. 13, p. 19, supra.] 

115 Cd. Oxon. omits the whole of this chapter. 

116 [Rom. xi. 26.] 


37 


The Testament of Judah Concerning Fortitude, and Love of Money, and For... 


117 IIS 

spirits; ye will make your daughters singing girls and harlots for divinations and 
demons of error, and ye will be mingled in the pollutions of the Gentiles: for which things’ 
sake the Lord shall bring upon you famine and pestilence, death and the sword, avenging 
siege, and dogs for the rending in pieces of enemies, and revilings of friends, destruction 
and blighting of eyes, children slaughtered, wives carried off, possessions plundered, temple 
of God in flames, your land desolated, your own selves enslaved among the Gentiles, and 
they shall make some of you eunuchs for their wives; and whenever ye will return to the 
Lord with humility of heart, repenting and walking in all the commandments of God, then 
will the Lord visit you in mercy and in love, bringing you from out of the bondage of your 
enemies. 

24. And after these things shall a Star arise to you from Jacob in peace, and a Man shall 
rise from my seed, like the Sun of righteousness, walking with the sons of men 1 19 in meekness 
and righteousness, and no sin shall be found in Him. And the heavens shall be opened 
above Him, to shed forth the blessing of the Spirit from the Holy Father; and He shall shed 
forth a spirit of grace upon you, and ye shall be unto Him sons in truth, and ye shall walk 
in His commandments, the first and the last. This is the Branch of God Most High, and 
this the Well-spring unto life for all flesh. Then shall the sceptre of my kingdom shine 
forth, and from your root shall arise a stem; and in it shall arise a rod of righteousness to 
the Gentiles, to judge and to save all that call upon the Lord. 

25. And after these things shall Abraham and Isaac and Jacob arise unto life, and I and 
my brethren will be chiefs, even your sceptre in Israel: Levi first, I the second, Joseph third, 
Benjamin fourth, Simeon fifth, Issachar sixth, and so all in order. And the Lord blessed 
Levi; the Angel of the Presence, me; the powers of glory, Simeon; the heaven, Reuben; 
the earth, Issachar; the sea, Zebulun; the mountains, Joseph; the tabernacle, Benjamin; the 
lights of heaven, Dan; the fatness of earth, Naphtali; the sun, Gad; the olive, Asher: and 
there shall be one people of the Lord, and one tongue; and there shall no more be a spirit 
of deceit of Beliar, for he shall be cast into the fire for ever. And they who have died in grief 
shall arise in joy, and they who have lived in poverty for the Lord’s sake shall be made rich, 
and they who have been in want shall be filled, and they who have been weak shall be made 
strong, and they who have been put to death for the Lord’s sake shall awake in life. And 


117 The reading of Cd. Oxon. is doubtless to be preferred, which joins KArjSoat Kai Salpoat TtAavr|<; to what 
precedes 

118 [Eccles. ii. 8; Ecclus. ix. 4.] 

119 [Prov. viii. 31.] 

120 Cd. Oxon. omits from here to end of c. 25. 

121 [Eph. iii. 10.] 

122 [2 Macc. vii. 9-36 and Eleb. xi. 35.] 


38 


The Testament of Judah Concerning Fortitude, and Love of Money, and For... 


the harts of Jacob shall run in joyfulness, and the eagles of Israel shall fly in gladness; but 
the ungodly shall lament, and sinners all weep, and all the people shall glorify the Lord for 
ever. 

26. Observe, therefore, my children, all the law of the Lord, for there is hope for all 
them who follow His way aright. And he said to them: I die before your eyes this day, a 
hundred and nineteen years old. Let no one bury me in costly apparel, nor tear open my 
bowels, for this shall they who are kings do: and carry me up to Hebron with you. And 
Judah, when he had said these things, fell asleep; and his sons did according to all whatsoever 
he commanded them, and they buried him in Hebron with his fathers. 


123 i.e., for the purpose of embalmment. 


39 



The Testament of Issachar Concerning Simplicity. 


V. — The Testament of Issachar Concerning Simplicity. 

1. The record of the words of Issachar. He called his sons, and said to them: Hearken, 
my children, to Issachar your father; give ear to my words, ye who are beloved of the Lord. 

I was the fifth son born to Jacob, even the hire of the mandrakes. 124 For Reuben 125 brought 
in mandrakes from the field, and Rachel met him and took them. And Reuben wept, and 
at his voice Leah my mother came forth. Now these mandrakes were sweet-smelling apples 
which the land of Aram produced on high ground below a ravine of water. And Rachel 
said, I will not give them to thee, for they shall be to me instead of children. Now there were 
two apples; and Leah said, Let it suffice thee that thou hast taken the husband of my virginity: 
wilt thou also take these? And she said, Behold, let Jacob be to thee this night instead of the 
mandrakes of thy son. And Leah said to her, Boast not, and vaunt not thyself; for Jacob is 
mine, and I am the wife of his youth. But Rachel said, How so? for to me was he first es- 
poused, and for my sake he served our father fourteen years. What shall I do to thee, because 
the craft and the subtlety of men are increased, and craft prospereth upon the earth? And 
were it not so, thou wouldest not now see the face of Jacob. For thou art not his wife, but 
in craft wert taken to him in my stead. And my father deceived me, and removed me on 
that night, and suffered me not to see him; for had I been there, it had not happened thus. 
And Rachel said, Take one mandrake, and for the other thou shalt hire him from me for 
one night. And Jacob knew Leah, and she conceived and bare me, and on account of the 
hire I was called Issachar. 

2. Then appeared to Jacob an angel of the Lord, saying, Two children shall Rachel bear; 
for she hath refused company with her husband, and hath chosen continency. And had not 
Leah my mother given up the two apples for the sake of his company, she would have borne 
eight sons; and for this thing she bare six, and Rachel two: because on account of the man- 
drakes the Lord visited her. For He knew that for the sake of children she wished to company 
with Jacob, and not for lust of pleasure. For she went further, and on the morrow too 
gave up Jacob that she might receive also the other mandrake. Therefore the Lord hearkened 
to Rachel because of the mandrakes: for though she desired them, she ate them not, but 
brought them to the priest of the Most High who was at that time, and offered them up in 
the house of the Lord. 

3. When, therefore, I grew up, my children, I walked in uprightness of heart, and I be- 
came a husbandman for my parents and my brethren, and I brought in fruits from the field 


124 See Gen. xxx. 14 sqq. 

125 The Cam. ms. reads iaKw(3 by an obvious error. 

126 Sachar. 

[Tobit viii. 7, 8.] 


127 


40 


The Testament of Issachar Concerning Simplicity. 


according to their season; and my father blessed me, for he saw that I walked in simplicity. 
And I was not a busybody in my doings, nor malicious and slanderous against my neighbour. 

I never spoke against any one, nor did I censure the life of any man, but walked in the sim- 
plicity of my eyes. Therefore when I was thirty years old I took to myself a wife, for my labour 
wore away my strength, and I never thought upon pleasure with women; but through my 
labour my sleep sufficed me, and my father always rejoiced in my simplicity. For on whatever 
I laboured I offered first to the Lord, by the hands of the priests, of all my produce and all 
first-fruits; then to my father, and then took for myself. And the Lord increased twofold 
His benefits in my hands; and Jacob also knew that God aided my simplicity, for on every 
poor man and every one in distress I bestowed the good things of the earth in simplicity of 
heart. 

4. And now hearken to me, my children, and walk in simplicity of heart, for I have seen 
in it all that is well-pleasing to the Lord. The simple coveteth not gold, defraudeth not his 
neighbour, longeth not after manifold dainties, delighteth not in varied apparel, doth not 
picture to himself to live a long life, but only waiteth for the will of God, and the spirits of 
error have no power against him. For he cannot allow within his mind a thought of female 
beauty, that he should not pollute his mind in corruption. No envy can enter into his 
thoughts, no j ealousy melteth away his soul, nor doth he brood over gain with insatiate desire; 
for he walketh in uprightness of life, and beholdeth all things in simplicity, not admitting 
in his eyes malice from the error of the world, lest he should see the perversion of any of 
the commandments of the Lord. 

5. Keep therefore the law of God, my children, and get simplicity, and walk in guileless- 
ness, not prying over-curiously into the commands of God and the business of your neigh- 
bour; but love the Lord and your neighbour, have compassion on the poor and weak. Bow 
down your back unto husbandry, and labour in tillage of the ground in all manner of hus- 
bandry, offering gifts unto the Lord with thanksgiving; for with the first-fruits of the earth 
did the Lord bless me, even as He blessed all the saints from Abel even until now. For no 
other portion is given to thee than of the fatness of the earth, whose fruits are raised by toil; 
for our father Jacob blessed me with blessings of the earth and of first-fruits. And Levi and 
Judah were glorified by the Lord among the sons of Jacob; for the Lord made choice of them, 
and to the one He gave the priesthood, to the other the kingdom. Them therefore obey, 
and walk in the simplicity of your father; for unto Gad hath it been given to destroy the 
temptations that are coming upon Israel. 

6. I know, my children, that in the last times your sons will forsake simplicity, and will 
cleave unto avarice, and leaving guilelessness will draw near to malice, and forsaking the 
commandments of the Lord will cleave unto Beliar, and leaving husbandry will follow after 
their wicked devices, and shall be dispersed among the Gentiles, and shall serve their enemies. 
And do you therefore command these things to your children, that if they sin they may the 


41 



The Testament of Issachar Concerning Simplicity. 


more quickly return to the Lord; for He is merciful, and will deliver them even to bring 
them back into their land. 

7. I am a hundred and twenty-two years old, and I know not against myself a sin unto 
death. Except my wife, I have not known any woman. I never committed fornication in 
the haughtiness of my eyes; I drank not wine, to be led astray thereby; I coveted not any 
desirable thing that was my neighbour’s; guile never entered in my heart; a lie never passed 
through my lips; if any man grieved, I wept with him, and I shared my bread with the poor. 

I never ate alone; I moved no landmark; in all my days I wrought godliness and truth. I 
loved the Lord with all my strength; likewise also did I love every man even as my own 
children. So ye also do these things, my children, and every spirit of Beliar shall flee from 
you, and no deed of malicious men shall rule over you; and every wild beast shall ye subdue, 
having with yourselves the God of heaven walking with men in simplicity of heart. 

And he commanded them that they should carry him up to Hebron, and bury him there 
in the cave with his fathers. And he stretched out his feet and died, the fifth son of Jacob, 
in a good old age; and with every limb sound, and with strength unabated, he slept the 

1 98 

eternal sleep. 


128 [See Dan, note 12, p. 26, infra. “Eternal” ="long.”] 


42 



The Testament ofZebulun Concerning Compassion and Mercy. 


VI. — The Testament ofZebulun Concerning Compassion and Mercy. 

1. The record of Zebulun, which he enjoined his children in the hundred and four- 
teenth year of his life, thirty-two years after the death of Joseph. And he said to them: 
Hearken to me sons of Zebulun, attend to the words of your father. I am Zebulun, a good 
gift to my parents. For when I was born our father was increased very exceedingly, both 
in flocks and herds, when with the streaked rods he had his portion. I know not, my children, 
that in all my days I have sinned, save only in thought. Nor do I remember that I have done 
any iniquity, except the sin of ignorance which I committed against Joseph; for I screened 
my brethren, not telling to my father what had been done. And I wept sore in secret, for I 
feared my brethren, because they had all agreed together, that if any one should declare the 
secret, he should be slain with the sword. But when they wished to kill him, I adjured them 
much with tears not to be guilty of this iniquity. 

2. For Simeon and Gad came against Joseph to kill him. And Joseph fell upon his face, 
and said unto them, Pity me, my brethren, have compassion upon the bowels of Jacob our 
father: lay not upon me your hands to shed innocent blood, for I have not sinned against 
you; yea, if I have sinned, with chastening chastise me, but lay not upon me your hand, for 
the sake of Jacob our father. And as he spoke these words, I pitied him and began to weep, 
and my heart melted within me, and all the substance of my bowels was loosened within 
my soul. And Joseph also wept, and I too wept with him; and my heart throbbed fast, and 
the joints of my body trembled, and I was not able to stand. And when he saw me weeping 
with him, and them coming against him to slay him, he fled behind me, beseeching them. 
And Reuben rose and said, My brethren, let us not slay him, but let us cast him into one of 
these dry pits which our fathers digged and found no water. For for this cause the Lord 
forbade that water should rise up in them, in order that Joseph might be preserved; and the 
Lord appointed it so, until they sold him to the Ishmaelites. 

3. For in the price of Joseph, my children, I had no share; but Simeon and Gad and six 

i o 1 

other of our brethren took the price of Joseph, and bought sandals for themselves, their 
wives, and their children, saying, We will not eat of it, for it is the price of our brother’s 


129 The Ox. ms. reads 150, and refers the event to two years after Joseph’s death. The text of the Cam. ms. 
gives an impossible result here, as it would make Zebulun twenty-eight years younger than Joseph, who died at 
the age of 1 10. According to the Ox. ms., Reuben (cf. c. 1) and Zebulun would die in the same year, the former 
at 125, the latter 150. A comparison of Test. Reub., c. 1 shows the most probable solution to be to give the nu- 
merals, pt5', (3'. 

130 The derivation of Zebulun seems to be from , a collateral form of "QT, to give. Hence Leah plays 
on the double meaning of the former verb, Gen. xxx. 20. 

131 Cf. the Targum Ps. Jon. on Gen. xxxvii. 28. 


43 


The Testament ofZebulun Concerning Compassion and Mercy. 


blood, but will tread it down under foot, because he said that he was king over us, and so 
let us see what his dreams mean. Therefore is it written in the writing of the law of Enoch, 
that whosoever will not raise up seed to his brother, his sandal shall be unloosed, and they 
shall spit into his face. And the brethren of Joseph wished not that their brother should 

live, and the Lord loosed unto them the sandal of Joseph. For when they came into Egypt 
they were unloosed by the servants of Joseph before the gate, and so made obeisance to 
Joseph after the fashion of Pharaoh. And not only did they make obeisance to him, but 
were spit upon also, falling down before him forthwith, and so they were put to shame before 
the Egyptians; for after this the Egyptians heard all the evils which we had done to Joseph. 

4. After these things they brought forth food; for I through two days and two nights 
tasted nothing, through pity for Joseph. And Judah ate not with them, but watched the pit; 
for he feared lest Simeon and Gad should run back and slay him. And when they saw that 
I also ate not, they set me to watch him until he was sold. And he remained in the pit three 
days and three nights, and so was sold famishing. And when Reuben heard that while he 
was away Joseph had been sold, he rent his clothes about him, and mourned, saying, How 
shall I look in the face of Jacob my father? And he took the money, and ran after the mer- 
chants, and found no one; for they had left the main road, and journeyed hastily through 
rugged byways. And Reuben ate no food on that day. Dan therefore came to him, and 
said, Weep not, neither grieve; for I have found what we can say to our father Jacob. Let us 
slay a kid of the goats, and dip in it the coat of Joseph; and we will say, Look, if this is the 
coat of thy son: for they stripped off from Joseph the coat of our father when they were 
about to sell him, and put upon him an old garment of a slave. Now Simeon had the coat, 
and would not give it up, wishing to rend it with his sword; for he was angry that Joseph 
lived, and that he had not slain him. Then we all rose up together against him, and said, If 
thou give it not up, we will say that thou alone didst this wickedness in Israel; and so he gave 
it up, and they did even as Dan had said. 

5. And now, my children, I bid you to keep the commands of the Lord, and to show 
mercy upon your neighbour, and to have compassion towards all, not towards men only, 
but also towards beasts. For for this thing’s sake the Lord blessed me; and when all my 
brethren were sick I escaped without sickness, for the Lord knoweth the purposes of each. 
Have therefore compassion in your hearts, my children, because even as a man doeth to his 
neighbour, even so also will the Lord do to him. For the sons of my brethren were sickening, 
were dying on account of Joseph, because they showed not mercy in their hearts; but my 
sons were preserved without sickness, as ye know. And when I was in Canaan, by the sea- 


132 [Deut. xxv. 7, 8, 9. See Lardner on the animus of these quotations from Enoch, as it strikes him, vol. ii. 
p. 350.] 

133 Cam. ms. 5ta TpaYA-OKoArtqrtov ; Ox. ms. 5ta rpoyA-oSuTtov. 


44 


The Testament ofZebulun Concerning Compassion and Mercy. 


coast, I caught spoil of fish for Jacob my father; and when many were choked in the sea, I 
abode unhurt. 

6. I was the first who made a boat to sail upon the sea, for the Lord gave me understand- 
ing and wisdom therein; and I let down a rudder behind it, and I stretched a sail on an upright 
mast in the midst; and sailing therein along the shores, I caught fish for the house of my 
father until we went into Egypt; and through compassion, I gave of my fish to every stranger. 
And if any man were a stranger, or sick, or aged, I boiled the fish and dressed them well, 
and offered them to all men as every man had need, bringing them together and having 
compassion upon them. Wherefore also the Lord granted me to take much fish: for he that 
imparteth unto his neighbour, receiveth manifold more from the Lord. For five years I 
caught fish, and gave thereof to every man whom I saw, and brought sufficient for all the 
house of my father. In the summer I caught fish, and in the winter I kept sheep with my 
brethren. 

7. Now I will declare unto you what I did, I saw a man in distress and nakedness in 
wintertime, and had compassion upon him, and stole away 134 a garment secretly from my 
house, and gave it to him who was in distress. Do you therefore, my children, from that 
which God bestoweth upon you, show compassion and mercy impartially to all men, and 
give to every man with a good heart. And if ye have not at the time wherewith to give to 
him that asketh you, have compassion for him in bowels of mercy. I know that my hand 
found not at the time wherewith to give to him that asked me, and I walked with him 
weeping for more than seven furlongs, and my bowels yearned towards him unto compassion. 

8. Have therefore yourselves also, my children, compassion towards every man with 
mercy, that the Lord also may have compassion upon you, and have mercy upon you; because 
also in the last days God sendeth His compassion on the earth, and wheresoever He findeth 
bowels of mercy, He dwelleth in him. For how much compassion a man hath upon his 
neighbours, so much also hath the Lord upon him. For when we went down into Egypt, 
Joseph bore no malice against us, and when he saw me he was filled with compassion. And 
looking towards him, do ye also, my children, approve yourselves without malice, and love 
one another; and reckon not each one the evil of his brother, for this breaketh unity, and 
divideth all kindred, and troubleth the soul: for he who beareth malice hath not bowels of 
mercy. 

9. Mark the waters, that they flow together, and sweep along stones, trees, sand; but if 
they are divided into many streams, the earth sucketh them up, and they become of no ac- 
count. So also shall ye be if ye be divided. Divide not yourselves into two heads, for 
everything which the Lord made hath but one head; He gave two shoulders, hands, feet, but 
all the members are subject unto the one head. I have learnt by the writing of my fathers, 


134 [“Finis non determinat probitatem actus.”] 


45 



The Testament ofZebulun Concerning Compassion and Mercy. 


that in the last days ye will depart from the Lord, and be divided in Israel, and ye will follow 
two kings, and will work every abomination, and every idol will ye worship, and your enemies 
shall lead you captive, and ye shall dwell among the nations with all infirmities and tribula- 
tions and anguish of soul. And after these things ye will remember the Lord, and will repent, 
and He will lead you back; for He is merciful and full of compassion, not imputing evil to 
the sons of men, because they are flesh, and the spirits of error deceive them in all their do- 

1 or 

ings. And after these things shall the Lord Himself arise to you, the Light of righteousness, 

i o/r 

and healing and compassion shall be upon His wings. He shall redeem all captivity of 
the sons of men from Beliar, and every spirit of error shall be trodden down. And He shall 

i oy 

bring back all the nations to zeal for Him, and ye shall see God in the fashion of a man 
whom the Lord shall choose, Jerusalem is His name. And again with the wickedness of your 
words will ye provoke Him to anger, and ye shall be cast away, even unto the time of con- 
summation. 

10. And now, my children, grieve not that I am dying, nor be troubled in that I am 
passing away from you. For I shall arise once more in the midst of you, as a ruler in the 
midst of his sons; and I will rejoice in the midst of my tribe, as many as have kept the law 
of the Lord, and the commandments of Zebulun their father. But upon the ungodly shall 

the Lord bring everlasting fire, and will destroy them throughout all generations. I am 
hastening away unto my rest, as did my fathers; but do ye fear the Lord your God with all 
your strength all the days of your life. And when he had said these things he fell calmly 
asleep, and his sons laid him in a coffin; and afterwards they carried him up to Hebron, and 
buried him with his fathers. 


135 Mai. iv. 2. 

136 The Ox. ms. reads: “And ye shall return from your land, and ye shall see the Lord in Jerusalem for His 
name’s sake.” [Heb. vii. 2. At least, Salem is His name.] 

137 [Another of those unequivocal passages which refute Lardner’s charge of “Unitarianism” in this book.] 

138 [Ezek. xlviii. 26, 27. An important example of Hebrew exposition of this prophet.] 


46 


The Testament of Dan Concerning Anger and Lying. 


VII. — The Testament of Dan Concerning Anger and Lying. 

1. The record of the words of Dan, which he spake to his sons in his last days. In the 
hundred and twenty- fifth year of his life he called together his family, and said: Hearken 
to my words, ye sons of Dan; give heed to the words of the mouth of your father. I have 
proved in my heart, and in my whole life, that truth with just dealing is good and well- 
pleasing to God, and that lying and anger are evil, because they teach man all wickedness. 

I confess this day to you, my children, that in my heart I rejoiced concerning the death of 
Joseph, a true and good man; and I rejoiced at the selling of Joseph, because his father loved 
him more than us. For the spirit of jealousy and of vainglory said to me, Thou also art his 
son. And one of the spirits of Beliar wrought with me, saying, Take this sword, and with it 
slay Joseph; so shall thy father love thee when he is slain. This is the spirit of anger that 
counselled me, that even as a leopard devoureth a kid, so should I devour Joseph. But the 

God of Jacob our father gave him not over into my hands that I should find him alone, nor 

1 

suffered me to work this iniquity, that two tribes should be destroyed in Israel. 

2. And now, my children, I am dying, and I tell you of a truth, that unless ye keep 
yourselves from the spirit of lying and of anger, and love truth and long-suffering, ye shall 
perish. There is blindness in anger, my children, and no wrathful man regardeth any person 
with truth: for though it be a father or a mother, he behaveth towards them as enemies; 
though it be a brother, he knoweth him not; though it be a prophet of the Lord, he disobeyeth 
him; though a righteous man, he regardeth him not; a friend he doth not acknowledge. For 
the spirit of anger encompasseth him with the nets of deceit, and blindeth his natural eyes, 
and through lying darkeneth his mind, and giveth him a sight of his own making. And 
wherewith encompasseth he his eyes? In hatred of heart; and he giveth him a heart of his 
own against his brother unto envy. 

3. My children, mischievous is anger, for it becometh as a soul to the soul itself; and 
the body of the angry man it maketh its own, and over his soul it getteth the mastery, and 
it bestoweth upon the body its own power, that it may work all iniquity; and whenever the 
soul doeth aught, it justifieth what has been done, since it seeth not. Therefore he who is 
wrathful, if he be a mighty man, hath a treble might in his anger; one by the might and aid 
of his servants, and a second by his wrath, whereby he persuadeth and overcometh in in- 
justice: and having a third of the nature of his own body, and of his own self working the 
evil. And though the wrathful man be weak, yet hath he a might twofold of that which is 
by nature; for wrath ever aideth such in mischief. This spirit goeth always with lying at the 
right hand of Satan, that his works may be wrought with cruelty and lying. 


139 [The tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh.] 


47 



The Testament of Dan Concerning Anger and Lying. 


4. Understand ye therefore the might of wrath, that it is vain. For it first of all stingeth 
him in word: then by deeds it strength eneth him who is angry, and with bitter punishments 
disturbeth his mind, and so stirreth up with great wrath his soul. Therefore, when any one 
speaketh against you, be not 140 ye moved unto anger. And if any man praiseth you as good, 
be not lifted up nor elated, either to the feeling or showing of pleasure. 141 For first it pleaseth 
the hearing, and so stirreth up the understanding to understand the grounds for anger; and 
then, being wrathful, he thinketh that he is justly angry. If ye fall into any loss or ruin, my 
children, be not troubled; for this very spirit maketh men desire that which hath perished, 
in order that they may be inflamed by the desire. If ye suffer loss willingly, be not vexed, 
for from vexation he raiseth up wrath with lying. And wrath with lying is a twofold mis- 
chief; 142 and they speak one with another that they may disturb the mind; and when the 
soul is continually disturbed, the Lord departeth from it, and Beliar ruleth over it. 

5. Observe, therefore, my children, the commandments of the Lord, and keep His law; 
and depart from wrath, and hate lying, that the Lord may dwell among you, and Beliar may 
flee from you. Speak truth each one with his neighbour, so shall ye not fall into lust and 
confusion; but ye shall be in peace, having the God of peace, so 143 shall no war prevail over 
you. Love the Lord through all your life, and one another with a true heart. For I know 
that in the last days ye will depart from the Lord, and will provoke Levi unto anger, and will 
fight against Judah; but ye shall not prevail against them. For an angel of the Lord shall 
guide them both; for by them shall Israel stand. And whensoever ye depart from the Lord, 
ye will walk in all evil, working the abominations of the Gentiles, going 144 astray with women 
of them that are ungodly; and the spirits of error shall work in you with all malice. For I 
have read in the book of Enoch the righteous, that your prince is Satan, and that all the 
spirits of fornication and pride shall be subject unto Levi, to lay a snare for the sons of Levi, 
to cause them to sin before the Lord. And my sons will draw near unto Levi, and sin with 
them in all things; and the sons of Judah will be covetous, plundering other men’s goods 
like lions. Therefore shall ye be led away with them in captivity, and there shall ye receive 
all the plagues of Egypt, and all the malice of the Gentiles: and so, when ye return to the 
Lord, ye shall obtain mercy, and He shall bring you into His sanctuary, calling peace upon 
you; and there shall arise unto you from the tribe of Judah and of Levi the salvation of the 
Lord; 145 and He shall make war against Beliar, and He shall give the vengeance of victory 


140 The reading of the Ox. ms., pf| Ktv£la0£ is to be taken. 

141 Cam. ms. eu; eiSeav; Ox. ms. eiq ar|5tav. 

142 Read koikov 

143 The Ox. ms. omits from here to row; £0v£ai Ewrrjp in c. 6. 

144 ’EKTtop£uovt£<; may be an error for £Kitopv£UOVT£<; , which Grabe wrongly gives as the reading of the 
Cam. ms. 

145 [The root idea, p. 18, notes 5, 6, supra.] 


48 



The Testament of Dan Concerning Anger and Lying. 


to our coasts. And the captivity shall He take from Beliar, even the souls of the saints, and 
shall turn disobedient hearts unto the Lord, and shall give to them who call upon Him 
everlasting peace; and the saints shall rest in Eden, and the righteous shall rejoice in the new 
Jerusalem, which shall be unto the glory of God for ever and ever. And no longer shall Jer- 
usalem endure desolation, nor Israel be led captive; for the Lord shall be in the midst of her, 
dwelling among men, 146 even the Holy One of Israel reigning over them 147 in humility and 
in poverty; and he who believeth on Him shall reign in truth in the heavens. 

6. And now, my children, fear the Lord, and take heed unto yourselves of Satan and 
his spirits; and draw near unto God, and to the Angel 149 that intercedeth for you, for He is 
a Mediator between God and man for the peace of Israel. He shall stand up against the 
kingdom of the enemy; therefore is the enemy eager to destroy all that call upon the Lord. 
For he knoweth that in the day on which Israel shall believe, 150 the kingdom of the enemy 
shall be brought to an end; and the very angel of peace shall strengthen Israel, that it fall not 
into the extremity of evil. And it shall be in the time of the iniquity of Israel, that the Lord 
will depart from them, and will go after him that doeth His will, for unto none of His angels 
shall it be as unto him. And His name shall be in every place of Israel, and among the 
Gentiles — Saviour. Keep therefore yourselves, my children, from every evil work, and cast 
away wrath and all lying, and love truth and long-suffering; and the things which ye have 
heard from your father, do ye also impart to your children, that the Father of the Gentiles 
may receive you: for He is true and long-suffering, meek and lowly, and teacheth by His 
works the law of God. Depart, therefore, from all unrighteousness, and cleave unto the 
righteousness of the law of the Lord: and bury me near my fathers. 

7. And when he had said these things he kissed them, and slept the long sleep. 151 And 
his sons buried him, and after that they carried up his bones to the side of Abraham, and 
Isaac, and Jacob. Nevertheless, as Dan had prophesied unto them that they should forget 
the law of their God, and should be alienated from the land of their inheritance, and from 
the race of Israel, and from their kindred, so also it came to pass. 


146 [Rev. xxi. 3.] 

147 [Here is the Chiliasm of Barnabas, vol. i. p. 146.] 

148 [That is, not with the glory of His throne above.] 

149 Cf. Dorner, Doctrine of the Person of Christ, Introd., p, 15, Eng. transl. 

150 [Rom. xi. 15.] 

151 See Zebulun 10, p. 25, supra.] 


49 


The Testament ofNaphtali Concerning Natural Goodness. 


VIII. — The Testament ofNaphtali Concerning Natural Goodness. 

1. The record of the testament ofNaphtali, what things he ordained at the time of his 
death in the hundred and thirty-second year of his life. When his sons were gathered together 
in the seventh month, the fourth day of the month, he, being yet in good health, made them 
a feast and good cheer. And after he was awake in the morning, he said to them, I am dying; 
and they believed him not. And he blessed the Lord; and affirmed that after yesterday’s 
feast he should die. He began then to say to his sons: Hear, my children; ye sons ofNaphtali, 
hear the words of your father. I was born from Bilhah; and because Rachel dealt craftily, 
and gave Bilhah in place of herself to Jacob, and she bore me upon Rachel’s lap, therefore 
was I called Naphtali. And Rachel loved me because I was born upon her lap; and when 
I was of young and tender form, she was wont to kiss me, and say, Would that I might see 
a brother of thine from my own womb, like unto thee: whence also Joseph was like unto 
me in all things, according to the prayers of Rachel. Now my mother was Bilhah, daughter 
of Rotheus the brother of Deborah, Rebecca’s nurse, and she was born on one and the self- 
same day with Rachel. And Rotheus was of the family of Abraham, a Chaldean, fearing 
God, free-born and noble; and he was taken captive, and was bought by Laban; and he gave 
him Aena his handmaid to wife, and she bore a daughter, and called her Zilpah, after the 
name of the village in which he had been taken captive. And next she bore Bilhah, saying, 
My daughter is eager after what is new, for immediately that she was born she was eager for 
the breast. 

2. And since I was swiff on my feet like a deer, my father Jacob appointed me for all 

i ro 

errands and messages, and as a deer did he give me his blessing. For as the potter knoweth 
the vessel, what it containeth, and bringeth clay thereto, so also doth the Lord make the 
body in accordance with the spirit, and according to the capacity of the body doth He implant 
the spirit, and the one is not deficient from the other by a third part of a hair; for by weight, 
and measure, and rule is every creature of the Most High. 154 And as the potter knoweth 
the use of each vessel, whereto it sufficeth, so also doth the Lord know the body, how far it 
is capable for goodness, and when it beginneth in evil; for there is no created thing and no 
thought which the Lord knoweth not, for He created every man after His own image. As 
man’s strength, so also is his work; and as his mind, so also is his work; and as his purpose, 
so also is his doing; as his heart, so also is his mouth; as his eye, so also is his sleep; as his 
soul, so also is his word, either in the law of the Lord or in the law of Beliar. And as there 
is a division between light and darkness, between seeing and hearing, so also is there a division 


152 Gen. xxx. 8. Josephus, Ant., i. 19. 7 

153 Gen. xlix. 21. 

154 [Wis. xi. 20; Ecclus. xlii. 7.] 


50 


The Testament ofNaphtali Concerning Natural Goodness. 


between man and man, and between woman and woman; neither is it to be said that there 
is any superiority in anything, either of the face or of other like things. 155 For God made 
all things good in their order, the five senses in the head, and He joineth on the neck to the 
head, the hair also for comeliness, the heart moreover for understanding, the belly for the 
dividing of the stomach, the calamus 156 for health, the liver for wrath, the gall for bitterness, 
the spleen for laughter, the reins for craftiness, the loins for power, the ribs for containing, 
the back for strength, and so forth. So then, my children, be ye orderly unto good things in 
the fear of God, and do nothing disorderly in scorn or out of its due season. For if thou bid 
the eye to hear, it cannot; so neither in darkness can ye do the works of light. 

3. Be ye not therefore eager to corrupt your doings through excess, or with empty words 

to deceive your souls; because if ye keep silence in purity of heart, ye shall be able to hold 
fast the will of God, and to cast away the will of the devil. Sun and moon and stars change 
not their order; so also ye shall not change the law of God in the disorderliness of your do- 
ings. Nations went astray, and forsook the Lord, and changed their order, and followed 
stones and stocks, following after spirits of error. But ye shall not be so, my children, recog- 
nising in the firmament, in the earth, and in the sea, and in all created things, the Lord who 
made them all, that ye become not as Sodom, which changed the order of its nature, in like 
manner also the Watchers changed the order of their nature, whom also the Lord cursed 

at the flood, and for their sakes made desolate the earth, that it should be uninhabited and 
fruitless. 

4. These things I say, my children, for I have read in the holy writing of Enoch that ye 
yourselves also will depart from the Lord, walking according to all wickedness of the Gentiles, 
and ye will do according to all the iniquity of Sodom. And the Lord will bring captivity 
upon you, and there shall ye serve your enemies, and ye shall be covered with all affliction 
and tribulation, until the Lord shall have consumed you all. And after that ye shall have 
been diminished and made few, ye will return and acknowledge the Lord your God; and He 
will bring you back into your own land, according to His abundant mercy. And it shall be, 
after that they shall come into the land of their fathers, they will again forget the Lord and 
deal wickedly; and the Lord shall scatter them upon the face of all the earth, until the com- 
passion of the Lord shall come, a Man working righteousness and showing mercy unto all 
them that are afar off, and them that are near. 


155 The Greek text here is obviously corrupt, and doubtless one or two words are wanting. The reading of 
the Cam. ms. is, ouk eortv eittelv on ev tw evt row; Jtpoaumoti; r] rwv opotwv. In the Ox. ms. the passage is 
wanting. 

156 It seems very doubtful what is meant by vcdAocpoc; here. I have thought it best, therefore, to leave the 
matter open. The Ox. ms. punctuates aropdxou KaX. 

157 Cf. Reuben 5 [note 3, p. 10 supra]. 


51 



The Testament ofNaphtali Concerning Natural Goodness. 


5. For in the fortieth year of my life, I saw in a vision that the sun and the moon were 
standing still on the Mount of Olives, at the east of Jerusalem. And behold Isaac, the father 
of my father, saith to us, Run and lay hold of them, each one according to his strength; and 
he that seizeth them, his shall be the sun and the moon. And we all of us ran together, and 
Levi laid hold of the sun, and Judah outstripped the others and seized the moon, and they 
were both of them lifted up with them. And when Levi became as a sun, a certain young 
man gave to him twelve branches of palm; and Judah was bright as the moon, and under 
his feet were twelve rays. And Levi and Judah ran, and laid hold each of the other. And, lo, 
a bull upon the earth, having two great horns, and an eagle’s wings upon his back; and we 
wished to seize him, but could not. For Joseph outstripped us, and took him, and ascended 
up with him on high. And I saw, for I was there, and behold a holy writing appeared to us 
saying: Assyrians, Medes, Persians, Elamites, Gelachaeans, Chaldeans, Syrians, shall possess 
in captivity the twelve tribes of Israel. 

6. And again, after seven months, I saw our father Jacob standing by the sea of Jamnia, 
and we his sons were with him. And, behold, there came a ship sailing by, full of dried flesh, 
without sailors or pilot: and there was written upon the ship, Jacob. And our father saith 
to us, Let us embark on our ship. And when we had gone on board, there arose a vehement 
storm, and a tempest of mighty wind; and our father, who was holding the helm, flew away 
from us. And we, being tost with the tempest, were borne along over the sea; and the ship 
was filled with water and beaten about with a mighty wave, so that it was well-nigh broken 
in pieces. And Joseph fled away upon a little boat, and we all were divided upon twelve 
boards, and Levi and Judah were together. We therefore all were scattered even unto afar 
off. Then Levi, girt about with sackcloth, prayed for us all unto the Lord. And when the 
storm ceased, immediately the ship reached the land, as though in peace. And, lo, Jacob 
our father came, and we rejoiced with one accord. 

7. These two dreams I told to my father; and he said to me, These things must be fulfilled 
in their season, after that Israel hath endured many things. Then my father saith unto me, 
I believe that Joseph liveth, for I see always that the Lord numbereth him with you. And he 
said, weeping, Thou livest, Joseph, my child, and I behold thee not, and thou seest not Jacob 
that begat thee. And he caused us also to weep at these words of his, and I burned in my 
heart to declare that he had been sold, but I feared my brethren. 

8. Behold, my children, I have shown unto you the last times, that all shall come to pass 
in Israel. Do ye also therefore charge your children that they be united to Levi and to Judah. 
For through Judah shall salvation arise unto Israel, and in Him shall Jacob be blessed. For 
through his tribe shall God be seen dwelling among men on the earth, to save the race of 
Israel, and He shall gather together the righteous from the Gentiles. If ye work that which 
is good, my children, both men and angels will bless you; and God will be glorified through 
you among the Gentiles, and the devil will flee from you, and the wild beasts will fear you, 


52 



The Testament ofNaphtali Concerning Natural Goodness. 


and the angels will cleave to you. For as if a man rear up a child well, he hath a kindly re- 
membrance thereof; so also for a good work there is a good remembrance with God. But 
him who doeth not that which is good, men and angels shall curse and God will be dishon- 
oured among the heathen through him, and the devil maketh him his own as his peculiar 
instrument, and every wild beast shall master him, and the Lord will hate him. For the 
commandments of the law are twofold, and through prudence must they be fulfilled. For 
there is a season for a man to embrace his wife, and a season to abstain therefrom 158 for his 
prayer. So then there are two commandments; and unless they be done in due order, they 
bring about sin. So also is it with the other commandments. Be ye therefore wise in God, 
and prudent, understanding the order of the commandments, and the laws of every work, 
that the Lord may love you. 

9. And when he had charged them with many such words, he exhorted them that they 
should remove his bones to Hebron, and should bury him with his fathers. And when he 
had eaten and drunken with a merry heart, he covered his face and died. And his sons did 
according to all things whatsoever Naphtali their father had charged them. 


158 [Ecdes. iii. 5; 1 Cor. vii. 5.] 


53 


The Testament of Gad Concerning Hatred. 


IX. — The Testament of Gad Concerning Hatred. 

1. The record of the testament of Gad, what things he spake unto his sons, in the hundred 
and twenty-seventh year of his life, saying: I was the seventh son born to Jacob, and I was 
valiant in keeping the flocks. I guarded at night the flock; and whenever the lion came, or 
wolf, or leopard, or bear, or any wild beast against the fold, I pursued it, and with my hand 
seizing its foot, and whirling it round, I stunned it, and hurled it over two furlongs, and so 
killed it. Now Joseph was feeding the flock with us for about thirty days, and being tender, 
he fell sick by reason of the heat. And he returned to Hebron to his father, who made him 
lie down near him, because he loved him. And Joseph told our father that the sons of Zilpah 
and Bilhah were slaying the best of the beasts, 159 and devouring them without the knowledge 
of Judah and Reuben. For he saw that I delivered a lamb out of the mouth of the bear, and 
I put the bear to death; and the lamb I slew, being grieved concerning it that it could not 
live, and we ate it, and he told our father. And I was wroth with Joseph for that thing until 
the day that he was sold into Egypt. And the spirit of hatred was in me, and I wished not 
either to see Joseph or to hear him. And he rebuked us to our faces for having eaten of the 
flock without Judah. And whatsoever things he told our father, he believed him. 

2. I confess now my sin, my children, that oftentimes I wished to kill him, because I 
hated him to the death, and there were in no wise in me bowels of mercy towards him. 
Moreover, I hated him yet more because of his dreams; and I would have devoured him out 
of the land of the living, even as a calf devoureth the grass from the earth. Therefore I and 
Judah sold him to the Ishmaelites for thirty 160 pieces of gold, and ten of them we hid, and 
showed the twenty to our brethren: and so through my covetousness I was fully bent on 
his destruction. And the God of my fathers delivered him from my hands, that I should not 
work iniquity in Israel. 

3. And now, my children, hearken to the words of truth to work righteousness, and all 
the law of the Most High, and not go astray through the spirit of hatred, for it is evil in all 
the doings of men. Whatsoever a man doeth, that doth the hater abhor: though he worketh 
the law of the Lord, he praiseth him not; though he feareth the Lord, and taketh pleasure in 
that which is righteous, he loveth him not: he dispraiseth the truth, he envieth him that 
ordereth his way aright, he delighteth in evil-speaking, he loveth arrogance, for hatred hath 
blinded his soul; even as I also looked on Joseph. 

4. Take heed therefore, my children, of hatred; for it worketh iniquity against the Lord 
Himself: for it will not hear the words of His commandments concerning the loving of 


159 Cf. Targum Ps. Jon. of Gen. xxxvii. 2. 

160 The narrative of Genesis (xxxvii. 28) gives twenty pieces of silver; the LXX. twenty pieces of gold, with 
which latter agrees Josephus’ pvtov etKoaiv ( Antiq ., ii. 3. 3). [It is worthy of note that Judas took a meaner price 
for the “Son of Joseph.”] 


54 


The Testament of Gad Concerning Hatred. 


one’s neighbour, and it sinneth against God. For if a brother stumble, immediately it 
wisheth to proclaim it to all men, and is urgent that he should be judged for it, and be pun- 
ished and slain. And if it be a servant, it accuseth him to his master, and with all affliction 
it deviseth against him, if it be possible to slay him. For hatred worketh in envy, and it ever 
sickeneth with envy against them that prosper in well-doing, when it seeth or heareth 
thereof. For as love would even restore to life the dead, and would call back them that are 
condemned to die, so hatred would slay the living, and those that have offended in a small 
matter it would not suffer to live. For the spirit of hatred worketh together with Satan 
through hastiness 161 of spirit in all things unto men’s death; but the spirit of love worketh 

1 f \ 9 

together with the law of God in long-suffering unto the salvation of men. 

5. Hatred is evil, because it continually abideth with lying, speaking against the truth; 
and it maketh small things to be great, and giveth heed to darkness as to light, and calleth 
the sweet bitter, and teacheth slander, and war, and violence, and every excess of evil; and 
it filleth the heart with devilish poison. And these things I say to you from experience, my 
children, that ye may flee hatred, and cleave to the love of the Lord. Righteousness casteth 
out hatred, humility destroyeth hatred. For he that is just and humble is ashamed to do 
wrong, being reproved not of another, but of his own heart, because the Lord vieweth his 
intent: he speaketh not against any man, because the fear of the Most High overcometh 
hatred. For, fearing lest he should offend the Lord, he will not do any wrong to any man, 
no, not even in thought. These things I learnt at last, after that I had repented concerning 
Joseph. For true repentance after a godly sort destroyeth unbelief, and driveth away the 
darkness, and enlighteneth the eyes, and giveth knowledge to the soul, and guideth the mind 
to salvation; and those things which it hath not learnt from man, it knoweth through repent- 
ance. For God brought upon me a disease of the heart; and had not the prayers of Jacob 
my father intervened, it had hardly failed that my spirit had departed. For by what things 
a man transgresseth, by the same also is he punished. ' For in that my heart was set mer- 
cilessly against Joseph, in my heart too I suffered mercilessly, and was judged for eleven 
months, for so long a time as I had been envious against Joseph until he was sold. 

6. And now, my children, love ye each one his brother, and put away hatred from your 
hearts, loving one another in deed, and in word, and in thought of the soul. For in the 
presence of our father I spake peaceably with Joseph; and when I had gone out, the spirit of 
hatred darkened my mind, and moved my soul to slay him. 164 Love ye therefore one another 


161 For this unusual use of oAryovlwxta, cf. Prov. xiv. 29, LXX., where there is the same contrast with 
pavcpoSupla. 

162 [This passage is cited by Lardner as conspicuously fine.] 

163 [Wis.xi. 16.] 

164 The Ox. ms. omits from here to the last clause of c. 7. 


55 


The Testament of Gad Concerning Hatred. 


from your hearts; and if a man sin against thee, tell him of it gently, and drive out the poison 
of hatred, and foster not guile in thy soul. And if he confess and repent, forgive him; and 
if he deny it, strive not with him, lest he swear, and thou sin doubly. Let not a stranger hear 
your secrets amid your striving, lest he hate and become thy enemy, and work great sin 
against thee; for ofttimes he will talk guilefully 165 with thee, or evilly overreach thee, taking 
his poison from himself. Therefore, if he deny it, and is convicted and put to shame, and 
is silenced, do not tempt him on. For he who denieth repenteth, so that he no more doeth 
wrong against thee; yea also, he will honour thee, and fear thee, and be at peace with thee. 
But if he be shameless, and abideth in his wrongdoing, even then forgive him from the heart, 
and give the vengeance to God. 

7. If a man prospereth more than you, be not grieved, but pray also for him, that he 
may have perfect prosperity. For perchance it is expedient for you thus; and if he be further 
exalted, be not envious, remembering that all flesh shall die: and offer praise to God, who 
giveth things good and profitable to all men. Seek out the judgments of the Lord, and so 
shall thy mind rest and be at peace. And though a man become rich by evil means, even as 
Esau the brother of my father, be not jealous; but wait for the end of the Lord. For either 
He taketh His benefits away from the wicked, or leaveth them still to the repentant, or to 
the unrepentant reserveth punishment for ever. For the poor man who is free from envy, 
giving thanks to the Lord in all things, is rich among all men, because he hath not evil jealousy 
of men. Put away, therefore, hatred from your souls, and love one another with uprightness 
of heart. 

8. And do ye also tell these things to your children, that they honour Judah and Levi, 
for from them shall the Lord raise up a Saviour to Israel. 166 For I know that at the last your 
children shall depart from them, and shall walk in all wickedness, and mischief, and corrup- 
tion before the Lord. And when he had rested for a little while, he said again to them, My 
children, obey your father, and bury me near to my fathers. And he drew up his feet, and 
fell asleep in peace. And after five years they carried him up, and laid him in Hebron with 
his fathers. 


165 For SoAwcpwvrjaai , the reading of the Cam. ms. here, Grabe conjectured SoAocpovrjaei. Probably 
5oA.O(pwvrjaei is to be preferred. 

166 [The Virgin was the daughter of Judah, but had kinship with Levi. Luke i. 36. Compare Jer. xxxiii. 20-22.] 

56 


The Testament of Asher Concerning Two Faces of Vice and Virtue. 


X. — The Testament of Asher Concerning Two Faces of Vice and Virtue. 

1 . The record of the testament of Asher, what things he spake to his sons in the hundred 

and twentieth year of his life. While he was still in health, he said to them: Hearken, ye 
children of Asher, to your father, and I will declare to you all that is right in the sight of 
God. Two ways hath God given to the sons of men, and two minds, and two doings, and 

two places, and two ends. Therefore all things are by twos, one corresponding to the other. 
There are two ways of good and evil, with which are the two minds in our breasts distin- 
guishing them. Therefore if the soul take pleasure in good, all its actions are in righteousness; 
and though it sin, it straightway repenteth. For, having his mind set upon righteousness, 
and casting away maliciousness, he straightway overthroweth the evil, and uprooteth the 
sin. But if his mind turn aside in evil, all his doings are in maliciousness, and he driveth 
away the good, and taketh unto him the evil, and is ruled by Beliar; and even though he 
work what is good, he perverteth it in evil. For whenever he beginneth as though to do 
good, he bringeth the end of his doing to work evil, seeing that the treasure of the devil is 
filled with the poison of an evil spirit. 

2. There is then, he saith, a soul which speaketh the good for the sake of the evil, and 

1 /TQ 

the end of the doing leadeth to mischief. There is a man who showeth no compassion 
upon him who serveth his turn in evil; and this thing hath two aspects, but the whole is evil. 
And there is a man that loveth him that worketh evil; he likewise dwelleth in evil, because 
he chooseth even to die in an evil cause for his sake: and concerning this it is clear that it 
hath two aspects, but the whole is an evil work. And though there is love, it is but wickedness 
concealing the evil, even as it beareth a name that seemeth good, but the end of the doing 
tendeth unto evil. Another stealeth, worketh unjustly, plundereth, defraudeth, and withal 
pitieth the poor: this, too, hath a twofold aspect, but the whole is evil. Defrauding his 
neighbour he provoketh God, and sweareth falsely against the Most High, and yet pitieth 
the poor: the Lord who commandeth the law he setteth at nought and provoketh, and re- 
fresheth the poor; he defileth the soul, and maketh gay the body; he killeth many, and he 
pitieth a few: and this, too, hath a twofold aspect. Another committeth adultery and fornic- 
ation, and abstaineth from meats; yet in his fasting he worketh evil, and by his power and 
his wealth perverteth many, and out of his excessive wickedness worketh the commandments: 
this, too, hath a twofold aspect, but the whole is evil. Such men are as swine or hares; 169 
for they are half clean, but in very deed are unclean. For God in the Heavenly Tablets 
hath thus declared. 


167 [See the Duce Vice , vol. vii., p. 377, this series.] 

168 [This section is commended by Dr. Lardner.] 

169 Cf. Lev. xi. 5, 7. [Vol. ii. p. 555 note 6.] 

Cf. Levi 5. [P. 13, note 8 supra.] 


170 


57 


The Testament of Asher Concerning Two Faces of Vice and Virtue. 


3. Do not ye therefore, my children, wear two faces like unto them, of goodness and of 
wickedness; but cleave unto goodness only, for in goodness doth God rest, and men desire 
it. From wickedness flee away, destroying the devil by your good works; for they that are 
double-faced serve not God, but their own lusts, so that they may please Beliar and men like 
unto themselves. 

4. For good men, even they that are single of face, though they be thought by them that 
are double-faced to err, are just before God. For many in killing the wicked do two works, 
an evil by a good; but the whole is good, because he hath uprooted and destroyed that which 
is evil. One man hateth him that showeth mercy, and doeth wrong to the adulterer and the 
thief: this, too, is double-faced, but the whole work is good, because he followeth the Lord’s 

1 71 

example, in that he receiveth not that which seemeth good with that which is really bad. 
Another desireth not to see good days with them that riot, lest he defile his mouth and pollute 
his soul: this, too, is double-faced, but the whole is good, for such men are like to stags and 
to hinds, because in a wild condition they seem to be unclean, but they are altogether clean; 
because they walk in a zeal for God, and abstain from what God also hateth and forbiddeth 
by His commandments, and they ward off the evil from the good. 

5. Ye see therefore, my children, how that there are two in all things, one against the 

I r i r \ 

other, and the one is hidden by the other. Death succeedeth to life, dishonour to glory, 
night to day, and darkness to light; and all things are under the day, and just things under 
life: wherefore also everlasting life awaiteth death. Nor may it be said that truth is a he, nor 
right wrong; for all truth is under the light, even as all things are under God. All these things 
I proved in my life, and I wandered not from the truth of the Lord, and I searched out the 
commandments of the Most High, walking with singleness of face according to all my 
strength unto that which is good. 

6. Take heed therefore ye also, my children, to the commandments of the Lord, following 
the truth with singleness of face, for they that are double-faced receive twofold punishment. 
Hate the spirits of error, which strive against men. Keep the law of the Lord, and give not 
heed unto evil as unto good; but look unto the thing that is good indeed, and keep it in all 
commandments of the Lord, having your conversation unto Him, and resting in Him: for 
the ends at which men aim do show their righteousness, and know the angels of the Lord 
from the angels of Satan. For if the soul depart troubled, it is tormented by the evil spirit 
which also it served in lusts and evil works; but if quietly and with joy it hath known the 
angel of peace, it shall comfort him in life. 


171 [Matt. v. 45. This seems contradictory.] 

172 The Ox. ms. adds, ev rr[ eu<ppoauvr| r| pe0r|, ev rw yeXixixi to tt£v0o<;, £v tw yapw 4 OKpaaia. [Ecclus. 
xlii. 24.] 


58 


The Testament of Asher Concerning Two Faces of Vice and Virtue. 


7. Become not, my children, as Sodom, which knew not the angels of the Lord, and 
perished for ever. For I know that ye will sin, and ye shall be delivered into the hands of 
your enemies, and your land shall be made desolate, and ye shall be scattered unto the four 
corners of the earth. And ye shall be set at nought in the Dispersion as useless water, until 
the Most High shall visit the earth; and He shall come as man, with men eating and drinking, 
and in peace breaking the head of the dragon through water. He shall save Israel and all 
nations, God speaking in the person of man. Therefore tell ye these things to your children, 
that they disobey Him not. For I have read in the Heavenly Tablets that in very deed ye will 
disobey Him, and act ungodly against Him, not giving heed to the law of God, but to the 
commandments of men. Therefore shall ye be scattered as Gad and as Dan my brethren, 
who shall know not their own lands, tribe, and tongue. But the Lord will gather you together 
in faith through the hope of His tender mercy, for the sake of Abraham, and Isaac, and 
Jacob. 173 

8. And when he had said these things unto them, he charged them, saying: Bury me 
in Hebron. And he fell into a peaceful sleep, and died; and after this his sons did as he had 
charged them, and they carried him up and buried him with his fathers. 


173 [The Hebrew triad, father, son, and proceeding.] 


59 



The Testament of Joseph Concerning Sobriety. 


XI. — The Testament of Joseph Concerning Sobriety. 

1. The record of the testament of Joseph. When he was about to die he called his sons 
and his brethren together, and said to them: My children and brethren, hearken to Joseph 
the beloved of Israel; give ear, my sons, unto your father. I have seen in my life envy and 
death, and I wandered not in the truth of the Lord. These my brethren hated me, and the 
Lord loved me: they wished to slay me, and the God of my fathers guarded me: they let me 
down into a pit, and the Most High brought me up again: I was sold for a slave, and the 
Lord made me free: I was taken into captivity, and His strong hand succoured me: I was 
kept in hunger, and the Lord Himself nourished me: I was alone, and God comforted me: 

I was sick, and the Most High visited me: I was in prison, and the Saviour showed favour 
unto me; in bonds, and He released me; amid slanders, and He pleaded my cause; amid 
bitter words of the Egyptians, and He rescued me; amid envy and guile, and He exalted me. 

2. And thus Potiphar 174 the chief cook 175 of Pharaoh entrusted to me his house, and 
I struggled against a shameless woman, urging me to transgress with her; but the God of 
Israel my father guarded me from the burning flame. I was cast into prison, I was beaten, 
I was mocked; and the Lord granted me to find pity in the sight of the keeper of the prison. 
For He will in no wise forsake them that fear Him, neither in darkness, nor in bonds, nor 
in tribulations, nor in necessities. For not as man is God ashamed, nor as the son of man 
is He afraid, nor as one that is earth-born is He weak, or can He be thrust aside; but in all 
places is He at hand, and in divers ways doth He comfort, departing for a little to try the 
purpose of the soul. In ten temptations He showed me approved, and in all of them I en- 
dured; for endurance is a mighty charm, and patience giveth many good things. 

3. How often did the Egyptian threaten me with death! How often did she give me over 
to punishment, and then call me back, and threaten me when I would not company with 
her! And she said to me, Thou shalt be lord of me, and all that is mine, if thou wilt give 
thyself unto me, and thou shalt be as our master. Therefore I remembered the words of the 

1 n/r 

fathers of my father Jacob, and I entered into my chamber and prayed unto the Lord; 
and I fasted in those seven years, and I appeared to my master as one living delicately, for 

I nn 

they that fast for God’s sake receive beauty of face. And if one gave me wine, I drank it 


174 The Greek spelling here is 4>umpdp, in the later chapters nerecpplq (nevtecppfjt;, Cd. Oxon.). The former 
is more like the Hebrew, the latter really the LXX. spelling, net£<ppf|<;. We may perhaps see herein a trace of a 
double authorship in the Test. Joseph. 

175 Cf. Gen. xxxix. 1, LXX., and Josephus [Antiq., ii. 4. 1), who calls Potiphar payetpwv 6 (3aaiAeu<;. Theview 

of the Eng. ver. is most probably correct, though we find FQED used in the sense of cook in 1 Sam. ix. 23. 

176 [Matt. vi. 6. He veils the quotation by a fiction, as to authorship, to support the plan of his work.] 

177 [Dan. i. 15.] 


60 


The Testament of Joseph Concerning Sobriety. 


not; and I fasted for three days, and took my food and gave it to the poor and sick. And I 
sought the Lord early, and wept for the Egyptian woman of Memphis, for very unceasingly 
did she trouble me, and at night she came to me under the pretence of visiting me; and at 
first, because she had no male child, she feigned to count me as a son. And I prayed unto 
the Lord, and she bare a male child; therefore for a time she embraced me as a son, and I 
knew it not. Last of all, she sought to draw me into fornication. And when I perceived it, 
I sorrowed even unto death; and when she had gone out I came to myself, and I lamented 
for her many days, because I saw her guile and her deceit. And I declared unto her the words 
of the Most High, if haply she would turn from her evil lust. 

4. How often has she fawned upon me with words as a holy man, with guile in her talk, 
praising my chastity before her husband, while desiring to destroy me when we were alone. 
She lauded me openly as chaste, and in secret she said unto me, Fear not my husband; for 
he is persuaded concerning thy chastity, so that even should one tell him concerning us he 
would in no wise believe. For all these things I lay upon the ground in sackcloth, and I be- 
sought God that the Lord would deliver me from the Egyptian. And when she prevailed 
nothing, she came again to me under the plea of instruction, that she might know the word 
of the Lord. And she said unto me, If thou wiliest that I should leave my idols, be persuaded 
by me, and I will persuade my husband to depart from his idols, and we will walk in the law 
of thy Lord. And I said unto her, The Lord willeth not that those who reverence Him should 
be in uncleanness, nor doth He take pleasure in them that commit adultery. And she held 
her peace, longing to accomplish her evil desire. And I gave myself yet more to fasting and 
prayer, that the Lord should deliver me from her. 

5. And again at another time she said unto me, If thou wilt not commit adultery, I will 
kill my husband, and so will I lawfully take thee to be my husband. I therefore, when I heard 
this, rent my garment, and said, Woman, reverence the Lord, and do not this evil deed, lest 
thou be utterly destroyed; for I will declare thy ungodly thought unto all men. She therefore, 
being afraid, besought that I would declare to no one her wickedness. And she departed, 
soothing me with gifts, and sending to me every delight of the sons of men. 

6. And she sendeth to me food sprinkled with enchantments. And when the eunuch 
who brought it came, I looked up and beheld a terrible man giving me with the dish a sword, 
and I perceived that her scheme was for the deception of my soul. And when he had gone 
out I wept, nor did I taste that or any other of her food. So then after one day she came to 
me and observed the food, and said unto me, What is this, that thou hast not eaten of the 
food? And I said unto her, It is because thou filledst it with death; and how saidst thou, I 
come not near to idols but to the Lord alone? Now therefore know that the God of my 
father hath revealed unto me by an angel thy wickedness, and I have kept it to convict thee, 
if haply thou mayest see it and repent. But that thou mayest learn that the wickedness of 
the ungodly hath no power over them that reverence God in chastity, I took it and ate it 


61 



The Testament of Joseph Concerning Sobriety. 


before her, saying, The God of my fathers and the Angel of Abraham shall be with me. And 
she fell upon her face at my feet, and wept; and I raised her up and admonished her, and 
she promised to do this iniquity no more. 

7. But because her heart was set upon me to commit lewdness, she sighed, and her 
countenance fell. And when her husband saw her, he said unto her, Why is thy countenance 
fallen? And she said, I have a pain at my heart, and the groanings of my spirit do oppress 
me; and so he comforted her who was not sick. Then she rushed in to me while her husband 
was yet without, and said unto me, I will hang myself, or cast myself into a well or over a 
cliff, if thou wilt not consent unto me. And when I saw the spirit of Beliar was troubling 
her, I prayed unto the Lord, and said unto her, Why art thou troubled and disturbed, blinded 
in sins? Remember that if thou killest thyself, Sethon, the concubine of thy husband, thy 
rival, will beat thy children, and will destroy thy memorial from off the earth. And she said 
unto me, Lo then thou lovest me; this alone is sufficient for me, that thou carest for my life 
and my children: I have expectation that I shall enjoy my desire. And she knew not that 
because of my God I spake thus, and not because of her. For if a man hath fallen before the 
passion of a wicked desire, then by that hath he become enslaved, even as also was she. And 
if he hear any good thing with regard to the passion whereby he is vanquished, he receiveth 
it unto his wicked desire. 

8. I declare unto you, my children, that it was about the sixth hour when she departed 
from me; and I knelt before the Lord all that day, and continued all the night; and about 
dawn I rose up weeping, and praying for a release from the Egyptian. At last, then, she laid 
hold of my garments, forcibly dragging me to have connection with her. When, therefore, 
I saw that in her madness she was forcibly holding my garments, I fled away naked. And 
she falsely accused me to her husband, and the Egyptian cast me into the prison in his house; 
and on the morrow, having scourged me, the Egyptian sent me into the prison in his 
house. When, therefore, I was in fetters, the Egyptian woman fell sick from her vexation, 
and listened to me how I sang praises unto the Lord while I was in the abode of darkness, 
and with glad voice rejoiced and glorified my God only because by a pretext I had been rid 
of the Egyptian woman. 

9. How often hath she sent unto me, saying, Consent to fulfil my desire, and I will release 
thee from thy bonds, and I will free time from the darkness! And not even in thoughts did 
I incline unto her. For God loveth him who in a den of darkness fasteth with chastity, rather 
than him who in secret chambers liveth delicately without restraint. And whosoever liveth 
in chastity, and desireth also glory, and if the Most High knoweth that it is expedient for 
him, He bestoweth this also upon him, even as upon me. How often, though she were sick, 
did she come down to me at unlooked-for times, and listened to my voice as I prayed! And 


178 This repetition of a clause seems like the slip of a copyist. The Ox. ms. reads, etc; ri[v eipKtf|v rou OapacI) 

62 



The Testament of Joseph Concerning Sobriety. 


when I heard her groanings I held my peace. For when I was in her house she was wont to 
bare her arms, and breasts, and legs, that I might fall before her; for she was very beautiful, 

1 7Q 

splendidly adorned for my deception. And the Lord guarded me from her devices. 

10. Ye see therefore, my children, how great things patience worketh, and prayer with 
fasting. And if ye therefore follow after sobriety and purity in patience and humility of 
heart, the Lord will dwell among you, because He loveth sobriety. And wheresoever the 
Most High dwelleth, even though a man fall into envy, or slavery, or slander, the Lord who 
dwelleth in him, for his sobriety’s sake not only delivereth him from evil, but also exalteth 
and glorifieth him, even as me. For in every way the man is guarded, whether in deed, or 
in word, or in thought. My brethren know how my father loved me, and I was not exalted 
in my heart; although I was a child, I had the fear of God in my thoughts. For I knew that 
all things should pass away, and I kept myself within bounds, and I honoured my brethren; 
and through fear of them I held my peace when I was sold, and revealed not my family to 
the Ishmaelites, that I was the son of Jacob, a great man and a mighty. 

11. Do ye also, therefore, have the fear of God in your works, and honour your brethren. 
For every one who worketh the law of the Lord shall be loved by Him. And when I came 
to the Indocolpitae with the Ishmaelites, they asked me, and I said that I was a slave from 
their house, that I might not put my brethren to shame. And the eldest of them said unto 
me, Thou art not a slave, for even thy appearance doth make it manifest concerning thee. 
And he threatened me even unto death. But I said that I was their slave. Now when we 
came into Egypt, they strove concerning me, which of them should buy me and take me. 
Therefore it seemed good to all that I should remain in Egypt with a merchant of their trade, 
until they should return bringing merchandise. And the Lord gave me favour in the eyes 
of the merchant, and he entrusted unto me his house. And the Lord blessed him by my 
means, and increased him in silver and gold, and I was with him three months and five days. 

12. About that time the Memphian wife of Potiphar passed by with great pomp, and 
cast her eyes upon me, because her eunuchs told her concerning me. And she told her 
husband concerning the merchant, that he had become rich by means of a young Hebrew, 
saying, And they say that men have indeed stolen him out of the land of Canaan. Now 
therefore execute judgment with him, and take away the youth to be thy steward; so shall 
the God of the Hebrews bless thee, for grace from heaven is upon him. 

13. And Potiphar was persuaded by her words, and commanded the merchant to be 
brought, and said unto him, What is this that I hear, that thou stealest souls out of the land 
of the Hebrews, and sellest them for slaves? The merchant therefore fell upon his face, and 
besought him, saying, I beseech thee, my lord, I know not what thou sayest. And he said, 
Whence then is thy Hebrew servant? And he said, The Ishmaelites entrusted him to me 


179 [To this section Lardner takes exception, as unbecoming to the gravity of Joseph.] 


63 



The Testament of Joseph Concerning Sobriety. 


until they should return. And he believed him not, but commanded him to be stripped and 
beaten. And when he persisted, Potiphar said, Let the youth be brought. And when I was 
brought in, I did obeisance to the chief of the eunuchs — for he was third in rank with Pharaoh, 
being chief of all the eunuchs, and having wives and children and concubines. And he took 
me apart from him, and said unto me, Art thou a slave or free? And I said, A slave. And 
he said unto me, Whose slave art thou? And I said unto him, The Ishmaelites’. And again 
he said unto me, How becamest thou their slave? And I said, They bought me out of the 
land of Canaan. And he believed me not, and said, Thou liest: and he commanded me to 
be stripped and beaten. 

14. Now the Memphian woman was looking through a window while I was being beaten, 
and she sent unto her husband, saying, Thy judgment is unjust; for thou dost even punish 
a free man who hath been stolen, as though he were a transgressor. And when I gave no 
other answer though I was beaten, he commanded that we should be kept in guard, until, 
said he, the owners of the boy shall come. And his wife said unto him, Wherefore dost thou 
detain in captivity this noble child, who ought rather to be set at liberty, and wait upon thee? 
For she wished to see me in desire of sin, and I was ignorant concerning all these things. 
Then said he to his wife, It is not the custom of the Egyptians to take away that which belon- 
geth to others before proof is given. This he said concerning the merchant, and concerning 
me, that I must be imprisoned. 

15. Now, after four and twenty days came the Ishmaelites; and having heard that Jacob 
my father was mourning because of me, they said unto me, How is it that thou saidst that 
thou wert a slave? and lo, we have learnt that thou art the son of a mighty man in the land 
of Canaan, and thy father grieveth for thee in sackcloth. And again I would have wept, but 
I restrained myself, that I should not put my brethren to shame. And I said, I know not, I 
am a slave. Then they take counsel to sell me, that I should not be found in their hands. 
For they feared Jacob, lest he should work upon them a deadly vengeance. For it had been 
heard that he was mighty with the Lord and with men. Then said the merchant unto them, 
Release me from the judgment of Potiphar. They therefore came and asked for me, saying, 
He was bought by us with money. And he sent us away. 

16. Now the Memphian woman pointed me out to her husband, that he should buy 
me; for I hear, said she, that they are selling him. And she sent a eunuch to the Ishmaelites, 
and asked them to sell me; and since he was not willing to traffic with them, he returned. 
So when the eunuch had made trial of them, he made known to his mistress that they asked 
a large price for their slave. And she sent another eunuch, saying, Even though they demand 
two minae of gold, take heed not to spare the gold; only buy the boy, and bring him hither. 
And he gave them eighty pieces of gold for me, and told his mistress that a hundred had 
been given for me. And when I saw it I held my peace, that the eunuch should not be pun- 
ished. 


64 



The Testament of Joseph Concerning Sobriety. 


17. Ye see, my children, what great things I endured that I should not put my brethren 
to shame. Do ye also love one another, and with long-suffering hide ye one another’s faults. 
For God delighteth in the unity of brethren, and in the purpose of a heart approved unto 
love. And when my brethren came into Egypt, and learnt that I returned their money unto 
them, and upbraided them not, yea, that I even comforted them, and after the death of Jacob 
I loved them more abundantly, and all things whatsoever he commanded I did very 
abundantly, then they marvelled. For I suffered them not to be afflicted even unto the 
smallest matter; and all that was in my hand I gave unto them. Their children were my 
children, and my children were as their servants; their life was my life, and all their suffering 
was my suffering, and all their sickness was my infirmity. My land was their land, my 
counsel their counsel, and I exalted not myself among them in arrogance because of my 
worldly glory, but I was among them as one of the least. 

18. If ye also therefore walk in the commandments of the Lord, my children, He will 
exalt you there, and will bless you with good things for ever and ever. And if any one seeketh 
to do evil unto you, do ye by well-doing pray for him, and ye shall be redeemed of the Lord 
from all evil. For, behold, ye see that through long-suffering I took unto wife even the 
daughter of my master. And a hundred talents of gold were given me with her; for the 
Lord made them to serve me. And He gave me also beauty as a flower above the beautiful 
ones of Israel; and He preserved me unto old age in strength and in beauty, because I was 
like in all things to Jacob. 

19. Hear ye also, my children, the visions which I saw. There were twelve deer feeding, 
and the nine were divided and scattered in the land, likewise also the three. And I saw that 

1 Q 1 

from Judah was born a virgin wearing a linen garment, and from her went forth a Lamb, 
without spot, and on His left hand there was as it were a lion; and all the beasts rushed 
against Him, and the lamb overcame them, and destroyed them, and trod them under foot. 
And because of Him the angels rejoiced, and men, and all the earth. And these things shall 
take place in their season, in the last days. Do ye therefore, my children, observe the com- 
mandments of the Lord, and honour Judah and Levi; for from them shall arise unto you the 
Lamb of God, by grace saving all the Gentiles and Israel. For His kingdom is an everlasting 
kingdom, which shall not be shaken; but my kingdom among you shall come to an end as 

i on 

a watcher’s hammock, which after the summer will not appear. 


180 Another account is given in the Targ. Ps. Jon. of Gen. xli. 45, “And he gave him to wife Asenath, whom 
Dinah bare to Shechem: and the wife of Potipherah prince of Tanes brought up.” 

181 This wearing of a linen garment would seem to imply a connection with the priestly tribe. St. Luke (i. 
36) indeed calls the Virgin the kinswoman of Elisabeth. On this tendency to associate the old sacerdotal tribe 
with the new royalty of Messiah, c£, e.g., Protevangel. Jacobi, cc. 6, 7, 9; Augustine, contra Faustum, xxiii. 4; 
Epiphanius, Hcer., lxxviii. 13. [See Reuben, sec. 6, p. 10, supra.] 

182 Isa. i. 8; xxiv. 20. 


65 


The Testament of Joseph Concerning Sobriety. 


20. I know that after my death the Egyptians will afflict you, but God will undertake 
your cause, and will bring you into that which He promised to your fathers. But carry ye 
up my bones with you; for when my bones are taken up, the Lord will be with you in 
light, and Beliar shall be in darkness with the Egyptians. And carry ye up Zilpah your 
mother, and lay her near Bilhah, by the hippodrome, by the side of Rachel. And when 
he had said these things, he stretched out his feet, and slept the long sleep. And all Israel 
bewailed him, and all Egypt, with a great lamentation. For he felt even for the Egyptians 
even as his own members, and showed them kindness, aiding them in every work, and 
counsel, and matter. 


183 Cf. Test. Simeon 8, and Jubilees 46. The account of Joseph’s burial in the Targ. Ps. Jon. on Gen. 1. 26 is: 
“And Joseph died, a hundred and ten years old; and they embalmed him, and placed him in a coffin, and sank 
him in the middle of the Nile of Egypt." 

184 Cf. Gen. xlviii. 7, LXX. 


66 


The Testamen t of Benjamin Concern ing a Pure Mind. 


XII. — The Testament of Benjamin Concerning a Pure Mind. 

1. The record of the words of Benjamin, which he set forth to his sons, after he had 
lived a hundred and twenty years. And he kissed them, and said: As Isaac was born to 
Abraham in his hundredth year, so also was I to Jacob. Now since Rachel died in giving me 
birth, I had no milk; therefore I was suckled by Bilhah her handmaid. For Rachel remained 
barren for twelve years after that she had borne Joseph: and she prayed the Lord with fasting 
twelve days, and she conceived and bare me. For our father loved Rachel dearly, and prayed 
that he might see two sons born from her: therefore was I called the son of days, which is 
Benjamin. 185 

2. When therefore I went into Egypt, and Joseph my brother recognised me, he said 
unto me, What did they tell my father in that they sold me? And I said unto him, They 
dabbled thy coat with blood and sent it, and said, Look if this is the coat of thy son. And 
he said to me, Even so, brother; for when the Ishmaelites took me, one of them stripped off 
my coat, and gave me a girdle, and scourged me, and bade me run. And as he went away 
to hide my garment, a lion met him, and slew him; and so his fellows were afraid, and sold 
me to their companions. 

3. Do ye also therefore, my children, love the Lord God of heaven, and keep His com- 
mandments, and be followers of the good and holy man Joseph; and let your mind be unto 
good, even as ye know me. He that hath his mind good seeth all things rightly. Fear ye the 
Lord, and love your neighbour; and even though the spirits of Beliar allure you into all 
troublous wickedness, yet shall no troublous wickedness have dominion over you, even as 
it had not over Joseph my brother. How many men wished to slay him, and God shielded 
him! For he that feareth God and loveth his neighbour cannot be smitten by Beliar’s spirit 
of the air, being shielded by the fear of God; nor can he be ruled over by the device of men 
or of beasts, for he is aided by the love of the Lord which he hath towards his neighbour. 
For he even besought our father Jacob that he would pray for our brethren, that the Lord 
would not impute to them the evil that they devised concerning Joseph. And thus Jacob 
cried out, My child Joseph, thou hast prevailed over the bowels of thy father Jacob. And he 
embraced him, and kissed him for two hours, saying, In thee shall be fulfilled the prophecy 
of heaven concerning the Lamb of God, even the Saviour of the world, that spotless shall 
He be delivered up for transgressors, and sinless shall He be put to death for ungodly 


185 The ordinary theory as to the meaning of Benjamin is comparatively late, and seems doubtful. The Targum 
Jerushalmi (on Gen. xxxv. 18), and the Breshith Rabba, § 82, make Benjamin and Benoni synonymous. Cf. 
Josephus, Antiq., i. 21. 3; Cyril, Glaph. in Gen., lib. iv. With the view mentioned in the text, cf. Arethas on Rev. 
vii. 8 (Cramer’s Catena, viii. 289). 

186 This would seem to be the earliest instance of the application of the word dvapdprr|TO(; to our Lord. 


67 


The Testamen t of Benjamin Concern ing a Pure Mind. 


1 R7 

men in the blood of the covenant, for the salvation of the Gentiles and of Israel, and shall 

destroy Beliar, and them that serve him. 

4. Know ye, my children, the end of the good man? Be followers of his compassion in 
a good mind, that ye also may wear crowns of glory. The good man hath not a dark eye; 
for he showeth mercy to all men, even though they be sinners, even though they devise evil 
concerning him. So he that doeth good overcometh the evil, being shielded by Him that is 
good; and he loveth the righteous as his own soul. If any one is glorified, he envieth him 
not; if any one is enriched, he is not jealous; if any one is valiant, he praiseth him; he trusteth 
and laudeth him that is sober-minded; he showeth mercy to the poor; he is kindly disposed 
toward the weak; he singeth the praises of God; as for him who hath the fear of God, he 
protecteth him as with a shield; him that loveth God he aideth; him that rejecteth the Most 
High he admonisheth and turneth back; and him that hath the grace of a good spirit, he 
loveth even as his own soul. 

5. If ye have a good mind, my children, then will both wicked men be at peace with 
you, and the profligate will reverence you and turn unto good; and the covetous shall not 
only cease from their inordinate desire, but shall even give the fruits of their covetousness 
to them that are afflicted. If ye do well, even the unclean spirits shall flee from you; yea, the 
very beasts shall flee from you in dread. For where the reverence for good works is present 
unto the mind, darkness fleeth away from him. For if any one is injurious to a holy man, 
he repenteth; for the holy man showeth pity on his reviler, and holdeth his peace. And if 
any one betray a righteous soul, and the righteous man, though praying, be humbled for a 
little while, yet not long after he appeareth far more glorious, even as was Joseph my 
brother. 

6. The mind of the good man is not in the power of the deceit of the spirit of Beliar, for 
the angel of peace guideth his soul. He gazeth not passionately on corruptible things, nor 
gathereth together riches unto desire of pleasure; he delighteth not in pleasure, he hurteth 
not his neighbour, he pampereth not himself with food, he erreth not in the pride of his 
eyes, for the Lord is his portion. The good mind admitteth not the glory and dishonour of 
men, neither knoweth it any guile or he, fighting or reviling; for the Lord dwelleth in him 
and lighteth up his soul, and he rejoiceth towards all men at every time. The good mind 
hath not two tongues, of blessing and of cursing, of insult and of honour, of sorrow and of 
joy, of quietness and of trouble, of hypocrisy and of truth, of poverty and of wealth; but it 

i oo 

hath one disposition, pure and uncorrupt, concerning all men. It hath no double sight, 
nor double hearing; for in everything which he doeth, or speaketh, or seeth, he knoweth 


187 [How could any Christian more fully testify to the Nicene Faith? So the Gloria in Excelsis.] 

188 [Matt. vi. 22; Luke xi. 34.] 


68 


The Testament of Benjamin Concerning a Pure Mind. 


that the Lord watcheth his soul, and he cleanseth his mind that he be not condemned by 
God and men. But of Beliar every work is twofold, and hath no singleness. 

7. Flee ye therefore, my children, the evil-doing of Beliar; for it giveth a sword to them 
that obeyeth, and the sword is the mother of seven evils. First the mind conceiveth through 
Beliar, and first there is envy; secondly, desperation; thirdly, tribulation; fourthly, captivity; 
fifthly, neediness; sixthly, trouble; seventhly, desolation. Therefore also Cain is delivered 
over to seven vengeances by God, for in every hundred years the Lord brought one plague 
upon him. Two hundred years he suffered, and in the nine hundredth year he was brought 
to desolation at the flood, for Abel his righteous brother’s sake. In seven hundred years 
was Cain judged, and Lamech in seventy times seven; because for ever those who are likened 
unto Cain in envy unto hatred of brethren shall be judged with the same punishment. 

8. Do ye also therefore, my children, flee ill-doing, envy, and hatred of brethren, and 
cleave to goodness and love. He that hath a pure mind in love, looketh not after a woman 
unto fornication; for he hath no defilement in his heart, because the Spirit of God resteth 
in him. For as the sun is not defiled by shining over dung and mire, but rather drieth up 
both and driveth away the ill smell: so also the pure mind, constrained among the defilements 
of the earth, rather edifieth, and itself suffereth no defilement. 

9. Now I suppose, from the words of the righteous Enoch, that there will be also evil- 
doings among you: for ye will commit fornication with the fornication of Sodom, and shall 
perish all save a few, and will multiply inordinate lusts with women; and the kingdom of 
the Lord shall not be among you, for forthwith He will take it away. Nevertheless the temple 
of God shall be built in your portion, and shall be glorious among you. For He shall take 
it, and the twelve tribes shall be gathered together there, and all the Gentiles, until the Most 
High shall send forth His salvation in the visitation of His only-begotten one. And He shall 
enter into the front 190 of the temple, and there shall the Lord be treated with outrage, and 
He shall be lifted up upon a tree. And the veil of the temple shall be rent, and the Spirit of 
God shall descend upon the Gentiles as fire poured forth. And He shall arise from the grave, 
and shall ascend from earth into heaven: and I know how lowly He shall be upon the earth, 
and how glorious in the heaven. 

10. Now when Joseph was in Egypt, I longed to see his visage and the form of his 
countenance; and through the prayers of Jacob my father I saw him, while awake in the 
daytime, in his full and perfect shape. Know ye therefore, my children, that I am dying. 
Work therefore truth and righteousness each one with his neighbour, and judgment unto 
faithful doing, and keep the law of the Lord and His commandments; for these things do I 
teach you instead of all inheritance. Do ye also therefore give them to your children for an 



189 For CTtraKooiou; erearv the Ox. ms. reads simply eitra. 

190 This would seem to be the meaning of Ttpwroc; vaoc;. 


69 



The Testamen t of Benjamin Concern ing a Pure Mind. 


everlasting possession; for so did both Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob. All these things they 
gave us for an inheritance, saying, Keep the commandments of God until the Lord shall reveal 
His salvation to all nations. Then shall ye see Enoch, Noah, and Shem, and Abraham, and 
Isaac, and Jacob, arising on the right hand in gladness. Then shall we also arise, each one 
over our tribe, worshipping the King of heaven, who appeared upon the earth in the form 
of a man of humility. And as many as believed on Him on the earth shall rejoice with 
Him; 191 and then shall all men arise, some unto glory and some unto shame. And the Lord 
shall judge Israel first, even for the wrong they did unto Him; for when He appeared as a 
deliverer, God in the flesh, they believed Him not. And then shall He judge all the Gentiles, 
as many as believed Him not when He appeared upon earth. And He shall reprove Israel 
among the chosen ones of the Gentiles, even as He reproved Esau among the Midianites, 
who deceived their brethren, so that they fell into fornication and idolatry; and they were 
alienated from God, and became as they that were no children in the portion of them that 
fear the Lord. But if ye walk in holiness in the presence of the Lord, ye shall dwell in hope 
again in me, and all Israel shall be gathered unto the Lord. 

11. And I shall no longer be called a ravening wolf on account of your ravages, but 
a worker of the Lord, distributing food to them that work what is good. And one shall 
rise up from my seed in the latter times, beloved of the Lord, hearing upon the earth His 
voice, enlightening with new knowledge all the Gentiles, bursting in upon Israel for salvation 
with the light of knowledge, and tearing it away from it like a wolf, and giving it to the syn- 
agogue of the Gentiles. And until the consummation of the ages shall he be in the synagogues 
of the Gentiles, and among their rulers, as a strain of music in the mouth of all; 194 and he 
shall be inscribed in the holy books, both his work and his word, and he shall be a chosen 
one of God for ever; and because of him my father Jacob instructed me, saying, He shall fill 
up that which lacketh of thy tribe. 

12. And when he finished his words, he said: I charge you, my children, carry up my 
bones out of Egypt, and bury me at Hebron, near my fathers. So Benjamin died a hundred 
and twenty- five years old, in a good old age, and they placed him in a coffin. And in the 
ninety-first year of the departure of the children of Israel from Egypt, they and their brethren 
brought up the bones of their fathers secretly in a place which is called Canaan; and they 



191 [Rev. xx. 5, 6. See p. 25, note 4, supra.] 

192 Gen. xlix. 27. This passage, referring to St. Paul (who was of the tribe of Benjamin, Rom. xi. 1; Phil. iii. 
5), is quoted by Tertullian, Adversus Marcionem , v. 1. [See vol. iii. p. 430, this series.] 

193 Compare Scorpiace, cap. 13 [with reference to Gen. xxv. 34 and xxvii. 25, vol. iii. p. 646, this series. 
Lardner adds Origen, Horn, in Ezech., iv. tom. iii. p. 731; Theodoret, in Gen. Qucest., cx. tom. i. p. 77; and Au- 
gustine, Serm., 279 (and passim), tom. v. ed. Benedict.]. 

194 [“Mel in ore, melos in aure, melodia in corde.” — St. Bernard.] 


70 


The Testament of Benjamin Concerning a Pure Mind. 


buried them in Hebron, by the feet of their fathers. And they returned from the land of 
Canaan, and dwelt in Egypt until the day of their departing from the land of Egypt. 


71 



Note by the American Editor. 


Note by the American Editor. 

I had prepared annotations for these pages which I find will require more space than 
this overloaded volume can afford. Let me indicate some sources of information which the 
student may find convenient. Thus, in Liddon’s Bampton Lecture (4th ed., London, 1869), 
consult p. 71 for remarks on Philo and Alexandrian Jews; see also p. 91. Concerning the 
“Book of Enoch,” pp. 7 and 302; see Westcott, Study of the Gospels (London, 1867), p. 109, 
a reference to the Book of Jubilees, and its lack of reference to Messiah. See Jewish doctrine 
of the Messiah, pp. 86, 143, 151; the “Book of Henoch,” pp. 69, 93, 101; apocryphal words 
of Jews, p. 428. He places the “Book of Henoch” earlier than the “Book of Jubilees,” and the 
Twelve Patriarchs after that. Compare Westcott’s Historic Faith (London, 1883), a quotation 
from Goldwin Smith, on “the blood of Christ,” note 8, p. 237. 

I cannot forbear to note, among useful suggestions in these Testaments, that (on p. 1 1) 
of the share of Simeon in the persecution of Joseph. It explains the real purpose of Joseph 
in selecting Simeon as the hostage to be left in Egypt (Gen. xlii. 21-24.) Joseph heard the 
mutual reproaches of his brothers, and foresaw that Simeon would be made to suffer as 
most guilty: so he was withdrawn. Again, a like anxiety (Gen. xlv. 2) appears when Simeon 
was sent back with them to his father. Other suggestions may be noted as substantially il- 
lustrating the sacred narrative. 


72 


Excerpts ofTheodotus. 


EXCERPTS OF THEODOTUS; 



SELECTIONS FROM THE PROPHETIC SCRIPTURES. 


[Translated by the Rev. William Wilson, M.A.] 


73 



Introductory Notice. 


Introductory Notice 

to 

Excerpts of Theodotus; or, Selections from the Prophetic 

Scriptures. 


We may thank Mr. Wilson, the translator, for separating this collection, absolutely, 
from the works of Clement of Alexandria, to which it has been made an appendix. The 
reference to “our Pantaenus” gives the only colour for such a collocation with so great a 
name. It is the work of a Montanist, perhaps, who may have had some relations with the 
Alexandrian school; but it is hard to say precisely who of three or four named Theodotus 
(all heretics), may have made the compilation, more especially because disjointed and con- 
tradictory fragments seem mixed up in it as it is commonly edited. Dupin (perhaps too 
readily copying Valesius) appears to think Clement may have been the compiler, but that, 
like the Hypotyposes, the work was the product of days when he was imperfectly educated 
in Christian truth. It seems to me more reasonable to conclude that these excerpts, and 
what goes by the name of Fragments from the Hypotyposes, are alike corrupt or forged doc- 
uments, for which Clement’s name has been borrowed, to give them some credit; and I can 
desire no better authority for this opinion than that of Jeremiah Jones, with the arguments 
to be found in his learned work on the Canon } 95 

The wretched performance, therefore, is valuable chiefly as illustrating certain heresies 
of the second century; but, incidentally, it is of considerable importance as confirming the 
orthodox writers in those books and doctrines to which it bears witness in coincidence with 
them. 

I regret that the Edinburgh editors give us not a line of information as to their estimate 
of these extracts, or concerning authorship and like matters of interest and natural curiosity. 


195 Vol. i. pp. 371-376. These Selections are often quoted as “Eclogues. 


74 



Excerpts ofTheodotus. 


Excerpts ofTheodotus ; 196 


43 

Selections from the Prophetic Scriptures . 197 


I. Those around Sedrach, Misak, and Abednago in the furnace of fire say as they praise 
God, “Bless, ye heavens, the Lord; praise and exalt Him for ever;” then, “Bless, ye angels, 
the Lord;” then, “Bless the Lord, all ye waters that are above heaven.” So the Scriptures assign 
the heavens and the waters to the class of pure powers as is shown in Genesis. Suitably, 
then, inasmuch as “power” is used with a variety of meaning, Daniel adds, “Let every power 
bless the Lord;” then, further, “Bless the Lord, sun and moon;” and, “Bless the Lord, ye stars 
of heaven. Bless the Lord, all ye that worship Him; praise and confess the God of gods, for 
His mercy is for ever.” It is written in Daniel, on the occasion of the three children praising 
in the furnace. 

II. “Blessed art Thou, who lookest on the abysses as Thou sittest on the cherubim,” says 
Daniel, in agreement with Enoch , 199 who said, “And I saw all sorts of matter.” For the abyss, 
which is in its essence boundless, is bounded by the power of God. These material essences 
then, from which the separate genera and their species are produced, are called abysses; 
since you would not call the water alone the abyss, although matter is allegorically called 
water, the abyss. 

III. “In the beginning God made the heaven and the earth ,” 200 both terrestrial and ce- 
lestial things. And that this is true, the Lord said to Osee, “Go, take to thyself a wife of for- 
nication, and children of fornication: because the land committing fornication, shall commit 
fornication, departing from the Lord.” For it is not the element of earth that he speaks 
of, but those that dwell in the element, those who have an earthly disposition. 


196 [I have prefixed this title, which Mr. Wilson has omitted, possibly because these extracts are themselves 
somewhat abridged.] 

197 [For all the confusions about Theodotus and the divers persons so called, see Lardner, Credit., viii. 
572-579. These are the extracts commonly called the Edogues or Excerpts ofTheodotus; but they do not contain 
certain passages, which may have been interpolations.] 

198 Spirits. 

199 [See vol. vi., this series, note 9, p. 147.] 

200 Gen. i. 1. 


201 Hos. i. 2. 


75 


Excerpts ofTheodotus. 


909 

IV. And that the Son is the beginning" or head, Hosea teaches clearly: “And it shall 
be, that in the place in which it was said to them, Ye are not my people, they shall be called 
the children of the living God: and the children of Judah and the children of Israel shall be 
gathered to the same place, and they shall place over them one head, and they shall come 
up out of the land; for great is the day of Jezreel .” 204 For whom one believes, him He chooses. 
But one believes the Son, who is the head; wherefore also he said in addition: “But I will 
have mercy on the sons of Judah, and will save them by the Lord their God.” Now the 

9/v/r 

Saviour who saves is the Son of God. He is then the head. 

V. The Spirit by Osee says, ‘I am your Instructor; “Blow ye the trumpet upon 
the hills of the Lord; sound upon the high places .” 209 And is not baptism itself, which is 
the sign of regeneration, an escape from matter, by the teaching of the Saviour, a great im- 
petuous stream, ever rushing on and bearing us along? The Lord accordingly, leading us 
out of disorder, illumines us by bringing us into the light, which is shadowless and is mater- 
ial no longer. 

VI. This river and sea of matter two prophets cut asunder and divided by the power 
of the Lord, the matter being bounded, through both divisions of the water. Famous leaders 
both, by whom the signs were believed, they complied with the will of God, so that the 
righteous man may proceed from matter, having journeyed through it first. On the one of 

911 

these commanders also was imposed the name of our Saviour. 

VII. Now, regeneration is by water and spirit, as was all creation: “For the Spirit of God 

919 

moved on the abyss.” And for this reason the Saviour was baptized, though not Himself 
needing to be so, in order that He might consecrate the whole water for those who were 
being regenerated. Thus it is not the body only, but the soul, that we cleanse. It is accordingly 



202 apxn 

203 apxtjv. 

204 Hos. i. 10, 11. 

205 Hos. i. 7. 

206 apxn 

207 Hos. v. 2. 

208 “Blow ye the cornet in Gibeah, and the trumpet in Ramah.” — A. V. 

209 Hos. v. 8. 

210 Moses who divided the sea, and Joshua who divided the Jordan. 

211 Joshua = Jesus 

212 Gen. i. 2. 

213 [In a quotation which Jones makes from the Excerpts (not found here) the reverse is shamelessly asserted. 
Canon, vol. i. p. 375.] 


76 


Excerpts ofTheodotus. 


a sign of the sanctifying of our invisible part, and of the straining off from the new and 
spiritual creation of the unclean spirits that have got mixed up with the soul. 

VIII. “The water above the heaven.” Since baptism is performed by water and the 
Spirit as a protection against the twofold fire, — that which lays hold of what is visible, and 
that which lays hold of what is invisible; and of necessity, there being an immaterial element 
of water and a material, is it a protection against the twofold 214 fire. And the earthly water 
cleanses the body; but the heavenly water, by reason of its being immaterial and invisible, 
is an emblem of the Holy Spirit, who is the purifier of what is invisible, as the water of the 
Spirit, as the other of the body. 

IX. God, out of goodness, hath mingled fear with goodness. For what is beneficial for 
each one, that He also supplies, as a physician to a sick man, as a father to his insubordinate 

oir 

child: “For he that spareth his rod hateth his son.” And the Lord and His apostles walked 
in the midst of fear and labours. When, then, the affliction is sent in the person of a righteous 

oi/r 

man, it is either from the Lord rebuking him for a sin committed before, or guarding 
him on account of the future, or not preventing by the exercise of His power an assault from 
without, — for some good end to him and to those near, for the sake of example. 

X. Now those that dwell in a corrupt body, like those who sail in an old ship, do not lie 
on their back, but are ever praying, stretching their hands to God. 

XI. The ancients were exceedingly distressed, unless they had always some suffering in 

the body. For they were afraid, that if they received not in this world the punishment of the 
sins which, in numbers through ignorance, accompany those that are in the flesh, they would 
in the other world suffer the penalty all at once. So that they preferred curative treatment 
here. What is to be dreaded is, then, not external disease, but sins, for which disease comes, 
and disease of the soul, not of the body: “For all flesh is grass,” and corporeal and external 

9 1 Q 

good things are temporary; “but the things which are unseen are eternal.” 

XII. As to knowledge, some elements of it we already possess; others, by what we do 
possess, we firmly hope to attain. For neither have we attained all, nor do we lack all. But 
we have received, as it were, an earnest of the eternal blessings, and of the ancestral riches. 
The provisions for the Lord’s way are the Lord’s beatitudes. For He said: “Seek,” and 
anxiously seek, “the kingdom of God, and all these things shall be added to you: for the 


214 SiTtAoric — substantive. 

215 Prov. xiii. 24. 

216 orav ouv ttiotou atbjiaroi; fl. 

217 The sense is hazy, but about as clear as that to be obtained by substituting conjecturally for TtpoafloAriv 
(assault), Ttpoc; (3oArjv, or £7ti(3oAriv, or £7n(3ouA.riv. 

218 Isa. xl. 6. 

219 2 Cor. iv. 18. 


77 


Excerpts ofTheodotus. 


990 

Father knoweth what things ye have need of.” Thus He limits not only our occupations, 

991 

but our cares. For He says: “Ye cannot, by taking thought, add aught to your stature.” 

For God knows well what it is good for us to have and what to want. He wishes, therefore, 
that we, emptying ourselves of worldly cares, should be filled with that which is directed 
towards God. “For we groan, desiring to be clothed upon with that which is incorruptible, 
before putting off corruption.” For when faith is shed abroad, unbelief is nonplussed. 
Similarly also with knowledge and righteousness. We must therefore not only empty the 
soul, but fill it with God. For no longer is there evil in it, since that has been made to cease; 
nor yet is there good, since it has not yet received good. But what is neither good nor evil 
is nothing. “For to the swept and empty house return,” if none of the blessings of salvation 

has been put in, the unclean spirit that dwelt there before, taking with him seven other un- 
clean spirits. Wherefore, after emptying the soul of what is evil, we must fill with the good 
God that which is His chosen dwelling-place. For when the empty rooms are filled, then 
follows the seal, that the sanctuary may be guarded for God. 

XIII. “By two and three witnesses every word is established.” By Father, and Son, 
and Holy Spirit, by whose witness and help the prescribed commandments ought to be 
kept . 224 

XIV. Fasting, according to the signification of the word, is abstinence from food. Now 
food makes us neither more righteous nor less. But mystically it shows that, as life is 
maintained in individuals by sustenance, and want of sustenance is the token of death; so 
also ought we to fast from worldly things, that we may die to the world, and after that, by 
partaking of divine sustenance, live to God. Especially does fasting empty the soul of matter, 
and make it, along with the body, pure and light for the divine words. Worldly food is, then, 
the former life and sins; but the divine food is faith, hope, love, patience, knowledge, peace, 
temperance. For “blessed are they that hunger and thirst after” God’s “righteousness; for 
they shall be filled.” The soul, but not the body, it is which is susceptible of this craving. 

XV. The Saviour showed to the believing apostles prayer to be stronger than faith in 
the case of a demoniac, whom they could not cleanse, when He said, Such things are accom- 
plished by prayer. He who has believed has obtained forgiveness of sins from the Lord; but 


220 Matt. vi. 33, 32. 

221 Matt. vi. 27; Luke xii. 25. 

222 Matt. xii. 44. 

223 Deut. xvii. 6. 

224 [This looks as if the text of the three witnesses had been in this compiler’s copy of St. John’s First Epistle. 
See vol. iii. Elucid. III. p. 631. St. Augustine also seems to me to sustain the African text in the De Civit., lib. v. 
cap. xi. p. 154, ed. Migne.] 

225 Matt. v. 6. 


78 


Excerpts ofTheodotus. 


he who has attained knowledge, inasmuch as he no longer sins, obtains from himself the 
forgiveness of the rest. 

XVI. For as cures, and prophecies, and signs are performed by the agency of men, God 
working in them, so also is Gnostic teaching. For God shows His power through men. And 
the prophecy rightly says, “I will send to them a man who will save them.” Accordingly 
He sends forth at one time prophets, at another apostles, to be saviours of men. Thus God 
does good by the agency of men. For it is not that God can do some things, and cannot do 
others: He is never powerless in anything. No more are some things done with, and some 
things against His will; and some things by Him, and some things by another. But He even 
brought us into being by means of men, and trained us by means of men. 

XVII. God made us, having previously no existence. For if we had a previous existence, 
we must have known where we were, and how and why we came hither. But if we had no 
pre-existence, then God is the sole author of our creation. As, then, He made us who had 
no existence; so also, now that we are made, He saves us by His own grace, if we show 
ourselves worthy and susceptible; if not, He will let us pass to our proper end. For He is 
Lord both of the living and the dead. 

XVIII. But see the power of God, not only in the case of men, in bringing to existence 
out of non-existence, and making them when brought into being grow up according to the 
progress of the time of life, but also in saving those who believe, in a way suitable to each 
individual. And now He changes both hours, and times, and fruits, and elements. For this 
is the one God, who has measured both the beginning and the end of events suitably to each 
one. 

XIX. Advancing from faith and fear to knowledge, man knows how to say Lord, Lord; 
but not as His slave, he has learned to say, Our Father. Having set free the spirit of 
bondage, which produces fear, and advanced by love to adoption, he now reverences from 
love Him whom he feared before. For he no longer abstains from what he ought to abstain 


226 Isa. xix. 20. 

227 The reading is, si pf| Ttapqaet Ttpoq to oIkeTov teA.o<;; and the Latin translator renders “si non segnes simus 
ad finem proprium.” It seems better, with Sylburgius, to take e! pf| as equivalent to et 5 e pr|, and to put a comma 
after pr|, so as to render as above. 

228 [A happy reference to the Lord’s Prayer as connected with St. Paul’s reference to the Abba; and it is worth 
while to compare the use of this word with the prayer as used in the synagogue. Vol. v. Elucid. III. p. 559, this 
series.] 


79 


Excerpts ofTheodotus. 


from out of fear, but out of love clings to the commandments. “The Spirit itself,” it is said, 

99Q 9?n 

“beareth witness when we cry, Abba, Father.” 

XX. Now the Lord with His precious blood redeems us, freeing us from our old bitter 
masters, that is, our sins, on account of which the spiritual powers of wickedness ruled over 
us. Accordingly He leads us into the liberty of the Father, — sons that are co-heirs and 
friends. “For,” says the Lord, “they that do the will of my Father are my brethren and fellow- 
heirs.” “Call no man, therefore, father to yourselves on earth.” For it is masters that 
are on earth. But in heaven is the Father, of whom is the whole family, both in heaven and 
on earth. ' For love rules willing hearts, but fear the unwilling. One kind of fear is base; 
but the other, leading us as a pedagogue to good, brings us to Christ, and is saving. 

XXL Now if one has a conception of God, it by no means corresponds with His worthi- 
ness. For what can the worthiness of God be? But let him, as far as is possible, conceive of 
a great and incomprehensible and most beautiful light; inaccessible, comprehending all 
good power, all comely virtue; caring for all, compassionate, passionless, good; knowing all 
things, foreknowing all things, pure, sweet, shining, stainless. 

XXII. Since the movement of the soul is self-originated, the grace of God demands from 
it what the soul possesses, willingness as its contribution to salvation. For the soul wishes 
to be its own good; which the Lord, however, gives it. For it is not devoid of sensation so as 
to be carried along like a body. Having is the result of taking, and taking of willing and de- 
siring; and keeping hold of what one has received, of the exercise of care and of ability. 
Wherefore God has endowed the soul with free choice, that He may show it its duty, and 
that it choosing, may receive and retain. 

XXIII. As through the body the Lord spake and healed, so also formerly by the prophets, 
and now by the apostles and teachers. For the Church is the minister of the Lord’s power. 
Thence He then assumed humanity, that by it He might minister to the Father s will. 
And at all times, the God who loves humanity 235 invests Himself with man for the salvation 
of men, — in former times with the prophets, and now with the Church. For it is fitting that 
like should minister to like, in order to a like salvation. 


229 [A happy reference to the Lord’s Prayer as connected with St. Paul’s reference to the Abba; and it is worth 
while to compare the use of this word with the prayer as used in the synagogue. Vol. v. Elucid. III. p. 559, this 
series.] 

230 Rom. viii. 15; Gal. iv. 6. 

231 Matt. xii. 50. 

232 Matt, xxiii. 9. 

233 Eph. iii. 15. 

234 avBpumov. 

235 <ptMv0pWTtoc. 


80 


Excerpts ofTheodotus. 


XXIV. For we are of the earth.... Caesar is the prince, for the time being, whose earthly 
image is the old man, to which he has returned. To him, then, we are to render the earthly 
things, which we bore in the image of the earthly, and the things of God to God. For each 
one of the passions is on us as a letter, and stamp, and sign. Now the Lord marks us with 
another stamp, and with other names and letters, faith instead of unbelief, and so forth. 
Thus we are translated from what is material to what is spiritual, “having borne the image 
of the heavenly .” 236 

XXV. John says: “I indeed baptize you with water, but there cometh after me He that 

baptizeth with the Spirit and fire.” But He baptized no one with fire. But some, as Her- 
aclius says, marked with fire the ears of those who were sealed; understanding so the 
apostolic saying, “For His fan is in His hand, to purge His floor: and He will gather the 
wheat into the garner; but the chaff He will burn with fire unquenchable.” There is 
joined, then, the expression “by fire” to that “by the Spirit;” since He separates the wheat 
from the chaff, that is, from the material husk, by the Spirit; and the chaff is separated, being 
fanned by the wind: so also the Spirit possesses a power of separating material forces. 

Since, then, some things are produced from what is unproduced and indestructible, — that 
is, the germs of life, — the wheat also is stored, and the material part, as long as it is conjoined 
with the superior part, remains; when separated from it, it is destroyed; for it had its existence 
in another thing. This separating element, then, is the Spirit, and the destroying element is 
the fire: and material fire is to be understood. But since that which is saved is like wheat, 
and that which grows in the soul like chaff, and the one is incorporeal, and that which is 
separated is material; to the incorporeal He opposes spirit, which is rarefied and pure — almost 
more so than mind; and to the material He opposes fire, not as being evil or bad, but as strong 
and capable of cleansing away evil. For fire is conceived as a good force and powerful, de- 
structive of what is baser, and conservative of what is better. Wherefore this fire is by the 
prophets called wise. 

XXVI. Thus also, then, when God is called “a consuming fire,” it is because a name and 
sign, not of wickedness, but of power, is to be selected. For as fire is the most potent of the 
elements, and masters all things; so also God is all-powerful and almighty, who is able to 
hold, to create, to make, to nourish, to make grow, to save, having power of body and soul. 
As, then, fire is superior to the elements, so is the Almighty Ruler to gods, and powers, and 
principalities. The power of fire is twofold: one power conduces to the production and 
maturing of fruits and of animals, of which the sun is the image; and the other to consump- 


236 1 Cor. xv. 49. 

237 Matt.iii.il. 

238 Matt. iii. 12. 

Or spirit — nveuparoc; . 


239 


81 


Excerpts ofTheodotus. 


tion and destruction, as terrestrial fire. When, then, God is called a consuming fire, He is 
called a mighty and resistless power, to which nothing is impossible, but which is able to 
destroy. 

Respecting such a power, also, the Saviour says, “I came to send fire upon the earth ,” 240 
indicating a power to purify what is holy, but destructive, as they say, of what is material; 
and, as we should say, disciplinary. Now fear pertains to fire, and diffusion to light. 

XXVII. Now the more ancient men 241 did not write, as they neither wished to encroach 
on the time devoted to attention bestowed on what they handed down, in the way of 
teaching, by the additional attention bestowed on writing, nor spent the time for considering 
what was to be said on writing. And, perhaps convinced that the function of composition 
and the department of teaching did not belong to the same cast of mind, they gave way to 
those who had a natural turn for it. For in the case of a speaker, the stream of speech flows 
unchecked and impetuous, and you may catch it up hastily. But that which is always tested 
by readers, meeting with strict examination, is thought worthy of the utmost pains, and 

is, so to speak, the written confirmation of oral instruction, and of the voice so wafted along 
to posterity by written composition. For that which was committed in trust to the elders, 
speaking in writing, uses the writer’s help to hand itself down to those who are to read it. 
As, then, the magnet, repelling other matter, attracts iron alone by reason of affinity; so also 
books, though many read them, attract those alone who are capable of comprehending 
them. For the word of truth is to some “foolishness ,” 243 and to others a “stumbling-block ;” 244 
but to a few “wisdom .” 245 So also is the power of God found to be. But far from the Gnostic 
be envy. For it is for this reason also that he asks whether it be worse to give to the unworthy, 
or not commit to the worthy; and runs the risk, from his abundant love of communicating, 
not only to every one who is qualified, but sometimes also to one unworthy, who asks im- 
portunately; not on account of his entreaty (for he loves not glory), but on account of the 
persistency of the petitioner who bends his mind towards faith with copious entreaty. 

XXVIII. There are those calling themselves Gnostics who are envious of those in their 
own house more than strangers. And, as the sea is open to all, but one swims, another sails, 
and a third catches fish; and as the land is common, but one walks, another ploughs, another 
hunts, — somebody else searches the mines, and another builds a house: so also, when the 


240 Luke xii. 49. 

241 TTpea(3uT£poi . 

242 It seems better, with Sylb., to read &Kpt(3ou<;, qualifying e^erdaeuK; (as above), than aKpi(3u)<;, adv. quali- 
fying (3aaavR6|i£vov, tested. 

243 1 Cor. i. 18. 

244 1 Cor. i. 18. 

245 1 Cor. i. 18. 


82 


Excerpts ofTheodotus. 


Scripture is read, one is helped to faith, another to morality, and a third is freed from super- 
stition by the knowledge of things. The athlete, who knows the Olympic stadium, strips for 
training, contends, and becomes victor, tripping up his antagonists who contend against 
his scientific method, and fighting out the contest. For scientific knowledge 246 is necessary 
both for the training of the soul and for gravity of conduct; making the faithful more active 
and keen observers of things. For as there is no believing without elementary instruction, 

947 

so neither is there comprehension without science. 

XXIX. For what is useful and necessary to salvation, such as the knowledge of the Father, 
and Son, and Holy Spirit, and also of our own soul, are wholly requisite; and it is at once 
beneficial and necessary to attain to the scientific account of them. And to those who have 
assumed the lead in doing good, much experience is advantageous; so that none of the things 
which appear to be known necessarily and eruditely by others may escape their notice. The 
exposition, too, of heterodox teaching affords another exercise of the inquiring soul, and 
keeps the disciple from being seduced from the truth, by his having already had practice 

94S 

beforehand in sounding all round on warlike instruments of music. 

XXX. The life of the Gnostic rule, (as they say that Crete was barren of deadly animals,) 
is pure from every evil deed, and thought, and word; not only hating no one, but beyond 
envy and hatred, and all evil-speaking and slander. 

XXXI. In length of days, it is not on account of his having lived long that the man is to 
be regarded happy, to whose lot it has also fallen, through his having lived, to be worthy of 
living for ever. He has pained no one, except in instructing by the word the wounded in 
heart, as it were by a salutary honey, which is at once sweet and pungent. So that, above all, 
the Gnostic preserves the decorous along with that which is in accordance with reason. For 
passion being cut away and stript off from the whole soul, he henceforth consorts and lives 
with what is noblest, which has now become pure, and emancipated to adoption. 

XXXII. Pythagoras thought that he who gave things their names, ought to be regarded 
not only the most intelligent, but the oldest of the wise men. We must, then, search the 
Scriptures accurately, since they are admitted to be expressed in parables, and from the 
names hunt out the thoughts which the Holy Spirit, propounding respecting things, teaches 
by imprinting His mind, so to speak, on the expressions; that the names used with various 
meanings, being made the subject of accurate investigation, maybe explained, and that that 
which is hidden under many integuments may, being handled and learned, come to light 
and gleam forth. For so also lead turns white as you rub it; white lead being produced from 
black. So also scientific knowledge (gnosis), shedding its light and brightness on things, 


246 yvcoau; 

247 yvo)Ol<; 

248 [It is not to be doubted that much sound Alexandrian teaching is here mixed up with folly.] 

83 



Excerpts ofTheodotus. 


shows itself to be in truth the divine wisdom, the pure light, which illumines the men whose 
eyeball is clear, unto the sure vision and comprehension of truth. 

XXXIII. Lighting, then, our torch 249 at the source of that light, by the passionate desire 
which has it for its object, and striving as much as possible to be assimilated to it, we become 
men full of light," Israelites indeed. For He called those friends and brethren who by 
desire and pursuit aimed after likeness to the Divinity. 

XXXIV. Pure places and meadows have received voices and visions of holy phant- 
asms. But every man who has been perfectly purified, shall be thought worthy of divine 
teaching and of power. 

XXXV. Now I know that the mysteries of science (gnosis) are a laughing-stock to many, 
especially when not patched up with sophistical figurative language. And the few are at first 
startled at them; as when light is suddenly brought into a convivial party in the dark. Sub- 
sequently, on getting used and accustomed, and trained to reasoning, as if gladdened and 
exulting for delight, they praise the Lord.. . .For as pleasure has for its essence release from 
pain; so also has knowledge the removal of ignorance. For as those that are most asleep 
think they are most awake, being under the power of dream-visions very vivid and fixed; 
so those that are most ignorant think that they know most. But blessed are they who rouse 
themselves from this sleep and derangement, and raise their eyes to the light and the truth. 

XXXVI. It is, therefore, equally requisite for him who wishes to have a pupil who is 
docile, and has blended faith with aspiration, to exercise himself and constantly to study by 
himself, investigating the truth of his speculations; and when he thinks himself right, to 
descend to questions regarding things contiguous. For the young birds make attempts to 
fly in the nest, exercising their wings. 

9 co 

XXXVII. For Gnostic virtue everywhere makes man good, and meek, and harmless, 
and painless, and blessed, and ready to associate in the best way with all that is divine, in 
the best way with men, at once a contemplative and active divine image, and turns him into 
a lover of what is good by love. For what is good , 254 as there it is contemplated and compre- 
hended by wisdom, is here by self-control and righteousness carried into effect through 
faith: practising in the flesh an angelic ministry; hallowing the soul in the body, as in a place 
clear and stainless. 


249 [Compare Tatian’s use of a like figure, vol. ii. note 2, p. 67, this series.] 

250 cpwrec;. 

251 cptoroq. 

252 [A Montanist token.] 

253 For a(3Aa(3e(; in the text, we must, translating thus, read ocPAa(3rj. If we translate, as we may, “Gnostic 
virtue is a thing everywhere good, and meek,” etc., no change is required in the reading. 

254 to vcaAov. 


84 



Excerpts ofTheodotus. 


XXXVIII. Against Tatian , 255 who says that the words, “Let there be light ,” 256 are sup- 
plicatory. If, then, He is supplicating the supreme God, how does He say, “I am God, and 

■yen 

beside me there is none else?” We have said that there are punishments for blasphemies, 
for nonsense, for outrageous expressions; which are punished and chastised by reason. 

XXXIX. And he said, too, that on account of their hair and finery, women are punished 
by the Power that is set over these matters; which also gave to Samson strength in his hair; 
which punishes the women who allure to fornication through the adornment of their hair. 

XL. As by the effluence of good, people are made good; in like manner are they made 
bad. Good is the judgment of God, and the discrimination of the believing from the unbe- 
lieving, and the judgment beforehand, so as not to fall into greater judgment — this judgment 
being correction. 

XLI. Scripture says that infants which are exposed are delivered to a guardian angel, 
and that by him they are trained and reared. “And they shall be,” it says, “as the faithful in 
this world of a hundred years of age.” Wherefore also Peter, in the Revelation, says: 
“And a flash of fire, leaping from those infants, and striking the eyes of the women.” For 

9 

the just shines: forth as a spark in a reed, and will judge the nations. 

9 ro 

XLII. “With the holy Thou wilt be holy.” “According to thy praise is thy name 
glorified;” God being glorified through our knowledge, and through the inheritance. Thus 

9 zr i 

also it is said, “The Lord liveth,” and “The Lord hath risen.” 

XLIII. “A people whom I knew not hath served me;” — by covenant I knew them 
not, alien sons, who desired what pertained to another. 

XLIV. “Magnifying the salvations of His king.” All the faithful are called kings, 
brought to royalty through inheritance. 

XLV. Long-suffering is sweetness above honey; not because it is long-suffering, but in 
consequence of the fruit of long-suffering. Since, then, the man of self-control is devoid of 
passion, inasmuch as he restrains the passions, not without toil; but when habit is formed, 
he is no longer a man of self-control, the man having come under the influence of one habit 
and of the Holy Spirit. 


255 [From some lost work of his.] 

256 Gen. i. 3. 

257 Isa. xliv. 6. 

258 [On these quotations see Lardner, Credit., ii. 256, and Jones, Canon, vol. i. p. 373.] 

259 Wisd. iii. 7. 

260 Ps. xviii. 26. 

261 Luke xxiv. 34. 

262 Ps. xviii. 43. 

263 Ps. xviii. 50. 


85 


Excerpts ofTheodotus. 


XLVI. The passions that are in the soul are called spirits, — not spirits of power, since 
in that case the man under the influence of passion would be a legion of demons; but they 
are so called in consequence of the impulse they communicate. For the soul itself, through 
modifications, taking on this and that other sort of qualities of wickedness, is said to receive 
spirits. 

XLVII. The Word does not bid us renounce property ; 264 but to manage property 
without inordinate affection; and on anything happening, not to be vexed or grieved; and 
not to desire to acquire. Divine Providence bids keep away from possession accompanied 
with passion, and from all inordinate affection, and from this turns back those still remain- 
ing 265 in the flesh. 

XLVIII. For instance, Peter says in the Apocalypse, that abortive infants shall share 
the better fate; that these are committed to a guardian angel, so that, on receiving 
knowledge, they may obtain the better abode, having had the same experiences which they 
would have had had they been in the body. But the others shall obtain salvation merely, as 
being injured and pitied, and remain without punishment, receiving this reward. 

XLIX. The milk of women, flowing from the breasts and thickening, says Peter in the 

O /TO 

Apocalypse, will produce minute beasts, that prey on flesh, and running back into them 
will consume them: teaching that punishments arise for sins. He says that they are produced 
from sins; as it was for their sins that the people were sold. And for their want of faith in 
Christ, as the apostle says, they were bitten by serpents. 

L. An ancient said that the embryo is a living thing; for that the soul entering into the 
womb after it has been by cleansing prepared for conception, and introduced by one of the 
angels who preside over generation, and who knows the time for conception, moves the 
woman to intercourse; and that, on the seed being deposited, the spirit, which is in the seed, 
is, so to speak, appropriated, and is thus assumed into conjunction in the process of forma- 
tion. He cited as a proof to all, how, when the angels give glad tidings to the barren, they 
introduce souls before conception. And in the Gospel “the babe leapt” as a living thing. 
And the barren are barren for this reason, that the soul, which unites for the deposit of the 
seed, is not introduced so as to secure conception and generation. 



264 Krijaewi;, instead of Krloewi;, as in the text, and Krrjatv for Know in the next clause. 

265 ’Avaarpecpei sm povouc; roue; sv aapKr. For which, as slightly preferable, Sylburg. proposes ert pevovrap 
ev aapKi, as above. 

266 [See note 6, p. 48, supra.} 

267 Adopting the reading polpac;, instead of that in the text, Ttelpai;. 

268 [See note 6, p. 48, supra.] 

Luke i. 43. 


269 


86 


Excerpts ofTheodotus. 


970 

LI. “The heavens declare the glory of God.” The heavens are taken in various 
meanings, both those defined by space and revolution, and those by covenant, — the imme- 
diate operation of the first-created angels. For the covenants caused a more especial appear- 
ance of angels, — that in the case of Adam, that in the case of Noah, that in the case of 

Abraham, that in the case of Moses. For, moved by the Lord, the first-created angels exercised 
their influence on the angels attached to the prophets, considering the covenants the glory 
of God. Furthermore, the things done on earth by angels were done by the first-created 
angels to the glory of God. 

LII. It is the Lord that is principally denominated the Heavens, and then the First-cre- 
ated; and after these also the holy men before the Law, as the patriarchs, and Moses, and 
the prophets; then also the apostles. “And the firmament showeth His handiwork.” He 
applies the term “firmament” “ to God, the passionless and immoveable, as also elsewhere 
the same David says, “I will love Thee, O Lord, my strength” and my refuge.” Accord- 
ingly, the firmament itself shows forth the work of His hands, — that is, shows and manifests 
the work of His angels. For He shows forth and manifests those whom He hath made. 

LIII. “Day unto day uttereth speech.” As the heavens have various meanings, so also 
has day. Now speech is the Lord; and He is also frequently called day. “And night unto 
night showeth forth knowledge.” The devil knew that the Lord was to come. But he did 
not believe that He was God; wherefore also he tempted Him, in order to know if He were 
powerful. It is said, “he left Him, and departed from Him for a season;” that is, he post- 
poned the discovery till the resurrection. For he knew that He who was to rise was the Lord. 
Likewise also the demons; since also they suspected that Solomon was the Lord, and they 
knew that he was not so, on his sinning. “Night to night.” All the demons knew that He 
who rose after the passion was the Lord. And already Enoch” had said, that the angels 
who transgressed taught men astronomy and divination, and the rest of the arts. 

LIV. “There are no speeches or words whose voices are not heard,” neither of days nor 
nights. “Their sound is gone forth unto all the earth.” He has transferred the discourse to 
the saints alone, whom he calls both heavens and days. 

LV. The stars, spiritual bodies, that have communications with the angels set over them, 
and are governed by them, are not the cause of the production of things, but are signs of 


270 Ps. xix. 1. [Here follow notes on successive verses, some not unworthy of an orthodox Father.] 

271 i.e., the covenant. 

272 orepewpa . 

273 arepewpa . 

274 Ps. xviii. 1. 

275 For eav, which is the reading of the text, Sylburgius’ suggestion of eta or e’taae has been adopted. 

276 See note 9, p. 3, supra.] 


87 


Excerpts ofTheodotus. 


what is taking place, and will take place, and have taken place in the case of atmospheric 
changes, of fruitfulness and barrenness, of pestilence and fevers, and in the case of men. 
The stars do not in the least degree exert influences, but indicate what is, and will be, and 
has been. 

LVI. “And in the sun hath He set His tabernacle.” There is a transposition here. For 
it is of the second coming that the discourse is. So, then, we must read what is transposed 
in its due sequence: “And he, as a bridegroom issuing from his chamber, will rejoice as a 
giant to run his way. From heaven’s end is his going forth; and there is no one who shall 
hide himself from his heat;” and then, “He hath set His tabernacle in the sun.” 

Some say that He deposited the Lord’s body in the sun, as Hermogenes. And “His tab- 
ernacle,” some say, is His body, others the Church of the faithful. 

Our Pantaenus used to say, that prophecy utters its expressions indefinitely for the 
most part, and uses the present for the future, and again the present for the past. Which is 
also seen here. For “He hath set” is put both for the past and the future. For the future, 
because, on the completion of this period, which is to run according to its present” consti- 
tution, the Lord will come to restore the righteous, the faithful, in whom He rests, as in a 
tent, to one and the same unity; for all are one body, of the same race, and have chosen the 
same faith and righteousness. But some as head, some as eyes, some as ears, some as hands, 

980 

some as breasts, some as feet, shall be set, resplendent, in the sun. “Shine forth as the sun,” 
or in the sun; since an angel high in command is in the sun. For he is appointed for rule 
over days; as the moon is for ruling over night. Now angels are called days. Along with 
the angels in the sun, it is said, they shall have assigned to them one abode, to be for some 
time and in some respects the sun, as it were the head of the body which is one. And, besides, 
they also are the rulers of the days, as that angel in the sun, for the greater purpose for which 
he before them migrated to the same place. And again destined to ascend progressively, 
they reach the first abode, in accordance with the past “He hath set:” so that the first-created 
angels shall no longer, according to providence, exercise a definite ministry, but may be in 
repose, and devoted to the contemplation of God alone; while those next to them shall be 
promoted to the post which they have left; and so those beneath them similarly. 


277 [No doubt he may have said this.] 

278 Or rather, as Sylb. points out, this is a case of the past used for the present, etc. 

279 Ttapouaiav, Karaaraatv, the reading of the text, is, as Sylburg. remarks, plainly corrupt; Ttapouaav, as 
above, is the most obvious correction. 

280 Matt. xiii. 43. 

281 Gen. i. 18. 

282 p£0’ here clearly should be Ka0’ or £(p’. 

If we may venture to change aurou into aurtov. 


283 


88 


Excerpts ofTheodotus. 


9S4 

LVII. There are then, according to the apostle, those on the summit, the first-created. 
And they are thrones, although Powers, being the first-created, inasmuch as God rests in 
them, as also in those who believe. For each one, according to his own stage of advancement 
possesses the knowledge of God in a way special to himself; and in this knowledge God re- 
poses, those who possess knowledge being made immortal by knowledge. And is not “He 
set His tabernacle in the sun” to be understood thus? God “set in the sun,” that is, in the 
God who is beside Him, as in the Gospel, Eli, Eli, instead of my God, my God. And what 

is “above all rule, and authority, and power, and every name that is named,” are those from 
among men that are made perfect as angels and archangels, so as to rise to the nature of the 
angels first-created. For those who are changed from men to angels are instructed for a 
thousand years by the angels after they are brought to perfection. Then those who have 
taught are translated to archangelic authority; and those who have learned instruct those 
again who from men are changed to angels. Thus afterwards, in the prescribed periods, 
they are brought to the proper angelic state of the body. 

o o/r 

LVIII. “The law of God is perfect, converting souls.” The Saviour Himself is called 
Law and Word, as Peter in “the Preaching,” and the prophet: “Out of Zion shall go forth 

987 

the Law, and the Word of the Lord from Jerusalem.” 

LIX. “The testimony of the Lord is sure, making children wise.” The covenant of the 
Lord is true, making wise children; those free from evil, both the apostles, and then also us. 
Besides, the testimony of the Lord, according to which He rose again after His passion, 
having been verified by fact, led the Church to confirmation in faith. 

LX. “The fear of the Lord is pure, enduring for ever.” He says that those who have been 
turned from fear to faith and righteousness endure for ever. 

“The judgments of the Lord are true,” — sure, and incapable of being overturned; and 
giving rewards according to what is right, bringing the righteous to the unity of the faith. 
For this is shown in the words, “justified for the same.” “Such desires are above gold 
and precious stone.” 

LXI. “For also Thy servant keeps them.” Not that David alone is called servant; but the 
whole people saved is called the servant of God, in virtue of obedience to the command. 


284 ’Ev rfj ocKpfj datOKaraardaei. The last word yields no suitable sense, and conjecture as to the right reading 
is vain; and we have left it untranslated. The Latin translator renders “qui in summa arce collocati sunt.” 

285 'TtAioq is (with marvellous ignorance of the Hebrew tongue, as Combefisius notices) here identified with 

Eli, 

286 Ps. xix. 8. 

287 Isa. ii. 3. 

288 Ps. xix. 12, Septuagint. 

ai rotaurai £7tt0uptat, for which the Septuagint has emSupqrd as in A. V. 


289 


89 


Excerpts ofTheodotus. 


LXII. “Cleanse me from my secret faults -” — thoughts contrary to right reason — defects. 
For He calls this foreign to the righteous man. 

LXIII. “If they have not dominion over me, then shall I be innocent.” If those who 
persecute me as they did the Lord, do not have dominion over me, I shall not be innocent. 
For no one becomes a martyr unless he is persecuted; nor appears righteous, unless, being 
wronged, he takes no revenge; nor forbearing. . . 


90 



Two Epistles Concerning Virginity. 


TWO EPISTLES CONCERNING VIRGINITY. 



ATTRIBUTED TO CLEMENT OF ROME. 


[Translated by the Rev. B. P. Pratten.] 


91 



Introductory Notice. 


Introductory Notice 

to 

Two Epistles Concerning Virginity. 

By Professor M. B. Riddle, D.D. 



Among the “Pseudo- Clementina” the Two Epistles concerning Virginity must properly 
be placed. The evidence against the genuineness seems conclusive; yet, with the exception 
of the homily usually styled the Second Epistle of Clement, 290 no spurious writings attributed 
to the great Roman Father can be assigned an earlier date than these two letters. Uhlhorn, 
in view of the reference to the sub-introductce, thinks they were written shortly before the 
time of Cyprian; and this seems very probable. Jerome was acquainted with the writings 
{Ad fovinum, i. 12), and possibly Epiphanius {Hcer., xxx. 15). Hence we may safely allow 
an early date. Yet these evidences of age tell against the genuineness. 

1. Early works of this character would not have disappeared from notice to such an 
extent, had they been authenticated as writings of Clement. Supporting, as they do, the as- 
cetic tendency prevalent in the Western Church at and after the date when they are first 
noticed by Christian writers, they would have been carefully preserved and frequently cited, 
had they been genuine. The name of the great Roman Father would have been so weighty, 
that the advocates of celibacy would have kept the documents in greater prominence. The 
silence of Eusebius respecting the letters is an important fact in this discussion. 

2. A second argument against the genuineness is derived from the ascetic tone itself. 
Such pronounced statements are not, we must firmly hold, to be found in the Christian lit- 
erature of the sub-apostolic age. This historical argument is further sustained by other in- 
dications in the epistles. They point to a stage of ecclesiastical development which belongs 
to a much later period than that of Clement. 

3. The use of Scripture in these letters seems to be conclusive against the Clementine 
authorship. A comparison with the citations in the genuine Epistle of Clement shows that 
these writings make much greater use of the Pauline (particularly the Pastoral) Epistles; that 
the Old Testament is less frequently cited, and that the mode of handling proof-texts is that 
of a later age. 


290 See vol. vii. pp. 509-523. 

291 Against this class Cyprian stoutly contended. Comp. Cyprian, Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. v. pp. 357, 358, 
587-592. 


92 



Introductory Notice. 


4. The judgment of the most candid patristic scholars is against the genuineness. Of 
Protestants, Wetstein stands alone in supporting the Clementine authorship; and his position 
is readily explained by the fact that he discovered the Syriac version which restored the 
writings to modern scholars (see below). The genuineness is defended by Villecourt and 
Beelen (see below), also by Mohler, Champagny, and Brack. But such experts as Mansi, 
Hefele, Alzog, and Funk, among Roman Catholics, unite with Protestant scholars in assigning 
a later date, and consequently in denying the Clementine authorship. 

Translator’s Introductory Notice. 

While the great mass of early Christian literature bearing the name of Clement of Rome 
is undoubtedly spurious, the case is somewhat different with regard to the two following 
epistles. Not only have Roman Catholic writers maintained their genuineness with great 
ingenuity and learning, but Wetstein, who first edited them, argued powerfully for their 
being received as the authentic productions of Clement; and even Neander has admitted 
that they may possibly have been written by that friend and fellow- labourer of the apostles. 

Their literary history in modern times is somewhat curious. Wetstein unexpectedly 
discovered them appended to a copy of the Syriac Peschito version of the New Testament 
furnished to him by Sir James Porter, then British ambassador at Constantinople. He soon 
afterwards (1752) published them in Syriac, accompanied by a Latin version of his own, 
with Prolegomena, in which he upheld their genuineness. This speedily called forth two 
works, one by Lardner (1753), and a second by Venema (1754), in both of which their au- 
thenticity was disputed. To these writings Wetstein himself, and, after his death, Gallandius, 
published rejoinders; but the question remained as far from positive settlement as ever, and 
continues sub-judice even at the present day 

It is generally admitted (and, of course, asserted by those that maintain their truly 
Clementine origin) that Greek was the original language of these epistles. Many have argued 
that they contain plain references to the sub-introductce spoken of in the literature of the 
third century, and that therefore they were probably composed in the Oriental Church about 
that period. 

These epistles have been very carefully edited in recent times by the Roman Catholic 
scholars Villecourt (1853) and Beelen (1856). Both have argued strenuously for the genu- 
ineness of the letters, but it may be doubted if they have succeeded in repelling all the objec- 
tions of Lardner and Venema. Beelen’s work is a highly scholarly production, and his Pro- 
legomena are marked by great fulness and perspicuity. 

A German translation of these epistles was published by Zingerle (1821). They are now 
for the first time translated into the English language. 

The translation is made from the text of Beelen. 

The division into chapters is due to Wetstein. 


93 



The First Epistle of the Blessed Clement, the Disciple of Peter the Apo. . . 


Two Epistles Concerning Virginity. 



The First Epistle of the Blessed Clement, the Disciple of Peter the 

Apostle. 


Chapter I. — The Salutation. 

To all those who love and cherish their life which is in Christ through God the Father, 
and obey the truth of God in hope of eternal life; to those who bear affection towards their 

9Q9 

brethren and towards their neighbours in the love of God; to the blessed brother v irgins, 

9QO 

who devote themselves to preserve virginity “for the sake of the kingdom of heaven;” 
and to the holy sister virgins: the peace which is in God . 294 


292 In later Greek nap0evo<; was used of both sexes (comp. Rev. xiv. 4). The Syriac original employs both a 
masculine and a feminine form. This will not always be indicated in the following translation. 

293 Matt. xix. 12. 

294 Or “to the holy virgins who are in God: peace.” So Zingerle, and probably Wetstein. 


94 


For True Virginity Perfect Virtue is Necessary. 


Chapter II. — For True Virginity Perfect Virtue is Necessary. 

Of all virgins of either sex who have truly resolved to preserve virginity for the sake of 
the kingdom of heaven — of each and every one of them it is required that he be worthy of 
the kingdom of heaven in every thing. For not by eloquence or renown, by station 
and descent, or by beauty or strength, or by length of life, is the kingdom of heaven ob- 
tained; but it is obtained by the power of faith, when a man exhibits the works of faith. For 
whosoever is truly righteous, his works testify concerning his faith, that he is truly a believer, 
with a faith which is great, a faith which is perfect, a faith which is in God, a faith which 
shines in good works, that the Father of all may be glorified through Christ. Now, those 
who are truly virgins for the sake of God give heed to Him who hath said, “Let not righteous- 
ness and faith fail thee; bind them on thy neck, and thou shalt find favour for thyself; and 
devise thou good things before God and before men .” 299 “The paths,” therefore, “of the 
righteous shine as the light, and the light of them advances until the day is perfect .” 300 For 
the beams of their light illumine the whole creation even now by good works, as those who 
are truly “the light of the world,” giving light to “those who sit in darkness,” that they 
may arise and go forth from the darkness by the light of the good works of the fear of God, 
“that they may see our good works and glorify our Father who is in heaven.” For it is 
required of the man of God, that in all his words and works he be perfect, and that in his 
life he be adorned with all exemplary and well-ordered behaviour , 304 and do all his deeds 
in righteousness, as a man of God. 


295 Zing. , not so well, takes this to mean, “by the confession of the mouth” (durch das mundliche Bekenntniss) , 
comparing Matt. vii. 21. 

296 Lit. “by word or by name.” 

297 The Greek word axnpa, here adopted in the Syriac, is sometimes thus used. — Beelen. 

298 Lit. “much time.” 

299 Prov. iii. 3, 4 (LXX.). 

300 Lit. “fixed.” Prov. iv. 18. 

301 Matt. v. 14. 

302 Isa. ix. 2; Matt. iv. 16. 

303 Matt. v. 16; 1 Pet. ii. 12. 

304 Probably referring to 1 Cor. xiv. 40. — Beelen. 


95 


True Virgins Prove Themselves Such by Self-Denial, as Does the True Believer... 


Chapter III. — True Virgins Prove Themselves Such by Self-Denial, as Does the True 
Believer by Good Works. 

For virgins are a beautiful pattern to believers, and to those who shall believe. The name 
alone, indeed, without works, does not introduce into the kingdom of heaven; but, if a man 
be truly a believer, such an one can be saved. For, if a person be only called a believer in 
name, whilst he is not such in works, he cannot possibly be a believer. “Let no one,” therefore, 

one 

“lead you astray with the empty words of error.” For, merely because a person is called 

a virgin, if he be destitute of works excellent and comely, and suitable to virginity, he cannot 
possibly be saved. For our Lord called such virginity as that “foolish,” as He said in the 

on/' 

Gospel; and because it had neither oil nor light, it was left outside of the kingdom of 
heaven, and was shut out from the joy of the bridegroom, and was reckoned with His en- 
emies. For such persons as these “have the appearance only of the fear of God, but the power 
of it they deny.” For they “think with themselves that they are something, whilst they 
are nothing, and are deceived. But let every one constantly try his works,” and know 
himself; for empty worship does he offer, whosoever he be that makes profession of virginity 
and sanctity, “and denies its power.” For virginity of such a kind is impure, and disowned 

11 A 

by all good works. For “every tree whatsoever is known from its fruits.” “See that thou 
understand what I say: God will give thee understanding.” For whosoever engages 
before God to preserve sanctity must be girded with all the holy power of God. And, if with 
true fear 313 he crucify his body, he for the sake of the fear of God excuses himself from that 
word in which the Scripture 314 has said: “Be fruitful, and multiply ,” 315 and shuns all the 

11C 

display, and care, and sensuality, and fascination of this world, and its revelries and its 


305 Eph. v. 6. 

306 Matt. xxv. 2. 

307 2 Tim. iii. 5. 

308 Lit. “let every one be trying.” 

309 Gal. vi. 3, 4. 

310 Matt. xii. 33. [More probably Luke vi. 44. — R.] 

311 Or “consider.” There is no play on words in the passage quoted (2 Tim. ii. 7), nor perhaps was this intended 
in the Syriac. 

312 2 Tim. ii. 7. 

313 Lit. “true in fear of God.” The reading is probably faulty. — Beelen. 

314 The ellipsis is usually to be thus filled up in these epistles. [In similar cases which follow, italics will not 
be used. — R.] 

315 Gen. i. 28. 

316 Or “the sensual pleasures.” 


96 


True Virgins Prove Themselves Such by Self-Denial, as Does the True Believer... 


01-7 

drunkenness, and all its luxury and ease, and withdraws from the entire life of this world, 

o 1 Q 

and from its snares, and nets, and hindrances; and, whilst thou walkest upon the earth, 
be zealous that thy work and thy business be in heaven. 


317 Or “from all intercourse with.” 


318 Either something is here omitted by the transcriber, or Clement has varied the form of expression. — Beelen. 

97 



Continuation of the Remarks on Self-Denial; Object and Reward of True V... 


Chapter IV. — Continuation of the Remarks on Self-Denial; Object and Reward of 
True Virgins. 

For he who covets for himself these things so great and excellent, withdraws and severs 
himself on this account from all the world, that he may go and live a life divine and heavenly, 
like the holy angels, in work pure and holy, and “in the holiness of the Spirit of God,” 

and that he may serve God Almighty through lesus Christ for the sake of the kingdom of 
heaven. On this account he severs himself from all the appetites of the body. And not only 
does he excuse himself from this command, “Be fruitful, and multiply,” but he longs for the 
“hope promised” and prepared and laid up in heaven” by God, who has declared with 

^99 

His mouth, and He does not he, that it is “better than sons and daughters,” and that He 
will give to virgins a notable place in the house of God, which is something" better than sons 
and daughters,” and better than the place of those who have passed a wedded life in sanctity, 
and whose “bed has not been defiled.” For God will give to virgins the kingdom of 
heaven, as to the holy angels, by reason of this great and noble profession. 


319 “Sanctification.” — Beelen. [So A.V. The R.V. correctly renders ayiaciiot;, “sanctification,” in every in- 
stance. — R.] 

320 2 Thess. ii. 13. 

321 Col. i. 5. 

322 Isa. lvi. 4, 5. 

Heb. xiii. 4. 


323 


98 


The Irksomeness and the Enemies of Virginity. 


Chapter V. — The Irksomeness and the Enemies of Virginity. 

Thou desirest, then, to be a virgin? Knowest thou what hardship and irksomeness there 
is in true virginity — that which stands constantly at all seasons before God, and does not 
withdraw from His service, and “is anxious how it may please its Lord with a holy body, and 

'l r )A 

with its spirit?” Knowest thou what great glory pertains to virginity, and is it for this that 

thou dost set thyself to practise it? Dost thou really know and understand what it is thou 
art eager to do? Art thou acquainted with the noble task of holy virginity? Dost thou know 
how, like a man, to enter “lawfully” upon this contest and “strive,” that, in the might 

'1'yy 

of the Holy Spirit, thou choosest this for thyself, that thou mayest be crowned with a 
crown of light, and that they may lead thee about in triumph through “the Jerusalem 
above”? If so be, then, that thou longest for all these things, conquer the body; conquer 
the appetites of the flesh; conquer the world in the Spirit of God; conquer these vain things 
of time, which pass away and grow old, and decay, and come to an end; conquer the 
dragon; conquer the lion; conquer the serpent; conquer Satan; — through Jesus 

o in 

Christ, who doth strengthen thee by the hearing of His words and the divine Eucharist. 
“Take up thy cross and follow” Him who makes thee clean, Jesus Christ thy Lord. Strive 
to run straight forward and boldly, not with fear, but with courage, relying on the promise 

'1'IA oor 

of thy Lord, that thou shalt obtain the victor-crown of thy “calling on high” through 

Jesus Christ. For whosoever walks perfect in faith, and not fearing, doth in very deed receive 
the crown of virginity, which is great in its toil and great in its reward. Dost thou understand 

o o zr 

and know how honourable a thing is sanctity? Dost thou understand how great and ex- 

’T.'l’T 

alted and excellent is the glory of virginity? 


324 1 Cor. vii. 34. 

325 Lit. “descend to.” 

326 2 Tim. ii. 5. 

327 The words, “in the might of the Holy Spirit,” appear to obscure the sense. — Beelen. 

328 Gal. iv. 26. 

329 Rev. xii. 7. 

330 1 Pet. v. 8. 

331 2 Cor. xi. 3. 

332 Lit. “the Eucharist of the Godhead.” This is an evidence of later date than the sub-apostolic age. — R.] 

333 Matt. xvi. 24. 

334 Lit. “crown of victory.” 

335 Phil. iii. 14. 

336 i.e. continency. [The use of the terms “sanctity,” “holy,” etc., in the limited sense of “continency,” “chaste,” 
etc., is strong evidence of the later origin. — R] 

337 The last two sentences properly belong to chap. vi. 


99 


Divinity of Virginity. 


Chapter VI. — Divinity of Virginity. 

The womb of a holy virgin carried our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God; and the 
body which our Lord wore, and in which He carried on the conflict in this world, He put 
on from a holy virgin. From this, therefore, understand the greatness and dignity of virginity. 
Dost thou wish to be a Christian? Imitate Christ in everything. John, the ambassador, he 
who came before our Lord, he “than whom there was not a greater among those born of 
women,” the holy messenger of our Lord, was a virgin. Imitate, therefore, the ambassador 

of our Lord, and be his follower 340 in every thing. That John, again, who “reclined on the 
bosom of our Lord, and whom He greatly loved,” 341 — he, too, was a holy person . 342 For it 
was not without reason that our Lord loved him. Paul, also, and Barnabas, and Timothy, 

O.A'X 

with all the others, “whose names are written in the book of life,” — these, I say, all cher- 
ished and loved sanctity , 344 and ran in the contest, and finished their course without 
blemish, as imitators of Christ, and as sons of the living God. Moreover, also, Elijah and 
Elisha, and many other holy men, we find to have lived a holy 345 and spotless life. If, 
therefore, thou desirest to be like these, imitate them with all thy power. For the Scripture 
has said, “The elders who are among you, honour; and, seeing their manner of life and 
conduct, imitate their faith .” 346 And again it saith, “Imitate me, my brethren, as I imitate 
Christ .” 347 


338 Or “the Holy Virgin.” 

339 Matt. xi. 11. 

340 Lit. “lover,” or “friend.” 

341 Johnxxi. 20. 

342 i.e., a virgin. 

343 Phil. iv. 3. 

344 i.e., virginity. 

345 i.e., celibate, or chaste. 

346 Heb. xiii. 7. 

347 1 Cor. xi. 1. 


100 


The True Virgin. 


Chapter VII. — The True Virgin. 

Those, therefore, who imitate Christ, imitate Him earnestly. For those who have “put 
on Christ” in truth, express His likeness in their thoughts, and in their whole life, and in 
all their behaviour: in word, and in deeds, and in patience, and in fortitude, and in know- 
ledge, and in chastity, and in long-suffering, and in a pure heart, and in faith, and in hope, 
and in full and perfect love towards God. No virgin, therefore, unless they be in everything 
as Christ, and as those “who are Christs ,” 349 can be saved. For every virgin who is in God 
is holy in her body and in her spirit, and is constant in the service of her Lord, not turning 
away from it any whither, but waiting upon Him always in purity and holiness in the Spirit 

o cn 

of God, being “solicitous how she may please her Lord,” by living purely and without 
stain, and solicitous to be pleasing before Him in every thing. She who is such does not 
withdraw from our Lord, but in spirit is ever with her Lord: as it is written, “Be ye holy, as 

o c 1 

I am holy, saith the Lord.” 


348 Rom. xiii. 14. 

349 Gal. v. 24. 

350 1 Cor. vii. 32. 

1 Pet. i. 15 ( cf. Lev. xi. 44). 


351 


101 


Virgins, by the Laying Aside of All Carnal Affection, are Imitators of ... 


Chapter VIII. — Virgins, by the Laying Aside of All Carnal Affection, are Imitators 
of God. 

For, if a man be only in name called holy, he is not holy; but he must be holy in 
everything: in his body and in his spirit. And those who are virgins rejoice at all times in 
becoming like God and His Christ, and are imitators of them. For in those that are such 
there is not “the mind of the flesh.” In those who are truly believers, and “in whom the 

or o 

Spirit of Christ dwells” — in them “the mind of the flesh” cannot be: which is fornication, 

uncleanness, wantonness; idolatry , 354 sorcery; enmity, jealousy, rivalry, wrath, disputes, 
dissensions, ill-will; drunkenness, revelry; buffoonery, foolish talking, boisterous laughter; 
backbiting, insinuations; bitterness, rage; clamour, abuse, insolence of speech; malice, in- 

ore or/" 

venting of evil, falsehood; talkativeness, babbling; threatenings, gnashing of teeth, 
readiness to accuse, jarring, disdainings, blows; perversions of the right, laxness in 

judgment; haughtiness, arrogance, ostentation, pompousness, boasting of family, of beauty, 
of position, of wealth, of an arm of flesh ; 360 quarrelsomeness, injustice , 361 eagerness for 
victory; hatred, anger, envy, perfidy, retaliation; debauchery, gluttony, “overreaching 
(which is idolatry),” “the love of money (which is the root of all evils);” love of display, 

vainglory, love of rule, assumption, pride (which is called death, and which “God fights 

O/TC 

against”). Every man with whom are these and such like things — every such man is of 


352 Rom. viii. 6 (<ppovr|pa). 

353 Rom. viii. 9. 

354 Lit. “the worship of idols.” The single word *** sometimes used to express “idolatry” (as in Eph. Syr., 
opp. tom. i. p. 116), is not found in these epistles. 

355 Lit. “much talking.” 

356 Lit. “empty words.” 

357 The word thus rendered is not in the lexicons, but is well illustrated by Isa. xxix. 21 (“that make a man 

an offender”), where the Hiphil of Xpn is used, corresponding to the Aphel of the same root, from which the 
present word is derived. 

358 The word is used in the Peschito of 1 Tim. vi. 5, to express 5iamxparpi(3ou (“incessant quarrellings,” Alf.); 
[R.V., “wranglings.” — R.]. 

359 Ex. Conject. Beelen. The word is not in the lexicons. 

360 Or “power.” 

361 Lit. “folly;” but so used in 2 Cor. xii. 13. 

362 Or “returning of evils.” 

363 Col. iii. 5. 

364 1 Tim. vi. 10. 

365 1 Pet. v. 5; Jas. iv. 6. 


102 


Virgins, by the Laying Aside of All Carnal Affection, are Imitators of ... 


the flesh. For, “he that is born of the flesh is flesh; and he that is of the earth speaketh of the 
earth,” and his thoughts are of the earth. And “the mind of the flesh is enmity towards 

'lrn 

God. For it does not submit itself to the law of God; for it cannot do so,” because it is in 

•3 /TO 

the flesh, “in which dwells no good,” because the Spirit of God is not in it. For this cause 
justly does the Scripture say regarding such a generation as this: “My Spirit shall not dwell 
in men for ever, because they are flesh.” “Whosoever, therefore, has not the Spirit of 

, i r 70 

God in him, is none of His:” as it is written, “The Spirit of God departed from Saul, and 

3 71 

an evil spirit troubled him, which was sent upon him from God.” 


366 John iii. 6, 31. 

367 Rom. viii. 7. 

368 Rom. vii. 18. 

369 Gen. vi. 3. [This is an example of the vicious method of interpretation, not yet extirpated, which carries 
Paul’s distinctive use of the term “flesh” back to the Pentateuch, where no ethical sense is necessarily implied. — R.] 

370 Rom. vii. 9. [The Apostle speaks of “the Spirit of Christ.” — R.] 

371 1 Sam. xvi. 14. 


103 


Continuation of the Subject of Mortification; Dignity of Persons Consecrated... 


Chapter IX. — Continuation of the Subject of Mortification; Dignity of Persons 

Consecrated to God. 

He in whomsoever the Spirit of God is, is in accord with the will of the Spirit of God; 
and, because he is in accord with the Spirit of God, therefore does he mortify the deeds of 
the body and live unto God, “treading down and subjugating the body and keeping it under; 
so that, while preaching to others,” he maybe a beautiful example and pattern to believers, 
and may spend his life in works which are worthy of the Holy Spirit, so that he may “not be 
cast away,” but may be approved before God and before men. For in “the man who is 
of God,” with him I say there is nothing of the mind of the flesh; and especially in virgins 

of either sex-, but the fruits of all of them are “the fruits of the Spirit ” 374 and of life, and they 
are truly the city of God, and the houses and temples in which God abides and dwells, and 
among which He walks, as in the holy city of heaven. For in this “do ye appear to the world 
as lights, in that ye give heed to the Word of life,” and thus ye are in truth the praise, and 
the boast, and the crown of rejoicing, and the delight of good servants in our Lord Jesus 
Christ. For all who see you will “acknowledge that ye are the seed which the Lord hath 
blessed;” in very deed a seed honourable and holy, and “a priestly kingdom, a holy people, 

the people of the inheritance,” the heirs of the promises of God; of things which do not 

decay, nor wither; of “that which eye hath not seen, and ear hath not heard, and which hath 
not come up into the heart of man; of that which God hath prepared for those who love 

370 

Him and keep His commandments.’ 


372 

373 

374 

375 

376 

377 


1 Cor. ix. 27. 


1 Tim. vi. 11. 
Gal. v. 22. 


Phil. ii. 15, 16. 
Isa. lxi. 9. 


378 


1 Pet. ii. 9. 
1 Cor. ii. 9. 


104 


Denunciation of Dangerous and Scandalous Association with Maidens. 


Chapter X. — Denunciation of Dangerous and Scandalous Association with Maidens. 

Now, we are persuaded of you, my brethren, that your thoughts are occupied about 
those things which are requisite for your salvation. But we speak thus in consequence 

of the evil rumours and reports concerning shameless men, who, under pretext of the fear 
of God, have their dwelling with maidens, and so, expose themselves to danger, and walk 

00 1 

with them along the road and in solitary places alone — a course which is full of dangers, 
and full of stumbling-blocks and snares and pitfalls; nor is it in any respect right for Chris- 
tians and those who fear God so to conduct themselves. Others, too, eat and drink with 
them at entertainments allowing themselves in loose behaviour and much uncleanness — such 
as ought not to be among believers, and especially among those who have chosen for 
themselves a life o/holiness. Others, again, meet together for vain and trifling conversation 
and merriment, and that they may speak evil of one another; and they hunt up tales against 
one another, and are idle: persons with whom we do not allow you even to eat bread. Then, 
others gad about among the houses of virgin brethren or sisters, on pretence of visiting 
them, or reading the Scriptures to them, or exorcising them. Forasmuch as they are idle 
and do no work, they pry into those things which ought not to be inquired into, and by 
means of plausible words make merchandise of the name of Christ. These are men from 
whom the divine apostle kept aloof, because of the multitude of their evil deeds; as it is 

o o 7J 

written: “Thorns sprout in the hands of the idle;” and, “The ways of the idle are full of 
thorns .” 384 


379 Or “life.” 

380 The words which follow, “concerning those things which we speak,” appear not to be genuine. — Beelen. 

381 Beelen supposes a ev 5ia Suotv: “along the lonely road.” 

382 i.e., virginity. 

383 Prov. xxvi. 9. 

384 Prov. xv. 19 (LXX.). 


105 


Perniciousness of Idleness; Warning Against the Empty Longing to Be Teachers;... 


Chapter XI. — Perniciousness of Idleness; Warning Against the Empty Longing to 
Be Teachers; Advice About Teaching and the Use of Divine Gifts. 

Such are the ways of all those who do not work, but go hunting for tales, and think to 

^or 

themselves that this is profitable and right. For such persons are like those idle and 
prating widows “who go wandering about among houses” with their prating, and hunt 

for idle tales, and carry them from house to house with much exaggeration, without fear of 

o oo 

God. And besides all this, barefaced men as they are, under pretence of teaching, they 
set forth a variety of doctrines. And would that they taught the doctrines of truth! But it is 
this which is so disquieting, that they understand not what they mean, and assert that which 
is not true: because they wish to be teachers, and to display themselves as skilful in speaking; 
because they traffic in iniquity in the name of Christ — which it is not right for the servants 
of God to do. And they hearken not to that which the Scripture has said: “Let not many be 
teachers among you, my brethren, and be not all of you prophets.” For “he who does 

not transgress in word is a perfect man, able to keep down and subjugate his whole body .” 390 
And, “If a man speak, let him speak in the words of God.” And, “If there is in thee 

o no 

understanding, give an answer to thy brother but if not, put thy hand on thy mouth.” 

For, “at one time it is proper to keep silence, and at another thee to speak .” 394 And again it 

onr OQ/r 

says “When a man speaks in season, it is honourable to him.” And again it says: “Let 

your speech be seasoned with grace. For it is required of a man to know how to give an 
answer to every one in season. For he that utters whatsoever comes to his mouth, that 
man produces strife; and he that utters a superfluity of words increases vexation; and he 
that is hasty with his lips falls into evil. For because of the unruliness of the tongue cometh 
anger; but the perfect man keeps watch over his tongue, and loves his soul’s life.” For 


385 Lit. “profit and righteousness.” 

386 Lit. “go about and wander.” 

387 1 Tim. v. 13. 

388 Lit, “in their barefacedness.” 

389 1 Cor. xii. 29. [But compare Jas. iii. 1: “Be not many teachers” (R.V.), which precedes the next citation. — R.] 

390 Jas. iii. 2. 

391 Lit. “speech.” 

392 lPet.iv.il. 

393 Ecclus. v. 14. 

394 Eccl. iii. 7. 

395 Lit. “beautiful.” 

396 Prov.xxv.il. 

397 Lit. “in his place.” Col. iv. 6. 

398 Lit. “his soul for life.” Prov. xviii. 6; xiii. 3; xxi. 23. 


106 


Perniciousness of Idleness; Warning Against the Empty Longing to Be Teachers;... 


these are they “who by good words and fair speeches lead astray the hearts of the simple, 
and, while offering them blessings, lead them astray .” 399 Let us, therefore, fear the judgment 
which awaits teachers. For a severe judgment will those teachers receive “who teach, but 
do not ,” 400 and those who take upon them the name of Christ falsely, and say: We teach 
the truth, and yet go wandering about idly, and exalt themselves, and make their boast” in 
the mind of the flesh .” 401 These, moreover, are like “the blind man who leads the blind 
man, and they both fall into the ditch .” 402 And they will receive judgment, because in their 
talkativeness and their frivolous teaching they teach natural 403 wisdom and the “frivolous 
error of the plausible words of the wisdom of men ,” 404 “according to the will of the prince 
of the dominion of the air, and of the spirit which works in those men who will not obey, 
according to the training of this world, and not according to the doctrine of Christ .” 405 But 
if thou hast received “the word of knowledge, or the word of instruction, or of prophecy ,” 406 
blessed be God, “who helps every man without grudging — that God who gives to every man 
and does not upbraid him .” 407 With the gift, therefore, which thou hast received from our 
Lord, serve thy spiritual brethren, the prophets who know that the words which thou 
speakest are those of our Lord; and declare the gift which thou hast received in the Church 
for the edification of the brethren in Christ (for good and excellent are those things which 
help the men of God), if so be that they are truly with thee . 408 


399 Rom. xvi. 17-19. 

400 Matt, xxiii. 3. 

401 Col. ii. 18. 

402 Matt. xv. 14. 

403 As 1 Cor. xv. 44 (vJwxikoc;). — See Jas. iii. 15 [also 1 Cor. ii. 13, 14. — R.]. 

404 See Col. ii. 8. 

405 Eph. ii. 2; Col. ii. 8. 

406 1 Cor. xii. 8-10. 

407 Jas. i. 5. 

408 An obscure clause, which Beelen supposes to be due to the misapprehension of the Syrian translator. 
Perhaps the difficulty will be met if we read “gifts,” as do Wets, and Zing., by a change in the pointing. 


107 


Rules for Visits, Exorcisms, and How People are to Assist the Sick, and... 


Chapter XII. — Rules for Visits, Exorcisms, and How People are to Assist the Sick, 

and to Walk in All Things Without Offence. 

Moreover, also, this is comely and useful, that a man “visit orphans and widows ,” 409 
and especially those poor persons who have many children. These things are, without 
controversy, required of the servants of God, and comely and suitable for them. This also, 
again, is suitable and right and comely for those who are brethren in Christ, that they should 
visit those who are harassed by evil spirits, and pray and pronounce adjurations 410 over 
them, intelligently, offering such prayer as is acceptable before God; not with a multitude 
of fine words , 411 well prepared and arranged, so that they may appear to men eloquent and 
of a good memory. Such men are “like a sounding pipe, or a tinkling cymbal ;” 412 and they 
bring no help to those over whom they make their adjurations; but they speak with terrible 
words, and affright people, but do not act with true faith, according to the teaching of our 
Lord, who hath said: “This kind goeth not out but by fasting and prayer ,” 413 offered unceas- 
ingly and with earnest mind. And let them holily ask and beg of God, with cheerfulness 
and all circumspection and purity, without hatred and without malice. In this way let us 
approach a brother or a sister who is sick, and visit them in a way that is right, without guile, 
and without covetousness, and without noise, and without talkativeness, and without such 
behaviour as is alien from the fear of God, and without haughtiness, but with the meek and 
lowly spirit of Christ. Let them, therefore, with fasting and with prayer make their adjura- 
tions, and not with the elegant and well-arranged and fitly-ordered words of learning, but 
as men who have received the gift of healing from God, confidently, to the glory of God. 
By 414 your fastings and prayers and perpetual watching, together with your other good 
works, mortify the works of the flesh by the power of the Holy Spirit. He who acts thus “is 
a temple of the Holy Spirit of God .” 415 Let this man cast out demons, and God will help 
him. For it is good that a man help those that are sick. Our Lord hath said: “Cast out 
demons,” at the same time commanding many other acts of healing; and, “Freely ye have 
received, freely give .” 416 For such persons as these a goodly recompense is laid up by God, 
because they serve their brethren with the gifts which have been given them by the Lord. 


409 Jas. i. 27. 

410 Or “exorcisms.” 

411 Lit. “elegant and numerous words.” 

412 1 Cor. xiii. 1. 

413 Matt. xvii. 21. [Or Mark ix. 29; the verse in Matthew is of doubtful genuineness. — R.] 

414 Or “in.” 

415 1 Cor. vi. 19. 

416 Matt. x. 8. 


108 


Rules for Visits, Exorcisms, and How People are to Assist the Sick, and... 


This is also comely and helpful to the servants of God, because they act according to the 
injunctions of our Lord, who hath said: “I was sick, and ye visited Me, and so on .” 417 And 
this is comely and right and just, that we visit our neighbours for the sake of God with all 
seemliness of manner and purity of behaviour; as the Apostle hath said: “Who is sick, and 

A 1 O 

I am not sick? who is offended, and I am not offended?” But all these things are spoken 
in reference to the love with which a man should love his neighbour. And in these things 
let us occupy ourselves , 419 without giving offence, and let us not do anything with partiality 
or for the shaming of others, but let us love the poor as the servants of God, and especially 
let us visit them. For this is comely before God and before men, that we should remember 
the poor, and be lovers of the brethren and of strangers, for the sake of God and for the sake 
of those who believe in God, as we have learnt from the law and from the prophets, and 
from our Lord Jesus Christ, concerning the love of the brotherhood and the love of strangers: 
for ye know the words which have been spoken concerning the love of the brotherhood and 
the love of strangers ; 420 powerfully are the words spoken to all those who do them. 


417 Lit. “and things similar to these,” Matt. xxv. 36. 

418 2 Cor. xi. 29. 

419 Lit. “let us be.” 

420 Beelen here omits, as spurious, the words, “because this same thing is pleasant and agreeable to you: because 
ye are all taught of God.” 


109 


What Priests Should Be and Should Not Be. 


Chapter XIII. — What Priests Should Be and Should Not Be. 

Beloved brethren! that a man should build up and establish the brethren on the faith in 
one God, this also is manifest and well-known. This too, again, is comely, that a man should 
not be envious of his neighbour. And moreover, again, it is suitable and comely that all 
those who work the works of the Lord should work the works of the Lord in the fear of God. 
Thus is it required of them to conduct themselves. That “the harvest is great, but the 
workmen are few,” this also is well-known and manifest. Let us, therefore, “ask of the Lord 
of the harvest” that He would send forth workmen into the harvest ; 421 such workmen as 
“shall skilfully dispense the word of truth;” workmen “who shall not be ashamed;” faithful 

workmen; workmen who shall be “the light of the world;” workmen who “work not for 
the food that perisheth, but for that food which abideth unto life eternal ;” 424 workmen who 
shall be such as the apostles; workmen who imitate the Father, and the Son, and the Holy 
Spirit; who are concerned for the salvation of men; not “hireling ” 425 workmen; not workmen 
to whom the fear of God and righteousness appear to be gain; not workmen who “serve 
their belly;” not workmen who “with fair speeches and pleasant words mislead the hearts 
of the innocent ;” 426 not workmen who imitate the children of light, while they are not light 

« „477 

but darkness — men whose end is destruction;’ not workmen who practise iniquity and 
wickedness and fraud; not “crafty workmen ;” 428 not workmen “drunken” and “faithless ;” 429 
nor workmen who traffic in Christ ; 430 not misleaders; not “lovers of money; not malevol- 
ent .” 431 

Let us, therefore, contemplate and imitate the faithful who have conducted themselves 
well in the Lord, as is becoming and suitable to our calling and profession. Thus let us do 
service before God in justice and righteousness, and without blemish, “occupying ourselves 


421 Matt. ix. 37, 38. 

422 Lit. “without shame,” 2 Tim. ii. 15. 

423 Matt. v. 14. 

424 John vi. 27. 

425 Johnx. 12, 13. 

426 Rom. xvi. 18. 

427 Phil. iii. 9. 

428 2 Cor. xi. 13. 

429 See Matt. xxiv. 45-51. 

430 [Comp, the term xpiorcptiopoc; “Christ-monger,” “Christ-trafflcker,” in Teaching , chap. xii. 5, vol. vii. p. 
381. — R.] 

431 1 Tim. iii. 3; Tit. i. 7. 


110 


What Priests Should Be and Should Not Be. 


A'\ r ) 

with things good and comely before God and also before men.” For this is comely, that 
God be glorified in us in all things. 

Here endeth the first Epistle of Clement. 


432 Rom. xii. 17. 


Ill 


The Second Epistle of the Same Clement. 


The Second Epistle of the Same Clement. 

Chapter I. — He Describes the Circumspectness of His Intercourse with the Other 
Sex, and Tells How in His Journeys He Acts at Places Where There are Brethren 
Only. 

I would, moreover, have you know, my brethren, of what sort is our conduct in Christ, 
as well as that of all our brethren, in the various places in which we are. And if so be that 
you approve it, do ye also conduct yourselves in like manner in the Lord. Now we, if God 
help us, conduct ourselves thus: with maidens we do not dwell, nor have we anything in 
common with them; with maidens we do not eat, nor drink; and, where a maiden sleeps, 
we do not sleep; neither do women wash our feet, nor anoint us; and on no account do we 
sleep where a maiden sleeps who is unmarried or has taken the vow : 433 even though she 
be in some other place if she be alone, we do not pass the night there . 434 Moreover, if it 
chance that the time for rest overtake us in a place, whether in the country, or in a village, 
or in a town, or in a hamlet , 435 or wheresoever we happen to be, and there are found brethren 
in that place, we turn in to one who is a brother, and call together there all the brethren, and 
speak to them words of encouragement and exhortation 436 And those among us who are 
gifted in speaking will speak such words as are earnest, and serious, and chaste, in the fear 
of God, and exhort them to please God in everything, and abound and go forward in good 
works, and “be free from anxious care in everything,” as is fit and right for the people 
of God. 


433 Lit. “or is a daughter of the covenant.” 

434 Beelen’s rendering, “we do not even pass the night,” seems not to be favoured either by the arrangement 
or the context. 

435 Lit “dwelling-place.” 

436 Or “consolation.” So 7tapdKAr|au; in the N.T. has both senses. 

437 Lit. “without.” 

Phil. iv. 6. 


438 


112 


His Behaviour in Places Where There Were Christians of Both Sexes. 


Chapter II. — His Behaviour in Places Where There Were Christians of Both Sexes. 

And if, moreover, it chance that we are distant from our homes and from our neighbours, 
and the day decline and the eventide overtake us, and the brethren press us, through love 
of the brotherhood and by reason of their affection for strangers, to stay with them, so that 
we may watch with them, and they may hear the holy word of God and do it, and be fed 
with the words of the Lord, so that they may be mindful of them, and they set before us 
bread and water and that which God provides, and we be willing and consent to stay through 
the night with them; if there be there a holy man , 439 with him we turn in and lodge, and 
that same brother will provide and prepare whatever is necessary for us; and he himself 
waits upon us, and he himself washes our feet for us and anoints us with ointment, and he 
himself gets ready a bed for us, that we may sleep in reliance on God. All these things will 
that consecrated brother, who is in the place in which we tarry, do in his own person. He 
will himself serve the brethren, and each one of the brethren who are in the same place will 
join with him in rendering all those services 440 which are requisite for the brethren. But 
with us may no female, whether young maiden or married woman, be there at that time ; 441 
nor she that is aged , 442 nor she that has taken the vow; not even a maid-servant, whether 
Christian or heathen; but there shall only be men with men. And, if we see it to be requisite 
to stand and pray for the sake of the women, and to speak words of exhortation and edific- 
ation, we call together the brethren and all the holy sisters and maidens, and likewise all the 
other women who are there, inviting them with all modesty and becoming behaviour to 
come and feast on the truth 443 And those among us who are skilled in speaking speak to 
them, and exhort them in those words which God has given us. And then we pray, and sa- 
lute 444 one another, the men the men. But the women and the maidens will wrap their 
hands in their garments; and we also, with circumspection and with all purity, our eyes 
looking upwards, shall wrap our right hand in our garments; and then they will come and 
give us the salutation on our right hand wrapped in our garments. Then we go where God 
permits us. 


439 i.e., one who has taken the vow of celibacy. 

440 Lit. “will with him minister all those things.” 

441 [The minuteness of all these precepts is of itself suspicious. The “simplicity” of the earlier age had evidently 
passed when these prohibitions were penned. — R.] 

442 ***, Beelen’s conjecture for ***, “rich.” Zingerle proposes ***, “about to he married.” 

443 Lit. “come to the delight of the truth.” 

444 Lit. “ask of the peace of.” 


113 



Rules for the Conduct of Celibate Brethren in Places Where There are Only... 


Chapter III. — Rules for the Conduct of Celibate Brethren in Places Where There are 

Only Married Christians. 

And if again we chance to come into a place where there is no consecrated brother, but 
all are married, all those who are there will receive the brother who comes to them, and 
minister to him, and care for his wants 445 in everything, assiduously, with good-will. And 
the brother shall be ministered to by them in the way that is suitable. And the brother will 
say to the married persons who are in that place: We holy men do not eat or drink with 
women, nor are we waited on by women or by maidens, nor do women wash our feet for 
us, nor do women anoint us, nor do women prepare our bed for us, nor do we sleep where 
women sleep, so that we may be without reproach in everything, lest any one should be of- 
fended or stumble at us. And, whilst we observe all these things, “we are without offence 
to every man .” 446 As persons, therefore, “who know the fear of the Lord, we persuade men, 
and to God we are made manifest .” 447 


445 Lit. “for that which in his;” or “for what belongs to him.” 

446 2 Cor. vi. 3. 

447 2 Cor. v. 11. 


114 


Conduct of the Holy Man Where There are Women Only. 


Chapter IV. — Conduct of the Holy Man Where There are Women Only. 

But if we chance to come into a place where there are no Christian men, but all the be- 
lievers are women and maidens , 448 and they press us to pass the night there in that place, 
we call them all together to some suitable place , 449 and ask them how they do; and according 
to that which we learn from them, and what we see to be their state of mind, we address 
them in a suitable manner, as men fearing God. And when they have all assembled and 
come together, and we see that they are in peace , 450 we address to them words of exhortation 
in the fear of God, and read the Scripture to them, with purity and in the concise 451 and 
weighty words of the fear of God. We do everything as for their edification. And as to those 
who are married, we speak to them in the Lord in a manner suited to them. And if, moreover, 
the day decline and the eventide draw on, we select, in order to pass the night there, a woman 
who is aged and the most exemplary 452 of them all; and we speak to her to give us a place 
all to ourselves, where no woman enters, nor maiden. And this old woman herself will bring 
us a lamp, and whatever is requisite for us she will herself bring us. From love to the brethren, 
she will bring whatever is requisite for the service of stranger brethren. And she herself, 
when the time for sleep is come, will depart and go to her house in peace. 


448 Lit. “all of them are believing women and maidens.” 

449 Lit. “some place on the right side.” The Syrian translator has probably mistaken the meaning of etc; eva 
tottov Sehov, where Se^tov maybe compared with dexter in Hor., Sat., ii. 1, 18. — Beelen. 

450 Probably meaning, “when we have inquired of their welfare.” 

451 Lit. “compressed.” 

452 Lit. “chaste,” or “modest.” 


115 



Where There is Only One Woman, the Father Does Not Make a Stay; Flow Carefully... 


Chapter V. — Where There is Only One Woman, the Father Does Not Make a Stay; 

How Carefully Stumbling-Blocks Must Be Avoided. 

But if, moreover, we chance upon a place, and find there one believing woman only, 
and no other person be there but she only, we do not stop there, nor pray there, nor read 
the Scriptures there, but we flee as from before the face of a serpent, and as from before the 
face of sin. Not that we disdain the believing woman — far be it from us to be so minded 
towards our brethren in Christ! — but, because she is alone, we are afraid lest any one should 
make insinuations against us in words of falsehood. For the hearts of men are firmly set 45 ' 1 
on evil. And, that we may not give a pretext to those who desire to get a pretext against us 
and to speak evil of us, and that we may not be a stumbling-block to any one, on this account 
we cut off the pretext of those who desire to get a pretext against us; on this account we 
must be “on our guard that we be to no one a stumbling-block, neither to the Jews, nor to 
the Gentiles, nor yet to the Church of God; and we must not seek that which is profitable 
to ourselves only, but that which is for the profit of many, so that they may be saved .” 454 
For this does not profit us, that another stumble because of us. Let us, therefore, be studiously 
on our guard at all times, that we do not smite our brethren and give them to drink of a 
disquieting conscience through our being to them a stumbling-block. For “if for the sake 
of meat our brother be made sad, or shocked, or made weak, or caused to stumble, we are 
not walking in the love of God. For the sake of meat thou causest him to perish for whose 
sake Christ died .” 455 For, in “thus sinning against your brethren and wounding their sickly 
consciences, ye sin against Christ Himself. For, if for the sake of meat my brother is made 
to stumble,” let us who are believers say, “Never will we eat flesh, that we may not make our 
brother to stumble .” 456 These things, moreover, does ever one who truly loves God, who 
truly takes up his cross, and puts on Christ, and loves his neighbour; the man who watches 
over himself that he be not a stumbling-block to any one, that no one be caused to stumble 
because of him and die because he is constantly with maidens and lives in the same house 
with them — a thing which is not right — to the overthrow of those who see and hear. Evil 
conduct like this is fraught with stumbling and peril, and is akin 457 to death. But blessed 
is that man who is circumspect and fearful in everything for the sake of purity! 


453 Or “are set and fixed.” 

454 1 Cor. x. 32, 33. 

455 Rom. xiv. 15. [The Apostle’s noble and consistent counsel to the “strong” brethren at Rome is in sharp 
contrast with the use here made of it. Only one of the “weak” brethren could have written this epistle. — R.] 

456 1 Cor. viii. 12, 13. 

457 Lit. “near.” 


116 


How Christians Should Behave Themselves Among Heathens. 


Chapter VI. — How Christians Should Behave Themselves Among Heathens. 

If, moreover, it chance that we go to a place in which there are no Christians, and it be 
important for us to stay there a few days, let us be “wise as serpents, and harmless as 
doves ;” 458 and let us “not be as the foolish, but as the wise ,” 459 in all the self - restraint of the 
fear of God, that God maybe glorified in everything through our Lord Jesus Christ, through 
our chaste and holy behaviour. For, “whether we eat, or drink, or do anything else, let us 
do it as for the glory of God .” 460 Let “all those who see us acknowledge that we are a blessed 
seed ,” 461 “sons of the living God ,” 462 in everything — in all our words in shamefastness, in 
purity, in humility, forasmuch as we do not copy the heathen in anything, nor are as believers 
like other men, but in everything are estranged from the wicked. And we “do not cast that 
which is holy before dogs, nor pearls before swine ;” 463 but with all possible self- restraint, 
and with all discretion, and with all fear of God, and with earnestness of mind we praise 
God. For we do not minister where heathens are drinking and blaspheming in their feasts 
with words of impurity, because of their wickedness . 464 Therefore do we not sing psalms 
to the heathens, nor do we read to them the Scriptures, that we may not be like common 
singers, either those who play on the lyre , 465 or those who sing with the voice, or like 
soothsayers, as many are, who follow these practices and do these things, that they may sate 
themselves with a paltry mouthful of bread, and who, for the sake of a sorry cup of wine, 
go about “singing the songs of the Lord in the strange land ” 466 of the heathen, and doing 
what is not right. Do not so, my brethren; we beseech you, my brethren, let not these deeds 
be done among you; but put away those who choose thus to behave themselves with infamy 
and disgrace. It is not proper, my brethren, that these things should be so. But we beseech 
you, brethren in righteousness, that these things be so done with you as with us, as for a 
pattern of believers, and of those who shall believe. Let us be of the flock of Christ, in all 
righteousness, and in all holy and unblemished conduct, behaving ourselves with uprightness 
and sanctity, as is right for believers, and observing those things which are praiseworthy, 
and pure, and holy, and honourable, and noble; and do ye promote 467 all those things which 


458 Matt. x. 16. 

459 Eph. v. 15. 

460 ICor.x. 31. 

461 Isa. lxi. 9. 

462 Phil. ii. 15. 

463 Matt. vii. 6. 

464 Beelen joins “because of their wickedness” with the words that follow. 

465 Or “cithara.” 

466 Ps. cxxxvii. 4. 

467 Or “set on foot.” 


117 


How Christians Should Behave Themselves Among Heathens. 


are profitable. For ye are “our joy, and our crown,” and our hope, and our life, “if so be that 
ye stand in the Lord .” 468 So be it ! 469 


468 Phil. iv. 1. 

469 Or “Amen.” 


118 


Uses of Considering Admonitory Examples, as Well as Instructive Pattern. . . 


Chapter VII. — Uses of Considering Admonitory Examples, as Well as Instructive 

Patterns. 

Let us consider, therefore, my brethren, and see how all the righteous fathers conducted 
themselves during the whole time of their sojourn in this life, and let us search and examine 
from the law down to the New Testament. For this is both becoming and profitable, that 
we should know how many men there have been, and who they were, that have perished 
through women; and who and how many have been the women that have perished through 
men, by reason of the constancy with which they have associated with one another. And 
further, also, for the same reason, I will show how many have been the men, and who they 
were, that lived all their lifetime, and continued even to the close, with one another in the 
performance of chaste works without blemish. And it is manifest and well-known that this 


470 Wetstein and Zingerle join on this sentence to the next, by a change of the construction. 


119 



Joseph and Potiphar's Wife; Of What Kind Love to Females Ought to Be. 


Chapter VIII. — Joseph and Potiphar’s Wife; Of What Kind Love to Females Ought 
to Be. 

There is Joseph, faithful, and intelligent, and wise, and who feared God in everything. 
Did not a woman conceive an excessive passion for the beauty of this chaste and upright 
man? And, when he would not yield and consent to gratify her passionate desire , 471 she 

479 

cast the righteous man into every kind of distress and torment, to within a little of death, 
by bearing false witness. But God delivered him from all the evils that came upon him 
through this wretched woman. Ye see, my brethren, what distresses the constant sight of 
the person of the Egyptian woman brought upon the righteous man. Therefore, let us not 
be constantly with women, nor with maidens. For this is not profitable for those who truly 

« „473 

wish to gird up their loins.” For it is required that we love the sisters in all purity and 
chasteness, and with all curbing of thought, in the fear of God, not associating constantly 
with them, nor finding access to them at every hour. 


471 Lit. “her passion and her desire.” 

472 Lit. “even to death.” 

473 Luke xii. 35. 


120 


Samson 's Admonitory Fall. 


Chapter IX. — Samson’s Admonitory Fall. 

Hast thou not heard concerning Samson the Nazarite, “with whom was the Spirit of 
God ,” 474 the man of great strength? This man, who was a Nazarite, and consecrated to God, 
and who was gifted with strength and might, a woman brought to ruin with her wretched 
body, and with Servile passion. Art thou, perchance, such a man as he? Know thyself, and 
know the measure of thy strength . 475 “The married woman catcheth precious souls .” 476 
Therefore, we do not allow any man whatsoever to sit with a married woman; much less to 
live in the same house with a maiden who has taken the vow, or to sleep where she sleeps, 
or to be constantly with her. For this is to be hated and abominated by those who fear God. 


474 Judges xiii. 25. 

475 Lit. “know thy measure.” 

476 Prov. vi. 26. 


121 


David's Sin, So Admonitory to Us Weak Men. 


Chapter X. — David’s Sin, So Admonitory to Us Weak Men. 

477 

Does not the case of David instruct thee, whom God “found a man after His heart,” 
one faithful, faultless, pious, true? This same man saw the beauty of a woman — I mean of 
Bathsheba — when he saw her as she was cleansing herself and washing unclothed. This 
woman the holy man saw, and was thoroughly captivated with desire by the sight of 
her . 479 See, then, what evils he committed because of a woman, and how this righteous man 
sinned, and gave command that the husband of this woman should be killed in battle. Ye 
have seen what wicked schemes he laid and executed, and how, because of his passion for 
a woman, he perpetrated a murder — he, David, who was called “the anointed of the Lord .” 480 
Be admonished, O man: for, if such men as these have been brought to ruin through women, 
what is thy righteousness, or what art thou among the holy, that thou consortest with women 
and with maidens day and night, with much silliness, without fear of God? Not thus, my 
brethren, not thus let us conduct ourselves; but let us be mindful of that word which is 
spoken concerning a woman: “Her hands lay snares, and her heart spreadeth nets; but the 
just shall escape from her, whilst the wicked falleth into her hands.” Therefore let us, 
who are consecrated, be careful not to live in the same house with females who have 
taken the vow. For such conduct as this is not becoming nor right for the servants of God. 


477 

478 

479 

480 

481 

482 


1 Sam. xvi. 13; Ps. lxxxix. 20, seqq.; Acts xiii. 22. 

Lit. “verily.” 

“By the pleasure derived from the sight other.” — Beelen. 
Ps. xviii. 50; 2 Sam. xix. 21. 

Eccl. vii. 26. 

Lit. “holy.” 


122 


Admonitory History of the Incestuous Children of David. 


Chapter XI. — Admonitory History of the Incestuous Children of David. 

Hast thou not read concerning Amnon and T amar, the children of David? This Amnon 
conceived a passion for his sister, and humbled her, and did not spare her, because he longed 
for her with a shameful passion; and he proved wicked and profligate because of his constant 

mi 

intercourse with her, without the fear of God, and he “wrought uncleanness in Israel.” 
Therefore, it is not proper for us, nor right for us, to associate with sisters, indulging in 
laughter and looseness; but we ought to behave towards them with all chasteness and purity, 
and in the fear of the Lord. 


483 Gen. xxxiv. 7. 


123 


Solomon's Infatuation Through Women. 


Chapter XII. — Solomon’s Infatuation Through Women. 

Hast thou not read the history of Solomon, the son of David, the man to whom God 
gave wisdom, and knowledge, and largeness of mind , 484 and riches, and much glory, beyond 

HOC 

all men? Yet this same man, through women, came to ruin, and departed from the Lord. 


484 Lit. “heart.” 

485 Or “perished. 


124 



The History of Susanna Teaches Circumspection with the Eyes and in Soci... 


Chapter XIII. — The History of Susanna Teaches Circumspection with the Eyes and 
in Society. 

Hast thou not read, and dost thou not know, concerning those elders who were in the 
days of Susanna, who, because they were constantly with women, and looking upon the 
beauty which was another’s, fell into the depths of wantonness, and were not able to keep 

AO'7 

themselves in a chaste mind, but were overcome by a depraved disposition, and came 

JQQ 

suddenly upon the blessed Susanna to corrupt her. But she did not consent to their foul 
passion, but cried unto God, and God saved her out of the hands of the bad old men. Does 
it not, therefore, behove us to tremble and be afraid, forasmuch as these old men, judges 
and elders of the people of God, fell from their dignity because of a woman? For they did 
not keep in mind that which is said: “Look thou not on the beauty which is another’s;” and, 
“The beauty of woman has destroyed many ;” 489 and “With a married woman do not sit ;” 490 
and that, again, in which it says: “Is there any one that puts fire in his bosom, and does not 
burn his clothes ;” 491 or, “Does a man walk on fire, and his feet are not scorched? So who- 
soever goeth in to another man’s wife is not pure from evil, and whosoever comes near to 
her shall not escape .” 492 And again it says: “Thou shalt not long after the beauty a woman, 
lest she take thee captive with her eyelids ;” 493 and, “Thou shalt not look upon a maiden, 
lest thou perish through desire of her ;” 494 and, “With a woman that sings beautifully thou 
shalt not constantly be ;” 495 and, “Let him that thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall .” 496 


486 

Susanna having a husband, Joachim. 

487 

Lit. “a mind of chasteness.” 

488 

Lit. “rose.” 

489 

Ecclus. ix. 8, 9. 

490 

Ecclus. ix. 12. 

491 

Prov. vi. 27. 

492 

Prov. vi. 28, 29. 

493 

Prov. vi. 25. 

494 

Ecclus. ix. 5. 

495 

Ecclus. ix. 4. 

496 

1 Cor. x. 12. 


125 


Examples of Circumspect Behaviour from the Old Testament. 


Chapter XIV. — Examples of Circumspect Behaviour from the Old Testament. 

But see what it says also concerning those holy men, the prophets, and concerning the 
apostles of our Lord. Let us see whether any one of these holy men was constantly with 
maidens, or with young married women, or with such widows as the divine apostle declines 
to receive. Let us consider, in the fear of God, the manner of life of these holy men. Lo! we 
find it written concerning Moses and Aaron, that they acted and lived in the company of 497 
men, who themselves also followed a course of conduct like theirs. And thus did Joshua 
also, the son of Nun. Woman was there none with them; but they by themselves used holily 
to minister before God, men with men. And not only so; but they taught the people, that, 
whensoever the host moved, every tribe should move on apart, and the women with the 
women apart, and that they should go into the rear behind the host, and the men also apart 
by their tribes. And, according to the command of the Lord, so did they set out, like a wise 
people, that there might be no disorder on account of the women when the host moved. 
With beautiful and well-ordered arrangements did they march without stumbling. For lo! 
the Scriptures bear testimony to my words: “When the children of Israel had crossed over 
the Sea of Suth, Moses and the children of Israel sang the praises of the Lord, and said: We 
will praise the Lord, because He is exceedingly to be praised .” 498 And, after that Moses had 
finished 499 singing praises, then Miriam, the sister of Moses and Aaron, took a timbrel in 
her hands, and all the women went out after her, and sang praises with her, women with 
women apart, and men with men apart. Then again, we find that Elisha and Gehazi and 
the sons of the prophets lived together in the fear of God, and that they had no females living 
with them. Micah too, and all the prophets likewise, we find to have lived in this manner 
in the fear of the Lord. 


497 Lit. “their conduct and living was with.” 

498 Exod. xv. 1. 

499 Lit. “ceased from.” 


126 


The Example of Jesus; How We May Allow Ourselves to Be Sen’ed by Women. 


Chapter XV. — The Example of Jesus; How We May Allow Ourselves to Be Served 

by Women. 

And, not to extend our discourse to too great length, what shall we say concerning our 
Lord Jesus Christ? Our Lord Himself was constantly with His twelve disciples when He 
had com e forth to the world. And not only so; but also, when He was sending them out, He 
sent them out two and two together, men with men; but women were not sent with them, 
and neither in the highway nor in the house did they associate with women or with maidens: 
and thus they pleased God in everything. Also, when our Lord Jesus Christ Himself was 
talking with the woman of Samaria by the well alone, “His disciples came” and found Him 
talking with her, “and wondered that Jesus was standing and talking with a woman .” 500 Is 
He not a rule, such as may not be set aside, an example, and a pattern to all the tribes of 
men? And not only so; but also, when our Lord was risen from the place of the dead, and 
Mary came to the place of sepulture, she ran and fell at the feet of our Lord and worshipped 
Him, and would have taken hold of Him. But He said to her: “Touch Me not; for I am not 
yet ascended to My Father .” 501 Is it not, then, matter for astonishment, that, while our Lord 
did not allow Mary, the blessed woman, to touch His feet, yet thou livest with them, and art 
waited on by women and maidens, and sleepest where they sleep, and women wash thy feet 
for thee, and anoint thee! Alas for this culpable state of mind! Alas for this state of mind 
which is destitute of fear! Alas for this affrontery and folly, which is without fear of God! 
Dost thou not judge thine own self? Dost thou not examine thine own self? Dost thou not 
know thine own self and the measure of thy strength? These things, moreover, are trust- 
worthy, and these things are true and right; and these are rules immutable for those who 
behave themselves uprightly in our Lord. Many holy women, again, ministered to holy men 
of their substance, as the Shunammite woman ministered to Elisha; but she did not live with 
him, but the prophet lived in a house apart. And, when her son died, she wanted to throw 
herself at the feet of the prophet; but his attendant would not allow her, but restrained her. 

CAT 

But Elisha said to his servant: “Let her alone, because her soul is distressed.” From these 

things, then, we ought to understand their manner of life. To Jesus Christ our Lord women 
ministered of their substance: but they did not live with him; but chastely, and holily, and 
unblameably they behaved before the Lord, and finished their course, and received the 

rno 

crown in our Lord God Almighty. 


500 John iv. 27. 

501 John xx. 17. 

502 2 Kings iv. 27. 

Beelen suggests the reading “from,” or to render the present text “by.” 


503 


127 


Exhortation to Union and to Obedience; Conclusion. 


Chapter XVI. — Exhortation to Union and to Obedience; Conclusion. 

Therefore, we beseech you, our brethren in our Lord, that these things be observed with 
you, as with us, and that we may be of the same mind, that we may be one in you and ye 
may be one in us, and that in everything we may be of one soul and one heart in our Lord. 
Whosoever knoweth the Lord heareth us; and every one who is not of God heareth not us. 
He who desires truly to keep sanctity heareth us; and the virgin who truly desires to keep 
virginity heareth us; but she who does not truly desire to keep virginity doth not hear us. 
Finally, farewell in our Lord, and rejoice in the Lord, all ye saints. Peace and joy be with 
you from God the Father through Jesus Christ our Lord. So be it. 

Here endeth the Second Epistle of Clement, the disciple of Peter. His prayer be with 
us! So be it. 


128 



Pseudo-Clementine Literature. 


PSEUDO-CLEMENTINE LITERATURE. 



129 



Introductory Notice. 


Introductory Notice 

to the 

Pseudo-Clementine Literature. 

By Professor M. B. Riddle, D.D. 



The name “Pseudo-Clementine Literature” (or, more briefly, “Clementina”) is applied 
to a series of writings, closely resembling each other, purporting to emanate from the great 
Roman Father. But, as Dr. Schaff remarks, in this literature he is evidently confounded with 
“Flavius Clement, kinsman of the Emperor Domitian.” 504 These writings are three in 
number: (1) the Recognitions, of which only the Latin translation of Rufinus has been pre- 
served; 505 (2) the Homilies, twenty in number, of which a complete collection has been 
known since 1853; (3) the Epitome, “an uninteresting extract from the Homilies, to which 
are added extracts from the letter of Clement to James, from the Martyrium of Clement by 
Simeon Metaphrastes, etc.” 506 Other writings maybe classed with these; but they are of the 
same general character, except that most of them show the influence of a later age, adapting 
the material more closely to the orthodox doctrine. 

The Recognitions and the Homilies appear in the pages which follow. The former are 
given a prior position, as in the Edinburgh series. It probably cannot be proven that these 
represent the earlier form of this theological romance; but the Homilies, “in any case, present 
the more doctrinally developed and historically important form of the other treatises, which 

CAT 

are essentially similar.” They are therefore with propriety placed after the Recognitions, 

rno 

which do not seem to have been based upon them, but upon some earlier document. 

The critical discussion of the Clementina has been keen, but has not reached its end. It 
necessarily involves other questions, about which there is still great difference of opinion. 
A few results seem to be established: — 

(1) The entire literature is of Jewish -Christian, or Ebionitic, origin. The position accor- 
ded to “James, the Lord’s brother,” in all the writings, is a clear indication of this; so is the 
silence respecting the Apostle Paul. The doctrinal statements, “though not perfectly homo- 


504 History of the Christian Church, vol. ii. p. 436, new edition. 

505 See the Introductory Note of the Edinburgh translator. 

506 Uhlhorn, article Clementines, Schaff-Herzog, i. p. 497. A second Epitome has been published by Dressel; 
see Introductory Notice to Homilies. 

507 Lechler, Apostolic and Post-Apostolic Times, ii. p. 268, Edinburgh translation, 1886, from 3rd edition. 

508 Uhlhorn; see infra. 


130 



Introductory Notice. 


geneous” (Uhlhorn), are Judaistic, even when mixed with Gnostic speculation of heathen 
origin. This tendency is, perhaps, not so clearly marked in the Recognitions as in the Hom- 
ilies; but both partake largely of the same general character. More particularly, the literature 
has been connected with the Ebionite sect called the Elkesaites; and some regard the Hom- 
ilies as containing a further development of their system. 509 This is not definitely established, 
but finds some support in the resemblance between the baptismal forms, as given by Hip- 
polytus in the case of the Elkesaites, 510 and those indicated in the Recognitions and Homilies, 
especially the latter. 511 

(2) The entire literature belongs to the class of fictitious writing “with a purpose.” The 
Germans properly term the Homilies a “Tendenz-Romance.” The many “lives of Christ” 
written in our day to insinuate some other view of our Lord’s person than that given in the 
canonical Gospels, furnish abundant examples of the class. The Tubingen school, finding 
here a real specimen of the influence of party feeling upon quasi-historical literature, naturally 
pressed the Clementina in support of their theory of the origin of the Gospels. 

(3) The discussion leaves it quite probable, though not yet certain, that all the works 
are “independent elaborations — perhaps at first hand, perhaps at second or third — of some 
older tract not now extant.” Some of the opinions held respecting the relations of the 
two principal works are given by the Edinburgh translator in his Introductory Notice. It is 
only necessary here to indicate the progress of the modern discussion. Neander, as early as 
1818, gave some prominence to the doctrinal view of the Homilies. He was followed by 
Baur, who found in these writings, as indicated above, support for his theory of the origin 
of historical Christianity. It is to be noted, however, that the heterogeneous mixture of 
Ebionism and Gnosticism in the doctrinal views proved perplexing to the leader of the 

r -I o 

Tubingen school. Schliemann took ground against Baur, collecting much material, and 
carefully investigating the question. Both authors give the priority to the Homilies. While 
Baur went too far in one direction, Schliemann, perhaps, failed to recognise fully the basis 
of truth in the position of the former. The next important step in the discussion was made 
by Hilgenfeld, 514 whose views are briefly given in the Notice which follows. Hilgenfeld as- 


509 Comp. Uhlhorn, p. 392; Schaff, History, ii. p. 436; Lechler, ii. p. 288. See Schaff-Herzog, i. art. Elkesaites. 

510 See Hippolytus, Refutation of all Heresies, book ix. 8-12, Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. v. pp. 131-134. The 
forms occur in chap. 10, pp. 132, 133. 

511 See Recognitions, i. 45-48; Homilies, Epistle of Peter to James, 4, Homily XIV. 1. 

512 This is the last opinion of Uhlhorn (Herzog, Real-Encykl., 1877, art. Clementinen-, comp. Schaff-Herzog, 
i. p. 498). This author had previously defended the priority of the Homilies ( Die Hotnilien und Rekognitionen 
des Clemens Romanus, Gottingen, 1854; comp. Herzog, edition of 1854, art. Clementinen). 

513 Die Clementinen nebst den verwandten Schriften, und der Ebionitismus, Hamburg, 1844. 

514 Die Clementinischen Rekognitionen und Homilien, nach ihrem Ursprung und Inhalt dargestellt, Jena, 1848. 

131 



Introductory Notice. 


signed the priority to the Recognitions, though he traced all the literature to an earlier work. 
Uhlhorn 515 at first attempted to prove that the Recognitions were a revision of the Homilies. 
Further contributions were made by Lehmann 516 and Lipsius . 517 The former discovered 
in the Recognitions two distinct parts by different authors (i.-iii., iv.-ix.), tracing all the lit- 
erature to the Kerygma of Peter. The latter finds the basis of the whole in the Acta Petri, 
which show a strong anti- Pauline tendency. 

no 

Influenced by these investigations, Uhlhorn modified his views. Lechler, while not 
positive in his convictions, makes the following prudent statement: “An older work lies at 
the basis both of the Homilies and Recognitions, bearing the title, Kerygmen des Petrus . 519 
To this document sometimes the Homilies, sometimes the Recognitions, correspond more 
faithfully; its historical contents are more correctly seen from the Recognitions, its doctrinal 
contents from the Homilies.” Other views, some of them quite fanciful, have been presented. 

The prevalent opinion necessarily leaves us in ignorance of the authors of this literature. 
The date of composition, or editing, cannot be definitely fixed. In their present form the 
several works may be as old as the first half of the third century, and the common basis may 
be placed in the latter half of the second century. 

How far the anti-Pauline tendency is carried, is a matter of dispute. Baur and many 

coo 

others think Simon is meant to represent Paul; but this is difficult to believe, though we 
must admit the disposition to ignore the Apostle to the Gentiles. As to the literary merit of 
these productions the reader must judge. 

For convenience in comparison of the two works, the following table has been prepared, 
based on the order of the Recognitions. The correspondences are not exact, and the reader 
is referred to the footnotes for fuller details. This table gives a general view of the arrange- 
ment of the two narratives: — 

Recognitions Homilies 

I I., II. 

II., Ill III. 

IV.-VII. 

IV VIII., IX. 

V X., XV. 


515 See supra, note 3. Uhlhorn found the nucleus of the literature in Homilies, xvi.-xix. 

516 Die Clementinischen Schriften, Gotha, 1869. 

517 Die Quellen der romischen Petrussage, Kiel, 1872. 

518 Apostolic and Post-Apostolic Times, vol. ii. p. 270. 

519 So Hilgenfeld, Lehmann, Uhlhorn. 

520 See especially Homilies, xvii. 19. Here there is “probably only an incidental sneer at Paul” (Schaff, History, 
ii. p. 438). 


132 



Introductory Notice. 


VI XI. 

VII XII., XIII. 

VIII., IX XIV., XV. 

XVI.-XIX. 

X XX. 


133 



The Recognitions of Clemen t. 


Introductory Notice 


III 

The Recognitions of Clement. 

[By the Translator, Rev. Thomas Smith, D.D.] 


The Recognitions of Clement is a kind of philosophical and theological romance. The 
writer of the work seems to have had no intention of presenting his statements as facts; but, 
choosing the disciples of Christ and their followers as his principal characters, he has put 
into their mouths the most important of his beliefs, and woven the whole together by a 
thread of fictitious narrative. 

The Recognitions is one of a series; the other members of which that have come down 

c-i 1 

to us are the Clementine Homilies and two Epitomes. 

The authorship, the date, and the doctrinal character of these books have been subjects 
of keen discussion in modern times. Especial prominence has been given to them by the 
Tubingen school. Hilgenfeld says: “There is scarcely a single writing which is of so great 
importance for the history of Christianity in its first stage, and which has already given such 
brilliant disclosures at the hands of the most renowned critics in regard to the earliest history 
of the Christian Church, as the writings ascribed to the Roman Clement, the Recognitions 
and Homilies.” The importance thus attached to these strange and curious documents 
by one school of theologians, has compelled men of all shades of belief to investigate the 
subject; but after all their investigations, a great variety of opinion still prevails on almost 
every point connected with these books. 


521 [See supra , p. 69, and Introductory Notice to Homilies. — R.] 

522 Die Clementinischen Rekognitionen und Homilien, nach ihrem Ursprung und Inhalt dargestellt, von Dr. 
Adolf Hilgenfeld, Jena, 1848, p. 1. [Despite the morbid taste of this school for heretical writings, and the now 
proven incorrectness of the “tendency-theory,” due credit must be given to Baur and his followers for awakening 
a better critical discernment among the students of ecclesiastical history. Hilgenfeld’s judgments, in the higher 
and lower criticism also, are frequently very incorrect; but he has done much to further a correct estimate of the 
Clementina. See Introductory Notice, supra. — R.] 


134 



Introductory Notice. 


We leave our readers to judge for themselves in regard to the doctrinal statements, and 
confine ourselves to a notice of some of the opinions in regard to the authorship and date 

n 'i 

of the Recognitions. 

The first question that suggests itself in regard to the Recognitions is, whether the Recog- 
nitions or the Homilies are the earliest form of the book, and what relation do they bear to 
each other? Some maintain that they are both the productions of the same author, and that 
the one is a later and altered edition of the other; and they find some confirmation of this 
in the preface of Rufinus. Others think that both books are expansions of another work 
which formed the basis. And others maintain that the one book is a rifacimento of the other 
by a different hand. Of this third party, some, like Cave, Whiston, Rosenmiiller, Staiidlin, 
Hilgenfeld, and many others, believe that the Recognitions was the earliest 524 of the two 
forms; while others, as Clericus, Mohler, Liicke, Schliemann, and Uhlhorn, give priority to 
the Clementines. Hilgenfeld supposes that the original writing was the Kqpuypa llerpou, 
which still remains in the work; that besides this there are three parts, — one directed against 
Basilides, the second the Travels of Peter (nepioSoi) and the third the Recognitions. There 
are also, he believes, many interpolated passages of a much later date than any of these 
parts. 525 

No conclusion has been reached in regard to the author. Some have believed that it is 
a genuine work of Clement. Whiston maintained that it was written by some of his hearers 
and companions. Others have attributed the work to Bardesanes. But most acknowledge 
that there is no possibility of discovering who was the author. 

Various opinions exist as to the date of the book. It has been attributed to the first, 
second, third, and fourth centuries, and some have assigned even a later date. If we were 
to base our arguments on the work as it stands, the date assigned would be somewhere in 

co/r 

the first half of the third century. A passage from the Recognitions is quoted by Origen " 
in his Commentary on Genesis, written in 231; and mention is made in the work of the ex- 
tension of the Roman franchise to all nations under the dominion of Rome, — an event which 
took place in the region of Caracalla, a.d. 211. The Recognitions also contains a large extract 
from the work De Fato, ascribed to Bardesanes, but really written by a scholar of his. Some 
have thought that Bardesanes or his scholar borrowed from the Recognitions; but more re- 



523 [The title, which varies in different manuscripts, is derived from the “narrating, in the last books, of the 
re-union of the scattered members of the Clementine family, who all at last find themselves together in Chris- 
tianity, and are baptized by Peter” (Schaff, History). — R.] 

524 See Schliemann, Die Clementinen, Hamburg, 1844, p. 295. 

525 [See a brief account of the discussion supra, p, 70. — R.] 

526 Philocalia, cap. 22. 


135 



Introductory Notice. 


cently the opinion has prevailed, that the passage was not originally in the Recognitions, but 

n n 

was inserted in the Recognitions towards the middle of the third century, or even later. 

Those who believe the work made up of various documents assign various dates to these 

documents. Hilgenfeld, for instance, believes that the Kqpuypa nerpou was written before 

the time of Trojan, and the Travels of Peter about the time of his reign. 

Nothing is known of the place in which the Recognitions was written. Some, as 

Schliemann, have supposed Rome, some Asia Minor, and recently Uhlhorn has tried to 
528 

trace it to Eastern Syria. 

The Greek of the Recognitions is lost. The work has come down to us in the form of a 
translation by Rufinus of Aquileia (d. 410 a.d.). In his letter to Gaudentius, Rufinus states 
that he omitted some portions difficult of comprehension, but that in regard to the other 
parts he had translated with care, and an endeavour to be exact even in rendering the 
phraseology. 

The best editions of the Recognitions are those by Cotelerius, often reprinted, and by 
Gersdorf, Lipsiae, 1838; but the text is not in a satisfactory condition. 


527 See Merx, Bardesanes von Edessa, Halle, 1863, p. 113. 

528 Die Homilien und Rekognitionen des Clemens Romanus , nach ihrem Ursprung und Inhalt dargestellt , von 
Gerhard Uhlhorn, Gottingen, 1854, p. 429. [Schaff thinks “the Homilies probably originated in East Syria, the 
Recognitions in Rome.” But Rufinus gives no intimation of the Roman origin of the Greek work he translated. 
Still, the apparently more orthodox character of the Recognitions suggests an editor from the Western Church. — R] 

136 



Preface. 


Recognitions of Clement. 



Rufinus, Presbyter of Aquileia; His Preface to Clement’s Book of Re- 
cognitions. 


To Bishop Gaudentius. 


To thee, indeed, O Gaudentius, thou choice glory of our doctors, belongs such vigour 
of mind, yea, such grace of the Spirit, that whatever you say even in the course of your daily 
preaching, whatever you deliver in the church, ought to be preserved in books, and handed 
down to posterity for their instruction. But we, whom slenderness of wit renders less ready, 
and now old age renders slow and inactive, though after many delays, yet at length present 
to you the work which once the virgin Sylvia of venerable memory enjoined upon us, that 
we should render Clement into our language, and you afterwards by hereditary right deman- 
ded of us; and thus we contribute to the use and profit of our people, no small spoil, as I 
think, taken from the libraries of the Greeks, so that we may feed with foreign nourishment 
those whom we cannot with our own. For foreign things usually seem both more pleasant, 
and sometimes also more profitable. In short, almost everything is foreign that brings 
healing to our bodies, that opposes diseases, and neutralizes poisons. For Judaea sends us 
Lacryma balsami, Crete Coma dictamni, Arabia her flower of spices, India reaps her crop 
of spikenard; which, although they reach us in a somewhat more broken condition than 
when they leave their native fields, yet retain entire the sweetness of their odour and their 
healing virtue. Receive therefore, my soul, Clement returning to you; receive him now 
in a Roman dress. And wonder not if haply the florid countenance of eloquence appear less 
in him than usual. It matters not, provided the sense tastes the same. Therefore we transport 
foreign merchandise into our country with much labour. And I know not with how grateful 
countenances my countrymen welcome me, bringing to them the rich spoils of Greece, and 
unlocking hidden treasures of wisdom with the key of our language. But may God grant 
your prayers, that no unlucky eye nor any livid aspect may meet us, lest, by an extreme kind 
of prodigy, while those from whom he is taken do not envy, yet those upon whom he is be- 
stowed should repine. Truly it is right to point out the plan of our translation to you, who 
have read these works also in Greek, lest haply in some parts you may think the order of 
translation not kept. I suppose you are aware that there are two editions in Greek of this 
work of Clement, — the ’Avayvojaeu; , that is, Recognitions; and that there are two collections 
of books, differing in some points, but in many containing the. same narrative. In short, the 


529 Var. readings: “magnanimous one,” “my lord,” “my friend. 


137 



Preface. 


last part of this work, in which is the relation concerning the transformation of Simon, is 

nn 

contained in one of the collections, but is not at all in the other. There are also in both 
collections some dissertations concerning the Unbegotten God and the Begotten, and on 

r o i 

some other subjects, which, to say nothing more, are beyond our comprehension. These, 
therefore, as being beyond our powers, I have chosen to reserve for others, rather than to 
produce in an imperfect state. But in the rest, we have given our endeavour, so far as we 
could, not to vary either from the sentiments or even from the language and modes of ex- 
pression; and this, although it renders the style of the narrative less ornate, yet it makes it 
more faithful. The epistle in which the same Clement, writing to James the Lord’s brother, 
informs him of the death of Peter, and that he had left him his successor in his chair and 
teaching, and in which also the whole subject of church order is treated, I have not prefixed 
to this work, both because it is of later date, and because I have already translated and pub- 

coo 

lished it. But I do not think it out of place to explain here what in that letter will perhaps 

seem to some to be inconsistent. For some ask, Since Linus and Cletus were bishops in the 
city of Rome before this Clement, how could Clement himself, writing to James, say that 

r o o 

the chair of teaching was handed over to him by Peter? Now of this we have heard this 
explanation, that Linus and Cletus were indeed bishops in the city of Rome before Clement, 
but during the lifetime of Peter: that is, that they undertook the care of the episcopate, and 
that he fulfilled the office of apostleship; as is found also to have been the case at Caesarea, 
where, when he himself was present, he yet had Zacchaeus, ordained by himself, as bishop. 
And in this way both statements will appear to be true, both that these bishops are reckoned 


530 [The reference is probably to the transformation of the father of Clement into the appearance of Simon 
Magus. This is narrated in both the Recognitions (book x. 53, etc.) and in the Homilies (xx. 12, etc.), though the 
latter book closes without any statement of the restoration. It would seem unlikely, then, that Rufinus refers to 
the Homilies as the “other” collection. The recovery of the closing portion of that work has given us its account 
of the transformation. — R.] 

531 [How far Rufinus has omitted portions which occurred in Greek cannot be known. It is quite probable 
that the apparent heresy of some passages, rather than their incomprehensibility, led him to omit them. This 
may be urged in favour of the priority of the Homilies, but is not conclusive. — R.] 

532 [There is no good reason for doubting that Rufinus refers to the extant epistle prefixed to the Homilies, 
and forming, with “the Epistle of Peter to James,” which precedes it, a preface and fictitious authentication of 
that collection. — R.] 

533 [The language of Rufinus confirms that of Irenaeus, Eusebius, and Jerome, as to the episcopal succession 
at Rome (assuming that Cletus and Anacletus, named by Irenaeus, is identical with Cletus) . For other variations, 
see Church Histories and Encyclopaedias (under Clemens Romanus). The current opinion at Rome in the begin- 
ning of the fifth century is evident from this passage. Comp. Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. i. pp. 1, 2. — R.] 


J38 



Preface. 


before Clement, and yet that Clement received the teacher’s seat on the death of Peter. But 
now let us see how Clement, writing to James the Lord’s brother, begins his narrative. 


139 



Book I. 


Recognitions of Clement. 



Book I. 

Chapter I. — Clement’s Early History; Doubts. 

I Clement, who was born in the city of Rome , 534 was from my earliest age a lover of 
chastity; while the bent of my mind held me bound as with chains of anxiety and sorrow. 
For a thought that was in me — whence originating, I cannot tell — constantly led me to think 
of my condition of mortality, and to discuss such questions as these: Whether there be for 
me any life after death, or whether I am to be wholly annihilated: whether I did not exist 
before I was born, and whether there shall be no remembrance of this life after death, and 
so the boundlessness of time shall consign all things to oblivion and silence; so that not only 
we shall cease to be, but there shall be no remembrance that we have ever been. This also 
I revolved in my mind: when the world was made, or what was before it was made, or 
whether it has existed from eternity. For it seemed certain, that if it had been made, it must 
be doomed to dissolution; and if it be dissolved, what is to be afterwards? — unless, perhaps, 
all things shall be buried in oblivion and silence, or something shall be, which the mind of 
man cannot now conceive. 


534 [The first six chapters closely resemble the corresponding chapters of Homily I. The variations are no 
greater than might readily appear in a version. — R.] 


140 



His Distress. 


Chapter II. — His Distress. 

While I was continually revolving in my mind these and such like questions, suggested 
I know not how, I was pining away wonderfully through excess of grief; and, what was worse, 
if at any time I thought to cast aside such cares, as being of little use, the waves of anxiety 
rose all the higher upon me. For I had in me that most excellent companion, who would 
not suffer me to rest — the desire of immortality: for, as the subsequent issue showed, and 
the grace of Almighty God directed, this bent of mind led me to the quest of truth, and the 
acknowledgment of the true light; and hence it came to pass, that ere long I pitied those 
whom formerly in my ignorance I believed to be happy. 


141 



His Dissatisfaction with the Schools of the Philosophers. 


Chapter III. — His Dissatisfaction with the Schools of the Philosophers. 

Having therefore such a bent of mind from my earliest years, the desire of learning 
something led me to frequent the schools of the philosophers. There I saw that nought else 
was done, save that doctrines were asserted and controverted without end, contests were 
waged, and the arts of syllogisms and the subtleties of conclusions were discussed. If at any 
time the doctrine of the immortality of the soul prevailed, I was thankful; if at any time it 
was impugned, I went away sorrowful. Still, neither doctrine had the power of truth over 
my heart. This only I understood, that opinions and definitions of things were accounted 
true or false, not in accordance with their nature and the truth of the arguments, but in 
proportion to the talents of those who supported them. And I was all the more tortured in 
the bottom of my heart, because I was neither able to lay hold of any of those things which 
were spoken as firmly established, nor was I able to lay aside the desire of inquiry; but the 
more I endeavoured to neglect and despise them, so much the more eagerly, as I have said, 
did a desire of this sort, creeping in upon me secretly as with a kind of pleasure, take posses- 
sion of my heart and mind. 


142 



His Increasing Disquiet. 


Chapter IV. — His Increasing Disquiet. 

Being therefore straitened in the discovery of things, I said to myself, Why do we labour 
in vain, since the end of things is manifest? For if after death I shall be no more, my present 
torture is useless; but if there is to be for me a life after death, let us keep for that life the 
excitements that belong to it, lest perhaps some sadder things befall me than those which I 
now suffer, unless I shall have lived piously and soberly; and, according to the opinions of 
some of the philosophers, I be consigned to the stream of dark-rolling Phlegethon, or to 
Tartarus, like Sisyphus and Tityus, and to eternal punishment in the infernal regions, like 
Ixion and Tantalus. And again I would answer to myself: But these things are fables; or if 
it be so, since the matter is in doubt, it is better to live piously. But again I would ponder 
with myself, How should I restrain myself from the lust of sin, while uncertain as to the re- 
ward of righteousness? — and all the more when I have no certainty what righteousness is, 
or what is pleasing to God; and when I cannot ascertain whether the soul be immortal, and 
be such that it has anything to hope for; nor do I know what the future is certainly to be. 
Yet still I cannot rest from thoughts of this sort. 


143 



His Design to Test the Immortality of the Soul. 


Chapter V. — His Design to Test the Immortality of the Soul. 

What, then, shall I do? This shall I do. I shall proceed to Egypt, and there I shall cultivate 
the friendship of the hierophants or prophets, who preside at the shrines. Then I shall win 
over a magician by money, and entreat him, by what they call the necromantic art, to bring 
me a soul from the infernal regions, as if I were desirous of consulting it about some business. 
But this shall be my consultation, whether the soul be immortal. Now, the proof that the 
soul is immortal will be put past doubt, not from what it says, or from what I hear, but from 
what I see: for seeing it with my eyes, I shall ever after hold the surest conviction of its im- 
mortality; and no fallacy of words or uncertainty of hearing shall ever be able to disturb the 
persuasion produced by sight. However, I related this project to a certain philosopher with 
whom I was intimate, who counselled me not to venture upon it; “for,” said he, “if the soul 
should not obey the call of the magician, you henceforth will live more hopelessly, as 
thinking that there is nothing after death, and also as having tried things unlawful. If, 
however, you seem to see anything, what religion or what piety can arise to you from things 
unlawful and impious? For they say that transactions of this sort are hateful to the Divinity, 
and that God sets Himself in opposition to those who trouble souls after their release from 
the body.” When I heard this, I was indeed staggered in my purpose; yet I could not in any 
way either lay aside my longing, or cast off the distressing thought. 


144 



Hears of Christ. 


Chapter VI. — Hears of Christ. 

Not to make a long story of it, whilst I was tossed upon these billows of my thought, a 
certain report, which took its rise in the regions of the East in the reign of Tiberius Caesar, 
gradually reached us; and gaining strength as it passed through every place, like some good 
message sent from God, it was filling the whole world, and suffered not the divine will to 
be concealed in silence. For it was spread over all places, announcing that there was a certain 

roc 

person in Judaea, who, beginning in the springtime, was preaching the kingdom of God 
to the Jews, and saying that those should receive it who should observe the ordinances of 
His commandments and His doctrine. And that His speech might be believed to be worthy 
of credit, and full of the Divinity, He was said to perform many mighty works, and wonderful 
signs and prodigies by His mere word; so that, as one having power from God, He made 
the deaf to hear, and the blind to see, and the lame to stand erect, and expelled every infirmity 
and all demons from men; yea, that He even raised dead persons who were brought to Him; 
that He cured lepers also, looking at them from a distance; and that there was absolutely 
nothing which seemed impossible to Him. These and such like things were confirmed in 
process of time, not now by frequent rumours, but by the plain statements of persons 
coming from those quarters; and day by day the truth of the matter was further disclosed. 


535 V. R. in the time of Tiberius Caesar. 


145 



Arrival of Barnabas at Rome. 


Chapter VII. — Arrival of Barnabas at Rome. 

At length meetings began to be held in various places in the city, and this subject to be 
discussed in conversation, and to be a matter of wonder who this might be who had appeared, 
and what message He had brought from God to men; until, about the same year, a certain 
man, standing in a most crowded place in the city, made proclamation to the people, saying: 
“Hear me, O ye citizens of Rome. The Son of God is now in the regions of Judaea, promising 
eternal life to every one who will hear Him, but upon condition that he shall regulate his 
actions according to the will of Him by whom He hath been sent, even of God the Father. 
Wherefore turn ye from evil things to good, from things temporal to things eternal. Acknow- 
ledge that there is one God, ruler of heaven and earth, in whose righteous sight ye unrighteous 
inhabit His world. But if ye be converted, and act according to His will, then, coming to 
the world to come, and being made immortal, ye shall enjoy His unspeakable blessings and 

r ozr 

rewards.” Now, the man who spoke these things to the people was from the regions of 
the East, by nation a Hebrew, by name Barnabas, who said that he himself was one of His 
disciples, and that he was sent for this end, that he should declare these things to those who 
would hear them. When I heard these things, I began, with the rest of the multitude, to 
follow him, and to hear what he had to say. Truly I perceived that there was nothing of 
dialectic artifice in the man, but that he expounded with simplicity, and without any craft 
of speech, such things as he had heard from the Son of God, or had seen. For he did not 
confirm his assertions by the force of arguments, but produced, from the people who stood 
round about him, many witnesses of the sayings and marvels which he related. 


536 [In Homily I. a warning of future punishment is added. — R.] 

537 [The narrative in the Homilies is fuller; the preacher at Rome is not named; Clement attempts to go to 
Judaea, is driven to Alexandria, and meets Barnabas there; the occurrences here given in chaps. 8-11 are placed 
in Alexandria, whence Clement goes, after the departure of Barnabas, to Caesarea where he meets Peter (comp, 
chap. 12). — R.] 


146 



His Preaching. 


Chapter VIII. — His Preaching. 

Now, inasmuch as the people began to assent willingly to the things which were sincerely 
spoken, and to embrace his simple discourse, those who thought themselves learned or 
philosophic began to laugh at the man, and to flout him, and to throw out for him the 
grappling-hooks of syllogisms, like strong arms. But he, unterrified, regarding their subtleties 
as mere ravings, did not even judge them worthy of an answer, but boldly pursued the subject 
which he had set before him. At length, some one having proposed this question to him as 
he was speaking, Why a gnat has been so formed, that though it is a small creature, and has 
six feet, yet it has got wings in addition; whereas an elephant, though it is an immense animal, 
and has no wings, yet has only four feet; he, paying no attention to the question, went on 
with his discourse, which had been interrupted by the unseasonable challenge, only adding 
this admonition at every interruption: “We have it in charge to declare to you the words 
and the wondrous works of Him who hath sent us, and to confirm the truth of what we 
speak, not by artfully devised arguments, but by witnesses produced from amongst 
yourselves. For I recognise many standing in the midst of you whom I remember to have 
heard along with us the things which we have heard, and to have seen what we have seen. 
But be it in your option to receive or to spurn the tidings which we bring to you. For we 
cannot keep back what we know to be for your advantage, because, if we be silent, woe is to 
us; but to you, if you receive not what we speak, destruction. I could indeed very easily answer 
your foolish challenges, if you asked for the sake of learning truth, — I mean as to the differ- 
ence of a gnat and an elephant; but now it were absurd to speak to you of these creatures, 
when the very Creator and Framer of all things is unknown by you.” 


147 



Clement's Interposition on Behalf of Bamcibos. 


Chapter IX. — Clement’s Interposition on Behalf of Barnabas. 

When he had thus spoken, all, as with one consent, with rude voice raised a shout of 
derision, to put him to shame, and to silence him, crying out that he was a barbarian and a 
madman. When I saw matters going on in this way, being filled, I know not whence, with 
a certain zeal, and inflamed with religious enthusiasm, I could not keep silence, but cried 
out with all boldness, “Most righteously does Almighty God hide His will from you, whom 
He foresaw to be unworthy of the knowledge of Himself, as is manifest to those who are 
really wise, from what you are now doing. For when you see that preachers of the will of 
God have come amongst you, because their speech makes no show of knowledge of the 
grammatical art, but in simple and unpolished language they set before you the divine 
commands, so that all who hear may be able to follow and to understand the things that are 
spoken, you deride the ministers and messengers of your salvation, not knowing that it is 
the condemnation of you who think yourselves skilful and eloquent, that rustic and barbarous 
men have the knowledge of the truth; whereas, when it has come to you, it is not even received 
as a guest, while, if your intemperance and lust did not oppose, it ought to have been a citizen 
and a native. Thus you are convicted of not being friends of truth and philosophers, but 
followers of boasting and vain speakers. Ye think that truth dwells not in simple, but in in- 
genious and subtle words, and produce countless thousands of words which are not to be 
rated at the worth of one word. What, then, do ye think will become of you, all ye crowd 
of Greeks, if there is to be, as he says, a judgment of God? But now give over laughing at 
this man to your own destruction, and let any one of you who pleases answer me; for, indeed, 
by your barking you annoy the ears even of those who desire to be saved, and by your 
clamour you turn aside to the fall of infidelity the minds that are prepared for faith. What 
pardon can there be for you who deride and do violence to the messenger of the truth when 
he offers to you the knowledge of God? whereas, even if he brought you nothing of truth, 
yet, even for the kindness of his intentions towards you, you ought to receive with gratitude 
and welcome.” 


148 



Intercourse with Barnabas. 


Chapter X. — Intercourse with Barnabas. 

While I was urging these and similar arguments, a great excitement was stirred up 
amongst the bystanders, some being moved with pity as towards a stranger, and approving 
my speech as in accordance with that feeling; others, petulant and stolid, rousing the anger 
of their undisciplined minds as much against me as against Barnabas. But as the day was 
declining to evening, I laid hold of Barnabas by the right hand, and led him away, although 
reluctantly, to my house; and there I made him remain, lest perchance any one of the rude 
rabble should lay hands upon him. While we were thus placed in contact for a few days, I 
gladly heard him discoursing the word of truth; yet he hastened his departure, saying that 
he must by all means celebrate at Judaea a festal day of his religion which was approaching, 
and that there he should remain in future with his countrymen and his brethren, evidently 
indicating that he was horrified at the wrong that had been done to him. 


149 



Departure of Barnabas. 


Chapter XI. — Departure of Barnabas. 

At length I said to him, “Only expound to me the doctrine of that man who you say has 
appeared, and I will arrange your sayings in my language, and will preach the kingdom and 
righteousness of Almighty God; and after that, if you wish it, I shall even sail along with 
you, for I am extremely desirous to see Judaea, and perhaps I shall remain with you always.” 
To this he answered, “If indeed you wish to see our country, and to learn those things which 
you desire, set sail with me even now; or, if there be anything that detains you now, I shall 
leave with you directions to my dwelling, so that when you please to come you may easily 
find me; for tomorrow I shall set out on my journey.” When I saw him determined, I went 
down with him to the harbour, and carefully took from him the directions which he gave 
me to find his dwelling. I told him that, but for the necessity of getting some money which 
was due to me, I should not at all delay, but that I should speedily follow him. Having told 
him this, I commended him to the kindness of those who had charge of the ship, and returned 
sad; for I was possessed of the memory of the intercourse which I had had with an excellent 
guest and a choice friend. 


150 



Clement's Arrival at Ccesarea , and Introduction to Peter. 


Chapter XII. — Clement’s Arrival at Caesarea, and Introduction to Peter. 

Having then stopped for a few days, and having in some measure finished the business 
of collecting what was owing to me (for I neglected many things through my desire of 
hastening, that I might not be hindered from my purpose), I set sail direct for Judaea, and 

coo 

after fifteen days landed at Caesarea Stratonis, which is the largest city in Palestine. When 

I had landed, and was seeking for an inn, I learned from the conversation of the people, that 
one Peter, a most approved disciple of Him who appeared in Judaea, and showed many signs 
and miracles divinely performed among men, was going to hold a discussion of words and 
questions the next day with one Simon, a Samaritan. Having heard this, I asked to be shown 
his lodging; and having found it, and standing before the door, I informed the doorkeeper 
who I was, and whence I came; and, behold, Barnabas coming out, as soon as he saw me 
rushed into my arms, weeping for joy, and, seizing me by the hand, led me in to Peter. 
Having pointed him out to me at a distance, “This,” said he, “is Peter, of whom I spoke, to 
you as the greatest in the wisdom of God, and to whom also I have spoken constantly of 
you. Enter, therefore, as one well known to him. For he is well acquainted with all the good 
that is in thee, and has carefully made himself aware of your religious purpose, whence also 
he is greatly desirous to see you. Therefore I present you to him to-day as a great gift.” At 
the same time, presenting me, he said, “This, O Peter, is Clement.” 


538 [The two accounts of the meeting with Peter at Caesarea are closely parallel. — R.] 


151 



His Cordial Reception by Peter. 


Chapter XIII. — His Cordial Reception by Peter. 

But Peter most kindly, when he heard my name, immediately ran to me and kissed me. 
Then, having made me sit down, he said, “Thou didst well to receive as thy guest Barnabas, 
preacher of the truth, nothing fearing the rage of the insane people. Thou shalt be blessed. 
For as you have deemed an ambassador of the truth worthy of all honour, so the truth herself 
shall receive thee a wanderer and a stranger, and shall enroll thee a citizen of her own city; 
and then there shall be great joy to thee, because, imparting a small favour, thou shalt be 
written heir of eternal blessings. Now, therefore, do not trouble yourself to explain your 
mind to me; for Barnabas has with faithful speech informed me of all things about you and 
your dispositions, almost daily and without ceasing, recalling the memory of your good 
qualities. And to point out to you shortly, as to a friend already of one mind with us, what 
is your best course; if there is nothing to hinder you, come along with us, and hear the word 
of the truth, which we are going to speak in every place until we come even to the city of 
Rome; and now, if you wish anything, speak.” 


152 



His Account of Himself. 


Chapter XIV. — His Account of Himself. 

Having detailed to him what purpose I had conceived from the beginning, and how I 
had been distracted with vain inquiries, and all those things which at first I intimated to 
thee, my lord James, so that I need not repeat the same things now, I willingly agreed to 
travel with him; “for that,” said I, “is just what I was most eagerly desirous of. But first I 
should wish the scheme of truth to be expounded to me, that I may know whether the soul 
is mortal or immortal; and if immortal, whether it shall be brought into judgment for those 
things which it does here. Further, I desire to know what that righteousness is, which is 
pleasing to God; then, further, whether the world was created, and why it was created, and 
whether it is to be dissolved, and whether it is to be renovated and made better, or whether 
after this there shall be no world at all; and, not to mention everything, I should wish to be 
told what is the case with respect to these and such like things.” To this Peter answered, “I 
shall briefly impart to you the knowledge of these things, O Clement: therefore listen.” 


153 



Peter's First Instruction: Causes of Ignorance. 


Chapter XV. — Peter’s First Instruction: Causes of Ignorance. 

“The will and counsel of God has for many reasons been concealed from men; first, in- 
deed, through bad instruction, wicked associations, evil habits, unprofitable conversation, 
and unrighteous presumptions. On account of all these, I say, first error, then contempt, 
then infidelity and malice, covetousness also, and vain boasting, and other such like evils, 
have filled the whole house of this world, like some enormous smoke, and preventing those 
who dwell in it from seeing its Founder aright, and from perceiving what things are pleasing 
to Him. What, then, is fitting for those who are within, excepting with a cry brought forth 
from their inmost hearts to invoke His aid, who alone is not shut up in the smoke-filled 
house, that He would approach and open the door of the house, so that the smoke may be 
dissipated which is within, and the light of the sun which shines without may be admitted.” 


154 



Instruction Continued: the True Prophet. 


Chapter XVI. — Instruction Continued: the True Prophet. 

“He, therefore, whose aid is needed for the house filled with the darkness of ignorance 
and the smoke of vices, is He, we say, who is called the true Prophet, who alone can enlighten 
the souls of men, so that with their eyes they may plainly see the way of safety. For otherwise 
it is impossible to get knowledge of divine and eternal things, unless one learns of that true 
Prophet; because, as you yourself stated a little ago, the belief of things, and the opinions of 
causes, are estimated in proportion to the talents of their advocates: hence, also, one and 
the same cause is now thought just, now unjust; and what now seemed true, anon becomes 
false on the assertion of another. For this reason, the credit of religion and piety demanded 
the presence of the true Prophet, that He Himself might tell us respecting each particular, 
how the truth stands, and might teach us how we are to believe concerning each. And 
therefore, before all else, the credentials of the prophet himself must be examined with all 
care; and when you have once ascertained that he is a prophet, it behoves you thenceforth 
to believe him in everything, and not further to discuss the particulars which he teaches, 
but to hold the things which he speaks as certain and sacred; which things, although they 
seem to be received by faith, yet are believed on the ground of the probation previously in- 
stituted. For when once at the outset the truth of the prophet is established on examination, 
the rest is to be heard and held on the ground of the faith by which it is already established 
that he is a teacher of truth. And as it is certain that all things which pertain to divine 
knowledge ought to be held according to the rule of truth, so it is beyond doubt that from 
none but Himself alone can it be known what is true.” 


539 [This discourse is given somewhat more fully here than in the Homilies. — R.] 


155 



Peter Requests Him to Be His Attendant. 


Chapter XVII. — Peter Requests Him to Be His Attendant. 

Having thus spoken, he set forth to me so openly and so clearly who that Prophet was, 
and how He might be found, that I seemed to have before my eyes, and to handle with my 
hand, the proofs which he produced concerning the prophetic truth; and I was struck with 
intense astonishment, how no one sees, though placed before his eyes, those things which 
all are seeking for. Whence, by his command, reducing into order what he had spoken to 
me, I compiled a book concerning the true Prophet, and sent it to you from Caesarea by his 
command. For he said that he had received a command from you to send you every year 
an account of his sayings and doings . 540 Meantime, at the beginning of his discourse which 
he delivered to me the first day, when he had instructed me very fully concerning the true 
Prophet, and very many things besides, he added also this: “See,” said he, “for the future, 
and be present at the discussions which whenever any necessity arises, I shall hold with 
those who contradict; against whom, when I dispute, even if I shall seem to be worsted, I 
shall not be afraid of your being led to doubt of those things which I have stated to you; 
because, even if I shall seem to be beaten, yet those things shall not therefore seem to be 
uncertain which the true Prophet has delivered to us. Yet I hope that we shall not be over- 
come in disputations either, if only our hearers are reasonable, and friends of truth, who 
can discern the force and bearing of words, and recognise what discourse comes from the 
sophistical art, not containing truth, but an image of truth; and what that is, which, uttered 
simply and without craft, depends for all its power not on show and ornament, but on truth 
and reason.” 


540 [Comp. Homily I. 20, where there is a curious inconsistency. Both accounts seem to insert this to tally 
with the fictitious relation to James, and both may be used to support the theory of a common documentary 
basis. — R.] 


156 



His Profiting by Peter's Instruction. 


Chapter XVIII. — His Profiting by Peter’s Instruction. 

To this I answered: “I give thanks to God Almighty, because I have been instructed as 
I wished and desired. At all events, you may depend upon me so far, that I can never come 
to doubt of those things which I have learned of you; so that even if you yourself should at 
any time wish to transfer my faith from the true Prophet, you should not be able, because 
I have drunk in with all my heart what you have spoken. And that you may not think that 
I am promising you a great thing when I say that I cannot be moved away from this faith, 
it is with me a certainty, that whoever has received this account of the true Prophet, can 
never afterwards so much as doubt of its truth. And therefore I am confident with respect 
to this heaven-taught doctrine, in which all the art of malice is overborne. For in opposition 
to this prophecy neither any art can stand, nor the subtleties of sophisms and syllogism; but 
every one who hears of the true Prophet must of necessity long immediately for the truth 
itself, nor will he afterwards, under pretext of seeking the truth, endure diverse errors. 
Wherefore, O my lord Peter, be not further anxious about me, as if I were one who does 
not know what he has received, and how great a gift has been conferred on him. Be assured 
that you have conferred a favour on one who knows and understands its value: nor can I 
be easily deceived on that account, because I seem to have gotten quickly what I long desired; 
for it may be that one who desires gets quickly, while another does not even slowly attain 
the things which he desires.” 



157 



Peter's Satisfaction. 


Chapter XIX. — Peter’s Satisfaction. 

Then Peter, when he heard me speak thus, said: “I give thanks to my God, both for your 
salvation and for my own peace; for I am greatly delighted to see that you have understood 
what is the greatness of the prophetic virtue, and because, as you say, not even I myself, if 
I should wish it (which God forbid!), should be able to turn you away to another faith. Now 
henceforth begin to be with us, and to-morrow be present at our discussions, for I am to 
have a contest with Simon the magician.” When he had thus spoken, he retired to take food 
along with his friends; but he ordered me to eat by myself ; 541 and after the meal, when he 
had sung praise to God and given thanks, he rendered to me an account of this proceeding, 
and added, “May the Lord grant to thee to be made like to us in all things, that, receiving 
baptism, thou mayest be able to meet with us at the same table.” Having thus spoken, he 
ordered me to go to rest, for by this time both fatigue and the time of the day called to sleep. 


541 [In the Homilies this is not expressed, but implied. The whole passage suggests a separatism quite contrary 
to Pauline precept. Compare the more detailed statement of separatism in book ii. 70, 72, vii. 29; Homily XIII. 
4.— R.] 


158 



Postponement of Discussion with Simon Magus. 


Chapter XX. — Postponement of Discussion with Simon Magus. 

Early next morning Zacchaeus 542 came in to us, and after salutation, said to Peter: “Si- 
mon puts off the discussion till the eleventh day of the present month, which is seven days 
hence, for he says that then he will have more leisure for the contest. But to me it seems 
that his putting off is also advantageous to us, so that more may come together, who may 
be either hearers or judges of our disputation. However, if it seem proper to you, let us oc- 
cupy the interval in discussing among ourselves the things which, we suppose, may come 
into the controversy; so that each of us, knowing what things are to be proposed, and what 
answers are to be given, may consider with himself if they are all right, or if an adversary 
shall be able to find anything to object, or to set aside the things which we bring against 
him. But if the things which are to be spoken by us are manifestly impregnable on every 
side, we shall have confidence in entering upon the examination. And indeed, this is my 
opinion, that first of all it ought to be inquired what is the origin of all things, or what is the 
immediate 543 thing which maybe called the cause of all things which are: then, with respect 
to all things that exist, whether they have been made, and by whom, through whom, and 
for whom; whether they have received their subsistence from one, or from two, or from 
many; and whether they have been taken and fashioned from none previously subsisting, 
or from some: then, whether there is any virtue in the highest things, or in the lower; 
whether there is anything which is better than all, or anything that is inferior to all; whether 
there are any motions, or none; whether those things which are seen were always, and shall 
be always; whether they have come into existence without a creator, and shall pass away 
without a destroyer. If, I say, the discussion begin with these things, I think that the things 
which shall be inquired into, being discussed with diligent examination, will be easily ascer- 
tained. And when these are ascertained, the knowledge of those that follow will be easily 
found. I have stated my opinion; be pleased to intimate what you think of the matter. 544 ” 


542 [Identified in the Homilies with the publican of Jericho. Fifteen others are named in Homily II. 1; some 
of them are introduced in Recognitions , ii. 1. — R.] 

543 Here we follow a marginal reading. 

544 [This chapter has no direct parallel in the Homilies. While there is a general resemblance in the remainder 
of book i. to Homily II., much of the matter is peculiar, or at least introduced in a connection different from 
that of the Homilies. — R.] 


159 



Advan tage of the Delay. 


Chapter XXI. — Advantage of the Delay. 

To this Peter answered: “Tell Simon in the meantime to do as he pleases, and to rest 
assured that, Divine Providence granting, he shall always find us ready.” Then Zacchaeus 
went out to intimate to Simon what he had been told. But Peter, looking at us, and perceiving 
that I was saddened by the putting off of the contest, said: “He who believes that the world 
is administered by the providence of the Most High God, ought not, O Clement, my friend, 
to take it amiss, in whatever way particular things happen, being assured that the righteous- 
ness of God guides to a favourable and fitting issue even those things which seem superfluous 
or contrary in any business, and especially towards those who worship Him more intimately; 
and therefore he who is assured of these things, as I have said, if anything occur contrary 
to his expectation, he knows how to drive away grief from his mind on that account, holding 
it unquestionable in his better judgment, that, by the government of the good God, even 
what seems contrary may be turned to good. Wherefore, O Clement, even now let not this 
delay of the magician Simon sadden you: for I believe that it has been done by the providence 
of God, for your advantage; that I may be able, in this interval of seven days, to expound to 
you the method of our faith without any distraction, and the order continuously, according 
to the tradition of the true Prophet, who alone knows the past as it was, the present as it is, 
and the future as it shall be: which things were indeed plainly spoken by Him, but are not 
plainly written; so much so, that when they are read, they cannot be understood without an 
expounder, on account of the sin which has grown up with men, as I said before. Therefore 
I shall explain all things to you, that in those things which are written you may clearly perceive 
what is the mind of the Lawgiver.” 



160 



Repetition of Instructions. 


Chapter XXII. — Repetition of Instructions. 

When he had said this, he began to expound to me point by point of those chapters of 
the law which seemed to be in question, from the beginning of the creation even to that 
point of time at which I came to him at Caesarea, telling me that the delay of Simon had 
contributed to my learning all things in order. “At other times,” said he, “we shall discourse 
more fully on individual points of which we have now spoken shortly, according as the oc- 
casion of our conversation shall bring them before us; so that, according to my promise, 
you may gain a full and perfect knowledge of all. Since, then, by this delay we have to-day 
on our hands, I wish to repeat to you again what has been spoken, that it may be the better 
recalled to your memory.” Then he began in this way to refresh my recollection of what he 
had said: “Do you remember, O friend Clement, the account I gave you of the eternal age, 
that knows no end?” Then said I, “Never, O Peter, shall I retain anything, if I can lose or 
forget that.” 


161 



Repetition Continued. 


Chapter XXIII. — Repetition Continued. 

Then Peter, having heard my answer with pleasure, said: “I congratulate you because 
you have answered thus, not because you speak of these things easily, but because you profess 
that you remember them; for the most sublime truths are best honoured by means of silence. 
Yet, for the credit of those things which you remember concerning things not to be spoken , 545 
tell me what you retain of those things which we spoke of in the second place, which can 
easily be spoken out, that, perceiving your tenacity of memory, I may the more readily point 
out to you, and freely open, the things of which I wish to speak.” Then I, when I perceived 
that he rejoiced in the good memory of his hearers, said: “Not only am I mindful of your 
definition, but also of that preface which was prefixed to the definition; and of almost all 
things that you have expounded, I retain the sense complete, though not all the words; be- 
cause the things that you have spoken have been made, as it were, native to my soul, and 
inborn. For you have held out a most sweet cup to me in my excessive thirst. And that you 
may not suppose that I am occupying you with words, being unmindful of things, I shall 
now call to mind the things which were spoken, in which the order of your discussion greatly 
helps me; for the way in which the things that you said followed by consequence upon one 
another, and were arranged in a balanced manner, makes them easily recalled to memory 
by the lines of their order. For the order of sayings is useful for remembering them: for 
when you begin to follow them point by point in succession, when anything is wanting, 
immediately the sense seeks for it; and when it has found it, retains it, or at all events, if it 
cannot discover it, there will be no reluctance to ask it of the master. But not to delay in 
granting what you demand of me, I shall shortly rehearse what you delivered to me concern- 
ing the definition of truth.” 


545 That is, that I may be sure that you remember these things. 


162 



Repetition Continued. 


Chapter XXIV. — Repetition Continued. 

“There always was, there is now, and there ever shall be, that by which the first Will be 
gotten from eternity consists; and from the first Will proceeds a second Will. After these 
came the world; and from the world came time: from this, the multitude of men; from the 
multitude the election of the beloved, from whose oneness of mind the peaceful kingdom 
of God is constructed. But the rest, which ought to follow these, you promised to tell me 
at another time. After this, when you had explained about the creation of the world, you 
intimated the decree of God, “which He, of His own good pleasure, announced in the 
presence of all the first angels,” and which He ordained as an eternal law to all; and how He 
established two kingdoms, — I mean that of the present time and that of the future, — and 
appointed times to each, and decreed that a day of judgment should be expected, which He 
determined, in which a severance is to be made of things and of souls: so that the wicked 
indeed shall be consigned to eternal fire for their sins; but those who have lived according 
to the will of God the Creator, having received a blessing for their good works, effulgent 
with brightest light, introduced into an eternal abode, and abiding in incorruption, shall 
receive eternal gifts of ineffable blessings.” 


163 



Repetition Continued. 


Chapter XXV. — Repetition Continued. 

While I was going on thus, Peter, enraptured with joy, and anxious for me as if I had 
been his son, lest perhaps I should fail in recollection of the rest, and be put to shame on 
account of those who were present, said: “It is enough, O Clement; for you have stated these 
things more clearly than I myself explained them.” Then said I, “Liberal learning has con- 
ferred upon me the power of orderly narration, and of stating those things clearly for which 
there is occasion. And if we use learning in asserting the errors of antiquity, we ruin ourselves 
by gracefulness and smoothness of speech; but if we apply learning and grace of speech to 
the assertion of the truth, I think that not a little advantage is thereby gained. Be that as it 
may, my lord Peter, you can but imagine with what thankfulness I am transported for all 
the rest of your instruction indeed, but especially for the statement of that doctrine which 
you gave: There is one God, whose work the world is, and who, because He is in all respects 
righteous, shall render to every one according to his deeds. And after that you added: For 
the assertion of this dogma countless thousands of words will be brought forward; but in 
those to whom is granted knowledge of the true Prophet, all this forest of words is cut down. 
And on this account, since you have delivered to me a discourse concerning the true 
Prophet, you have strengthened me with all confidence of your assertions.” And then, 
having perceived that the sum of all religion and piety consists in this, I immediately replied: 
“You have proceeded most excellently, O Peter: wherefore, in future, expound unhesitatingly, 
as to one who already knows what are the foundations of faith and piety, the traditions of 
the true Prophet, who alone, as has been clearly proved, is to be believed. But that exposition 
which requires assertions and arguments, reserve for the unbelievers, to whom you have 
not yet judged it proper to commit the indubitable faith of prophetic grace.” When I had 
said this, I added: “You promised that you would give at the proper time two things: first 
this exposition, at once simple and entirely free from error; and then an exposition of each 
individual point as it may be evolved in the course of the various questions which shall be 
raised. And after this you expounded the sequence of things in order from the beginning 
of the world, even to the present time; and if you please, I can repeat the whole from 
memory.” 


164 



Friendship of God; How Secured. 


Chapter XXVI. — Friendship of God; How Secured. 

To this Peter answered: “I am exceedingly delighted, O Clement, that I commit my 
words to so safe a heart; for to be mindful of the things that are spoken is an indication of 
having in readiness the faith of works. But he from whom the wicked demon steals away 
the words of salvation, and snatches them away from his memory, cannot be saved, even 
though he wish it; for he loses the way by which life is reached. Wherefore let us the rather 
repeat what has been spoken, and confirm it in your heart, that is, in what manner or by 
whom the world was made, that we may proceed to the friendship of the Creator. But His 
friendship is secured by living well, and by obeying His will; which will is the law of all that 
live. We shall therefore unfold these things briefly to you, in order that they may be the 
more surely remembered. 


165 



Accoun t of the Creation. 


Chapter XXVII. — Account of the Creation. 

“In the beginning , 546 when God had made the heaven and the earth , 547 as one house, 
the shadow which was cast by the mundane bodies involved in darkness those things which 
were enclosed in it. But when the will of God had introduced light, that darkness which 
had been caused by the shadows of bodies was straightway dispelled: then at length light is 
appointed for the day, darkness for the night. And now the water which was within the 
world, in the middle space of that first heaven and earth, congealed as if with frost, and 
solid as crystal, is distended, and the middle spaces of the heaven and earth are separated 
as by a firmament of this sort; and that firmament the Creator called heaven, so called by 
the name of that previously made: and so He divided into two portions that fabric of the 
universe, although it was but one house. The reason of the division was this, that the upper 
portion might afford a dwelling-place to angels, and the lower to men. After this, the place 
of the sea and the chaos which had been made received that portion of the water which re- 
mained below, by order of the eternal Will; and these flowing down to the sunk and hollow 
places, the dry land appeared; and the gatherings of the waters were made seas. And after 
this the earth, which had appeared, produced various species of herbs and shrubs. It gave 
forth fountains also, and rivers, not only in the plains, but on the mountains. And so all 
things were prepared, that men who were to dwell in it might have it in their power to use 
all these things according to their will, that is, either for good or evil.” 


546 [Hilgenfeld regards chaps. 27-72 as part of the Jewish- Christian document called Kerygma Petri , of which 
an outline is given in book iii. 75. This he thinks was of Roman origin. Certainly these chapters bear many 
marks of an earlier origin than most of the pseudo-Clementine literature. Much of the matter is not found 
elsewhere in this literature: the tone of the discourse is much superior; the instruction represented as given to 
Clement, is quite well adapted to his needs as a heathen inquirer; the views presented are not so extravagant as 
much that occurs in the Homilies ; the attempt to adjust the statements to the New-Testament narrative is skilfully 
made, and there is not lacking a great vraisemblance. It may not be improper to add, that the impressions first 
given in regard to this passage were made upon the writer of this note quite independently of Hilgenfeld’s theory; 
some of them committed to writing without a thought of maintaining that theory. — R.] 

547 Gen. i. 1. 


166 


Account of the Creation Continued. 


Chapter XXVIII. — Account of the Creation Continued. 

“After this He adorns that visible heaven with stars. He places in it also the sun and the 
moon, that the day might enjoy the light of the one, the night that of the other; and that at 
the same time they might be for an indication of things past, present, and future. For they 
were made for signs of seasons and of days, which, although they are seen indeed by all, are 
understood only by the learned and intelligent. And when, after this, He had ordered living 
creatures to be produced from the earth and the waters, He made Paradise, which also He 
named a place of delights. But after all these things He made man, on whose account He 
had prepared all things, whose internal species is older, and for whose sake all things that 

are were made, given up to his service, and assigned to the uses of his habitation.” 


548 That is, his soul, according to the doctrine of the pre-existence of souls. 


167 



The Giants: the Flood. 


Chapter XXIX. — The Giants: the Flood. 

“All things therefore being completed which are in heaven, and in earth, and in the 
waters, and the human race also having multiplied, in the eighth generation, righteous men, 
who had lived the life of angels, being allured by the beauty of women, fell into promiscuous 
and illicit connections with these ; 549 and thenceforth acting in all things without discretion, 
and disorderly, they changed the state of human affairs and the divinely prescribed order 
of life, so that either by persuasion or force they compelled all men to sin against God their 
Creator. In the ninth generation are born the giants, so called from of old , 550 not dragon- 
footed, as the fables of the Greeks relate, but men of immense bodies, whose bones, of 
enormous size, are still shown in some places for confirmation. But against these the 
righteous providence of God brought a flood upon the world, that the earth might be purified 
from their pollution, and every place might be turned into a sea by the destruction of the 
wicked. Yet there was then found one righteous man, by name Noah, who, being delivered 
in an ark with his three sons and their wives, became the colonizer of the world after the 
subsiding of the waters, with those animals and seeds which he had shut up with him.” 


549 Gen.vi.2. [Compare with this chapter Homily VIII. 12-17, where there are many more fanciful details. — R] 

550 The writer here translates the words of the Septuagint, of ol Ytyavrec; ol oat’ aiwvoq oi avSpumoi oi 
ovopaarof, illi qui a seculo nominantur. We have given the translation of our authorized version. It is likely, 
however, that the writer believed the name to imply that they lived to a great age, as is maintained by Diodorus 
quoted by Suicer on the word, or he may have traced the word to yfj. 


168 


Noah 's Sons. 


Chapter XXX. — Noah’s Sons. 

“In the twelfth generation, when God had blessed men, and they had begun to mul- 
tiply , 551 they received a commandment that they should not taste blood, for on account of 
this also the deluge had been sent. In the thirteenth generation, when the second of Noah’s 
three sons had done an injury to his father, and had been cursed by him, he brought the 
condition of slavery upon his posterity. His elder brother meantime obtained the lot of a 
dwelling-place in the middle region of the world, in which is the country of Judaea; the 
younger obtained the eastern quarter, and he the western. In the fourteenth generation one 
of the cursed progeny first erected an altar to demons, for the purpose of magical arts, and 
offered there bloody sacrifices. In the fifteenth generation, for the first time, men set up an 
idol and worshipped it. Until that time the Hebrew language, which had been given by God 
to men, bore sole sway. In the sixteenth generation the sons of men migrated from the east, 
and, coming to the lands that had been assigned to their fathers, each one marked the place 
of his own allotment by his own name. In the seventeenth generation Nimrod I. reigned 
in Babylonia, and built a city, and thence migrated to the Persians, and taught them to 
worship fire .” 552 

u 

86 


551 Gen. ix. 1. 

552 [With this chapter compare Homily IX. 3-7. — R.] 


169 


World After the Flood. 


Chapter XXXI. — World After the Flood. 

“In the eighteenth generation walled cities were built, armies were organized and armed, 
judges and laws were sanctioned, temples were built, and the princes of nations were adored 
as gods. In the nineteenth generation the descendants of him who had been cursed after 
the flood, going beyond their proper bounds which they had obtained by lot in the western 
regions, drove into the eastern lands those who had obtained the middle portion of the 
world, and pursued them as far as Persia, while themselves violently took possession of the 
country from which they expelled them. In the twentieth generation a son for the first time 

rri 

died before his father, on account of an incestuous crime.” 


553 Gen. xi. 28. 


170 


Abraham. 


Chapter XXXII. — Abraham. 

“In the twenty-first generation there was a certain wise man, of the race of those who 
were expelled, of the family of Noah’s eldest son, by name Abraham, from whom our Hebrew 
nation is derived . 554 When the whole world was again overspread with errors, and when 
for the hideousness of its crimes destruction was ready for it, this time not by water, but 
fire, and when already the scourge was hanging over the whole earth, beginning with Sodom, 
this man, by reason of his friendship with God, who was well pleased with him, obtained 
from God that the whole world should not equally perish. From the first this same man, 
being an astrologer, was able, from the account and order of the stars, to recognise the 
Creator, while all others were in error, and understood that all things are regulated by His 
providence. Whence also an angel , 555 standing by him in a vision, instructed him more 
fully concerning those things which he was beginning to perceive. He showed him also 
what belonged to his race and posterity, and promised him that those districts should be 
restored rather than given to them. 


554 [This orderly and consistent explanation of the Old-Testament economy (chaps. 32-39) is peculiar to 
the Recognitions. — R.] 

555 Genxv.,xxii. 


171 


Abraham: His Posterity. 


Chapter XXXIII. — Abraham: His Posterity. 

“Therefore Abraham, when he was desirous to learn the causes of things, and was intently 
pondering upon what had been told him, the true Prophet appeared to him, who alone 
knows the hearts and purpose of men, and disclosed to him all things which he desired. He 
taught him the knowledge of the Divinity; intimated the origin of the world, and likewise 
its end; showed him the immortality of the soul, and the manner of life which was pleasing 
to God; declared also the resurrection of the dead, the future judgment, the reward of the 
good, the punishment of the evil, — all to be regulated by righteous judgment: and having 
given him all this information plainly and sufficiently, He departed again to the invisible 
abodes. But while Abraham was still in ignorance, as we said to you before, two sons were 
born to him, of whom the one was called Ismael, and the other Heliesdros. From the one 
are descended the barbarous nations, from the other the people of the Persians, some of 
whom have adopted the manner of living and the institutions of their neighbours, the Bra- 
chmans. Others settled in Arabia, of whose posterity some also have spread into Egypt. 
From them some of the Indians and of the Egyptians have learned to be circumcised, and 
to be of purer observance than others, although in process of time most of them have turned 
to impiety what was the proof and sign of purity.” 


172 



The Israelites in Egypt. 


Chapter XXXIV. — The Israelites in Egypt. 

“Nevertheless, as he had got these two sons during the time while he still lived in ignor- 
ance of things, having received the knowledge of God, he asked of the Righteous One that 
he might merit to have offspring by Sarah, who was his lawful wife, though she was barren. 
She obtained a son. whom he named Isaac, from whom came Jacob, and from him the twelve 
patriarchs, and from these twelve seventy-two. These, when famine befell came into Egypt 
with all their family; and in the course of four hundred years, being multiplied by the 
blessing and promise of God, they were afflicted by the Egyptians. And when they were 
afflicted the true Prophet appeared to Moses , 556 and struck the Egyptians with ten plagues, 
when they refused to let the Hebrew people depart from them, and return to their native 
land; and he brought the people of God out of Egypt. But those of the Egyptians who survived 
the plagues, being infected with the animosity of their king, pursued after the Hebrews. 
And when they had overtaken them at the sea-shore, and thought to destroy and exterminate 
them all, Moses, pouring out prayer to God, divided the sea into two parts, so that the water 
was held on the right hand and on the left as if it had been frozen, and the people of God 
passed as over a dry road; but the Egyptians who were pursuing them, rashly entering, were 
drowned. For when the last of the Hebrews came out, the last of the Egyptians went down 
into the sea; and straightway the waters of the sea, which by his command were held bound 
as with frost, were loosed by his command who had bound them, and recovering their nat- 
ural freedom, inflicted punishment on the wicked nation. 


556 Exod. iii. 


173 


The Exodus. 


Chapter XXXV. — The Exodus. 

“After this, Moses, by the command of God, whose providence is over all, led out the 
people of the Hebrews into the wilderness; and, leaving the shortest road which leads from 
Egypt to Judaea, he led the people through long windings of the wilderness, that, by the 
discipline of forty years, the novelty of a changed manner of life might root out the evils 
which had clung to them by a long-continued familiarity with the customs of the Egyptians. 
Meantime they came to Mount Sinai, and thence the law was given to them with voices and 
sights from heaven, written in ten precepts, of which the first and greatest was that they 

ccn 

should worship God Himself alone, and not make to themselves any appearance or form 
to worship. But when Moses had gone up to the mount, and was staying there forty days, 
the people, although they had seen Egypt struck with the ten plagues, and the sea parted 
and passed over by them on foot, manna also given to them from heaven for bread, and 

rro 

drink supplied to them out of the rock that followed them, which kind of food was turned 

into whatever taste any one desired; and although, being placed under the torrid region of 
heaven, they were shaded by a cloud in the day-time, that they might not be scorched by 
the heat, and by night were enlightened by a pillar of fire, lest the horror of darkness should 
be added to the wasteness of the wilderness; — those very people, I say, when Moses stayed 
in the mount, made and worshipped a golden calf s head, after the fashion of Apis, whom 
they had seen worshipped in Egypt; and after so many and so great marvels which they had 
seen, were unable to cleanse and wash out from themselves the defilements of old habit. 
On this account, leaving the short road which leads from Egypt to Judaea, Moses conducted 
them by an immense circuit of the desert, if haply he might be able, as we mentioned before, 
to shake off the evils of old habit by the change of a new education.” 


557 That is, picture or statue. 

558 Comp. 1 Cor. x. 4. 


174 


Allowance of Sacrifice for a Time. 


Chapter XXXVI. — Allowance of Sacrifice for a Time. 

“When meantime Moses, that faithful and wise steward, perceived that the vice of sac- 
rificing to idols had been deeply ingrained into the people from their association with the 
Egyptians, and that the root of this evil could not be extracted from them, he allowed them 
indeed to sacrifice, but permitted it to be done only to God, that by any means he might cut 
off one half of the deeply ingrained evil, leaving the other half to be corrected by another, 
and at a future time; by Him, namely, concerning whom he said himself, ‘A prophet shall 
the Lord your God raise unto you, whom ye shall hear even as myself, according to all things 
which He shall say to you. Whosoever shall not hear that prophet, his soul shall be cut off 
from his people . 559 


559 Deut. xvii. 15; Acts iii. 22, 23. 


175 


The Holy Place. 


Chapter XXXVII.— The Holy Place. 

“In addition to these things, he also appointed a place in which alone it should be lawful 
to them to sacrifice to God . 560 And all this was arranged with this view, that when the fitting 
time should come, and they should learn by means of the Prophet that God desires mercy 
and not sacrifice , 561 they might see Him who should teach them that the place chosen of 
God, in which it was suitable that victims should be offered to God, is his Wisdom; and that 
on the other hand they might hear that this place, which seemed chosen for a time, often 
harassed as it had been by hostile invasions and plunderings, was at last to be wholly des- 
troyed. And in order to impress this upon them, even before the coming of the true 
Prophet, who was to reject at once the sacrifices and the place, it was often plundered by 
enemies and burnt with fire, and the people carried into captivity among foreign nations, 
and then brought back when they betook themselves to the mercy of God; that by these 
things they might be taught that a people who offer sacrifices are driven away and delivered 
up into the hands of the enemy, but they who do mercy and righteousness are without sac- 
rifices freed from captivity, and restored to their native land. But it fell out that very few 
understood this; for the greater number, though they could perceive and observe these 
things, yet were held by the irrational opinion of the vulgar: for right opinion with liberty 
is the prerogative of a few.” 


560 Deut. xii. 11; 2 Chron. vii. 12. 

561 Hos. vi. 6; Matt. ix. 13; xii. 7. 

562 Matt. xxiv. 2; Luke xix. 44. 


176 


Sins of the Israelites. 


Chapter XXXVIII. — Sins of the Israelites. 

rzro 

“Moses, then, having arranged these things, and having set over the people one 
Auses to bring them to the land of their fathers, himself by the command of the living God 
went up to a certain mountain, and there died. Yet such was the manner of his death, that 
till this day no one has found his burial-place. When, therefore, the people reached their 
fathers’ land, by the providence of God, at their first onset the inhabitants of wicked races 
are routed, and they enter upon their paternal inheritance, which was distributed among 
them by lot. For some time thereafter they were ruled not by kings, but judges, and remained 
in a somewhat peaceful condition. But when they sought for themselves tyrants rather than 
kings, then also with regal ambition they erected a temple in the place which had been ap- 
pointed to them for prayer; and thus, through a succession of wicked kings, the people fell 
away to greater and still greater impiety.” 


563 Deut. xxxi.-xxxiv. 


177 


Baptism Instituted in Place of Sacrifices. 


Chapter XXXIX. — Baptism Instituted in Place of Sacrifices. 

“But when the time began to draw near that what was wanting in the Mosaic institutions 
should be supplied, as we have said, and that the Prophet should appear, of whom he had 
foretold that He should warn them by the mercy of God to cease from sacrificing; lest haply 
they might suppose that on the cessation of sacrifice there was no remission of sins for them, 
He instituted baptism by water amongst them, in which they might be absolved from all 
their sins on the invocation of His name, and for the future, following a perfect life, might 
abide in immortality, being purified not by the blood of beasts, but by the purification of 
the Wisdom of God. Subsequently also an evident proof of this great mystery is supplied 
in the fact, that every one who, believing in this Prophet who had been foretold by Moses, 
is baptized in His name, shall be kept unhurt from the destruction of war which impends 
over the unbelieving nation, and the place itself; but that those who do not believe shall be 
made exiles from their place and kingdom, that even against their will they may understand 
and obey the will of God.” 


178 



Advent of the True Prophet. 


Chapter XL. — Advent of the True Prophet. 

“These things therefore having been fore-arranged, He who was expected comes, 
bringing signs and miracles as His credentials by which He should be made manifest. But 
not even so did the people believe, though they had been trained during so many ages to 
the belief of these things. And not only did they not believe, but they added blasphemy to 
unbelief, saying that He was a gluttonous man and a belly-slave, and that He was actuated 
by a demon , 564 even He who had come for their salvation. To such an extent does wickedness 
prevail by the agency of evil ones; so that, but for the Wisdom of God assisting those who 
love the truth, almost all would have been involved in impious delusion. Therefore He 
chose us twelve , 565 the first who believed in Him, whom He named apostles; and afterwards 
other seventy- two most approved disciples , 566 that, at least in this way recognising the pattern 

r/r n 

of Moses, the multitude might believe that this is He of whom Moses foretold, the 

czr o 

Prophet that was to come.” 


564 Matt, ix.; John vii. 

565 Matt. x. 

566 Luke x. 

567 Num. xi. 16. 


568 Deut. xviii. 15. 


179 


Rejection of the True Prophet. 


Chapter XLI. — Rejection of the True Prophet. 

“But some one perhaps may say that it is possible for any one to imitate a number; but 
what shall we say of the signs and miracles which He wrought? For Moses had wrought 
miracles and cures in Egypt. He also of whom he foretold that He should rise up a prophet 
like unto himself, though He cured every sickness and infirmity among the people, wrought 
innumerable miracles, and preached eternal life, was hurried by wicked men to the cross; 
which deed was, however, by His power turned to good. In short, while He was suffering, 
all the world suffered with Him; for the sun was darkened, the mountains were torn asunder, 
the graves were opened, the veil of the temple was rent , 569 as in lamentation for the destruc- 
tion impending over the place. And yet, though all the world was moved, they themselves 
are not even now moved to the consideration of these so great things.” 


569 Matt, xxvii. 45, 51, 52. 


180 


Call of the Gentiles. 


Chapter XLII. — Call of the Gentiles. 

“But inasmuch as it was necessary that the Gentiles should be called into the room of 

eyn 

those who remained unbelieving, so that the number might be filled up which had been 
shown to Abraham, the preaching of the blessed kingdom of God is sent into all the 
world. On this account worldly spirits are disturbed, who always oppose those who are in 
quest of liberty, and who make use of the engines of error to destroy God’s building; while 
those who press on to the glory of safety and liberty, being rendered braver by their resistance 
to these spirits, and by the toil of great struggles against them, attain the crown of safety not 
without the palm of victory. Meantime, when He had suffered, and darkness had over- 
whelmed the world from the sixth even to the ninth hour, as soon as the sun shone out 
again, and things were returned to their usual course, even wicked men returned to them- 
selves and their former practices, their fear having abated. For some of them, watching the 
place with all care, when they could not prevent His rising again, said that He was a magician; 
others pretended that he was stolen away.” 


570 [Chaps. 42, 43, show little of the Ebionitic tendency, except in the attempt to reduce the difference between 
Jews and Christians to the single point of belief in the Messiahship of Jesus. — R] 

571 Gen. xv.; Acts xiii. 

572 Matt, xxvii. 45. 


573 


Matt, xxviii. 13. 


181 


Success of the Gospel. 


Chapter XLIII. — Success of the Gospel. 

“Nevertheless, the truth everywhere prevailed; for, in proof that these things were done 
by divine power, we who had been very few became in the course of a few days, by the help 
of God, far more than they. So that the priests at one time were afraid, lest haply, by the 
providence of God, to their confusion, the whole of the people should come over to our 
faith. Therefore they often sent to us, and asked us to discourse to them concerning Jesus, 
whether He were the Prophet whom Moses foretold, who is the eternal Christ . 574 For on 
this point only does there seem to be any difference between us who believe in Jesus, and 
the unbelieving Jews. But while they often made such requests to us, and we sought for a 
fitting opportunity, a week of years was completed from the passion of the Lord, the Church 
of the Lord which was constituted in Jerusalem was most plentifully multiplied and grew, 
being governed with most righteous ordinances by James, who was ordained bishop in it 
by the Lord.” 



574 John xii. 34. 


182 


Challenge by Caiaphas. 


Chapter XLIV. — Challenge by Caiaphas. 

“But when we twelve apostles, on the day of the passover, had come together with an 
immense multitude, and entered into the church of the brethren, each one of us, at the request 
of James, stated briefly, in the hearing of the people, what we had done in every place. 

While this was going on, Caiaphas, the high priest, sent priests to us, and asked us to come 
to him, that either we should prove to him that Jesus is the eternal Christ, or he to us that 
He is not, and that so all the people should agree upon the one faith or the other; and this 
he frequently entreated us to do. But we often put it off, always seeking for a more convenient 
time.” Then I, Clement, answered to this: “I think that this very question, whether He is 
the Christ, is of great importance for the establishment of the faith; otherwise the high priest 
would not so frequently ask that he might either learn or teach concerning the Christ.” 
Then Peter: “You have answered rightly, O Clement; for as no one can see without eyes, 
nor hear without ears, nor smell without nostrils, nor taste without a tongue, nor handle 
anything without hands, so it is impossible, without the true Prophet, to know what is 
pleasing to God.” And I answered: “I have already learned from your instruction that this 
true prophet is the Christ; but I should wish to learn what the Christ means, or why He is 
so called, that a matter of so great importance may not be vague and uncertain to me.” 


575 [Evidendy “the Lord’s brother.” Comp. chap. 68. — R.] 

576 This account of occurrences in Jerusalem (chaps. 45-70) is probably meant to supplement Acts v. and 
viii. The date tallies with the stoning of Stephen, to which there is no allusion. The whole bears abundant marks 
of “manipulation” of the New-Testament record. — R.] 


183 


The True Prophet: Why Called the Christ. 


Chapter XLV. — The True Prophet: Why Called the Christ. 

c'7'7 

Then Peter began to instruct me in this manner: “When God had made the world, 

as Lord of the universe, He appointed chiefs over the several creatures, over the trees even, 
and the mountains, and the fountains, and the rivers, and all things which He had made, as 
we have told you; for it were too long to mention them one by one. He set, therefore, an 
angel as chief over the angels, a spirit over the spirits, a star over the stars, a demon over the 
demons, a bird over the birds, a beast over the beasts, a serpent over the serpents, a fish over 
the fishes, a man over men, who is Christ Jesus. But He is called Christ by a certain excellent 
rite of religion; for as there are certain names common to kings, as Arsaces among the Per- 
sians, Caesar among the Romans, Pharaoh among the Egyptians, so among the Jews a king 
is called Christ. And the reason of this appellation is this: Although indeed He was the Son 
of God, and the beginning of all things, He became man; Him first God anointed with oil 
which was taken from the wood of the tree of life: from that anointing therefore He is called 
Christ. Thence, moreover, He Himself also, according to the appointment of His Father, 
anoints with similar oil every one of the pious when they come to His kingdom, for their 
refreshment after their labours, as having got over the difficulties of the way; so that their 
light may shine, and being filled with the Holy Spirit, they may be endowed with immortal- 
ity. But it occurs to me that I have sufficiently explained to you the whole nature of that 
branch from which that ointment is taken.” 


577 [The discourse of chaps. 45-52 is interesting from its christological consistency. The doctrine, while 
showing Ebionitic origin, is closer to the Catholic view than that of the Homilies. — R.] 

578 [The references to oil in chaps. 45-48, particularly the connection of anointing with baptism, have been 
regarded, since the discovery of the full text of Hippolytus, as showing traces of relationship to the system of 
the Elkesaites. See Introductory Notice. In the forms given by Hippolytus (see Ante-Nicene Fathers, v. pp. 132, 
133) the oil is represented as one of “seven witnesses” to be adjured by the subject of baptism. — R.] 


184 



Anointing. 


Chapter XLVI. — Anointing. 

“But now also I shall, by a very short representation, recall you to the recollection of all 
these things. In the present life, Aaron, the first high priest; was anointed with a compos- 

ition of chrism, which was made after the pattern of that spiritual ointment of which we 
have spoken before. He was prince of the people, and as a king received first-fruits and 
tribute from the people, man by man; and having undertaken the office of judging the people, 
he judged of things clean and things unclean. But if any one else was anointed with the 
same ointment, as deriving virtue from it, he became either king, or prophet, or priest. If, 
then, this temporal grace, compounded by men, had such efficacy, consider now how potent 
was that ointment extracted by God from a branch of the tree of life, when that which was 
made by men could confer so excellent dignities among men. For what in the present age 
is more glorious than a prophet, more illustrious than a priest, more exalted than a king?” 


579 Exod. xxix.; Lev. viii. 


185 


Adam Anointed a Prophet. 


Chapter XLVII. — Adam Anointed a Prophet. 

To this, I replied: “I remember, Peter, that you told me of the first man that he was a 
prophet; but you did not say that he was anointed. If then there be no prophet without 
anointing, how could the first man be a prophet, since he was not anointed?” Then Peter, 
smiling, said: “If the first man prophesied, it is certain that he was also anointed. For al- 
though he who has recorded the law in his pages is silent as to his anointing, yet he has 
evidently left us to understand these things. For as, if he had said that he was anointed, it 
would not be doubted that he was also a prophet, although it were not written in the law; 
so, since it is certain that he was a prophet, it is in like manner certain that he was also 
anointed, because without anointing he could not be a prophet. But you should rather have 
said, If the chrism was compounded by Aaron, by the perfumer’s art, how could the first 
man be anointed before Aaron’s time, the arts of composition not yet having been dis- 
covered?” Then I answered, “Do not misunderstand me, Peter; for I do not speak of that 
compounded ointment and temporal oil, but of that simple and eternal ointment, which 
you told me was made by God, after whose likeness you say that that other was compounded 
by men.” 


186 



The True Prophet, a Priest. 


Chapter XLVIII. — The True Prophet, a Priest. 

Then Peter answered, with an appearance of indignation: “What! do you suppose, 
Clement, that all of us can know all things before the time? But not to be drawn aside now 
from our proposed discourse, we shall at another time, when your progress is more manifest, 
explain these things more distinctly. 

“Then, however, a priest or a prophet, being anointed with the compounded ointment, 
putting fire to the altar of God, was held illustrious in all the world. But after Aaron, who 
was a priest, another is taken out of the waters. I do not speak of Moses, but of Him who, 

r no 

in the waters of baptism, was called by God His Son. For it is Jesus who has put out, by 
the grace of baptism, that fire which the priest kindled for sins; for, from the time when He 
appeared, the chrism has ceased, by which the priesthood or the prophetic or the kingly 
office was conferred.” 


580 Matt. iii. 17. 


187 


Two Comings of Christ. 


Chapter XLIX. — Two Comings of Christ. 

“His coming, therefore, was predicted by Moses, who delivered the law of God to men; 
but by another also before him, as I have already informed you. He therefore intimated that 
He should come, humble indeed in His first coming, but glorious in His second. And the 
first, indeed, has been already accomplished; since He has come and taught, and He, the 
Judge of all, has been judged and slain. But at His second coming He shall come to judge, 
and shall indeed condemn the wicked, but shall take the pious into a share and association 
with Himself in His kingdom. Now the faith of His second coming depends upon His first. 
For the prophets — especially Jacob and Moses — spoke of the first, but some also of the 
second. But the excellency of prophecy is chiefly shown in this, that the prophets spoke not 
of things to come, according to the sequence of things; otherwise they might seem merely 
as wise men to have conjectured what the sequence of things pointed out.” 


188 



His Rejection by the Jews. 


Chapter L. — His Rejection by the Jews. 

“But what I say is this: It was to be expected that Christ should be received by the Jews, 
to whom He came, and that they should believe on Him who was expected for the salvation 
of the people, according to the traditions of the fathers; but that the Gentiles should be averse 
to Him, since neither promise nor announcement concerning Him had been made to them, 
and indeed he had never been made known to them even by name . Yet the prophets, contrary 
to the order and sequence of things, said that He should be the expectation of the Gentiles, 

r o 1 

and not of the Jews. And so it happened. For when He came, he was not at all acknow- 
ledged by those who seemed to expect Him, in consequence of the tradition of their ancestors; 
whereas those who had heard nothing at all of Him, both believe that He has come, and 
hope that he is to come. And thus in all things prophecy appears faithful, which said that 
He was the expectation of the Gentiles. The Jews, therefore, have erred concerning the first 
coming of the Lord; and on this point only there is disagreement betwixt us and them. For 
they themselves know and expect that Christ shall come; but that he has come already in 
humility — even he who is called Jesus — they do not know. And this is a great confirmation 
of His coming, that all do not believe on Him.” 


581 Gen. xlix. 10. 


189 


The Only Saviour. 


Chapter LI. — The Only Saviour. 

“Him, therefore, has God appointed in the end of the world; because it was impossible 
that the evils of men could be removed by any other, provided that the nature of the human 
race were to remain entire, i.e., the liberty of the will being preserved. This condition, 
therefore, being preserved inviolate, He came to invite to His kingdom all righteous ones, 
and those who have been desirous to please Him. For these He has prepared unspeakable 
good things, and the heavenly city Jerusalem, which shall shine above the brightness of the 
sun, for the habitation of the saints. But the unrighteous, and the wicked and those who 
have despised God, and have devoted the life given them to diverse wickednesses, and have 
given to the practice of evil the time which was given them for the work of righteousness 
He shall hand over to fitting and condign vengeance. But the rest of the things which shall 
then be done, it is neither in the power of angels nor of men to tell or to describe. This only 
it is enough for us to know, that God shall confer upon the good an eternal possession of 
good things.” 



190 



The Saints Before Christ's Coming. 


Chapter LII. — The Saints Before Christ’s Coming. 

When he had thus spoken, I answered: “If those shall enjoy the kingdom of Christ, 
whom His coming shall find righteous, shall then those be wholly deprived of the kingdom 
who have died before His coming?” Then Peter says: “You compel me, O Clement, to touch 
upon things that are unspeakable. But so far as it is allowed to declare them, I shall not 
shrink from doing so. Know then that Christ, who was from the beginning, and always, 
was ever present with the pious, though secretly, through all their generations: especially 
with those who waited for Him, to whom He frequently appeared. But the time was not yet 
that there should be a resurrection of the bodies that were dissolved; but this seemed rather 
to be their reward from God, that whoever should be found righteous, should remain longer 
in the body; or, at least, as is clearly related in the writings of the law concerning a certain 

COT 

righteous man, that God translated him. In like manner others were dealt with, who 
pleased His will, that, being translated to Paradise, they should be kept for the kingdom. 
But as to those who have not been able completely to fulfil the rule of righteousness, but 
have had some remnants of evil in their flesh, their bodies are indeed dissolved, but their 
souls are kept in good and blessed abodes, that at the resurrection of the dead, when they 
shall recover their own bodies, purified even by the dissolution, they may obtain an eternal 
inheritance in proportion to their good deeds. And therefore blessed are all those who shall 
attain to the kingdom of Christ; for not only shall they escape the pains of hell, but shall 
also remain incorruptible, and shall be the first to see God the Father, and shall obtain the 
rank of honour among the first in the presence of God.” 


582 Gen. v. 24. 


191 


Animosity of the Jews. 


Chapter LIII. — Animosity of the Jews. 

“Wherefore there is not the least doubt concerning Christ; and all the unbelieving Jews 
are stirred up with boundless rage against us, fearing lest haply He against whom they have 
sinned should be He. And their fear grows all the greater, because they know that, as soon 
as they fixed Him on the cross, the whole world showed sympathy with Him; and that His 
body, although they guarded it with strict care, could nowhere be found; and that innumer- 
able multitudes are attaching themselves to His faith. Whence they, together with the high 
priest Caiaphas, were compelled to send to us again and again, that an inquiry might be in- 
stituted concerning the truth of His name. And when they were constantly entreating that 
they might either learn or teach concerning Jesus, whether He were the Christ, it seemed 
good to us to go up into the temple, and in the presence of all the people to bear witness 
concerning Him, and at the same time to charge the Jews with many foolish things which 
they were doing. For the people was now divided into many parties, ever since the days of 
John the Baptist.” 


192 



Jewish Sects. 


Chapter LIV. — Jewish Sects. 

“For when the rising of Christ was at hand for the abolition of sacrifices, and for the 
bestowal of the grace of baptism, the enemy, understanding from the predictions that the 
time was at hand, wrought various schisms among the people, that, if haply it might be 

roa 

possible to abolish the former sin, the latter fault might be incorrigible. The first schism, 
therefore, was that of those who were called Sadducees, which took their rise almost in the 
time of John. These, as more righteous than others, began to separate themselves from the 

roi 

assembly of the people, and to deny the resurrection of the dead, and to assert that by an 

argument of infidelity, saying that it was unworthy that God should be worshipped, as it 

ro r 

were, under the promise of a reward. The first author of this opinion was Dositheus; the 
second was Simon. Another schism is that of the Samaritans; for they deny the resurrection 
of the dead, and assert that God is not to be worshipped in Jerusalem, but on Mount Gerizim. 
They indeed rightly, from the predictions of Moses, expect the one true Prophet; but by the 
wickedness of Dositheus they were hindered from believing that Jesus is He whom they 
were expecting. The scribes also, and Pharisees, are led away into another schism; but these, 
being baptized by John, and holding the word of truth received from the tradition of Moses 

roz 

as the key of the kingdom of heaven, have hid it from the hearing of the people. Yea, 
some even of the disciples of John, who seemed to be great ones, have separated themselves 
from the people, and proclaimed their own master as the Christ. But all these schisms have 
been prepared, that by means of them the faith of Christ and baptism might be hindered.” 


583 That is, the sin of sacrifice. 

584 Matt. xxii. 23. 

585 [Comp, book ii. 8-11 and Homily II. 24. The writer here confuses the later Dositheus with an earlier 
teacher, whose disciple Zadok was the founder of the sect of the Sadduccees. — R.] 

586 Luke xi. 52. 


193 


Public Discussion. 


Chapter LV. — Public Discussion. 

“However, as we were proceeding to say, when the high priest had often sent priests to 
ask us that we might discourse with one another concerning Jesus; when it seemed a fit op- 
portunity, and it pleased all the Church, we went up to the temple, and, standing on the 
steps together with our faithful brethren, the people kept perfect silence; and first the high 
priest began to exhort the people that they should hear patiently and quietly, and at the 
same time witness and judge of those things that were to be spoken. Then, in the next place, 
exalting with many praises the rite or sacrifice which had been bestowed by God upon the 
human race for the remission of sins, he found fault with the baptism of our Jesus, as having 
been recently brought in in opposition to the sacrifices. But Matthew, meeting his pro- 
positions, showed clearly, that whosoever shall not obtain the baptism of Jesus shall not 
only be deprived of the kingdom of heaven, but shall not be without peril at the resurrection 
of the dead, even though he be fortified by the prerogative of a good life and an upright 
disposition. Having made these and such like statements, Matthew stopped.” 


587 [Here we encounter that favourite notion of apocryphal writers, that each Apostle must he represented 
as contributing his portion to the statement and defence of the faith. — R.] 


194 



Sadducees Refuted. 


Chapter LVI. — Sadducees Refuted. 

“But the party of the Sadducees, who deny the resurrection of the dead, were in a rage, 
so that one of them cried out from amongst the people, saying that those greatly err who 
think that the dead ever arise. In opposition to him, Andrew, my brother, answering, declared 
that it is not an error, but the surest matter of faith, that the dead rise, in accordance with 
the teaching of Him of whom Moses foretold that He should come the true Prophet. ‘Or 
if,’ says he, ‘you do not think that this is He whom Moses foretold, let this first be inquired 
into, so that when this is clearly proved to be He, there may be no further doubt concerning 
the things which He taught.’ These, and many such like things, Andrew proclaimed, and 
then stopped.” 


195 



Samaritan Refuted. 


Chapter LVII. — Samaritan Refuted. 

“But a certain Samaritan, speaking against the people and against God, and asserting 
that neither are the dead to rise, nor is that worship of God to be maintained which is in 
Jerusalem, but that Mount Gerizim is to be reverenced, added also this in opposition to us, 
that our Jesus was not He whom Moses foretold as a Prophet to come into the world. Against 
him, and another who supported him in what he said, James and John, the sons of Zebedee, 

coo 

strove vigorously; and although they had a command not to enter into their cities, nor 
to bring the word of preaching to them, yet, lest their discourse, unless it were confined, 
should hurt the faith of others, they replied so prudently and so powerfully, that they put 
them to perpetual silence. For James made an oration concerning the resurrection of the 
dead, with the approbation of all the people; while John showed that if they would abandon 
the error of Mount Gerizim, they should consequently acknowledge that Jesus was indeed 
He who, according to the prophecy of Moses, was expected to come; since, indeed, as Moses 
wrought signs and miracles, so also did Jesus. And there is no doubt but that the likeness 
of the signs proves Him to be that prophet of whom he said that He should come, like 
himself.’ Having declared these things, and more to the same effect, they ceased.” 


588 Matt. x. 5. 


196 


Scribes Refuted. 


Chapter LVIII. — Scribes Refuted. 

“And, behold, one of the scribes, shouting out from the midst of the people, says: ‘The 
signs and miracles which your Jesus wrought, he wrought not as a prophet, but as a magi- 
cian.’ Him Philip eagerly encounters, showing that by this argument he accused Moses 
also. For when Moses wrought signs and miracles in Egypt, in like manner as Jesus also did 
in Judaea, it cannot be doubted that what was said of Jesus might as well be said of Moses. 
Having made these and such like protestations, Philip was silent.” 


197 



Pharisees Refuted. 


Chapter LIX. — Pharisees Refuted. 

“Then a certain Pharisee, hearing this, chid Philip because he put Jesus on a level with 
Moses. To whom Bartholomew, answering, boldly declared that we do not only say that 
Jesus was equal to Moses, but that He was greater than he, because Moses was indeed a 
prophet, as Jesus was also, but that Moses was not the Christ, as Jesus was, and therefore 
He is doubtless greater who is both a prophet and the Christ, than he who is only a prophet. 
After following out this train of argument, he stopped. After him James the son of Alphaeus 
gave an address to the people, with the view of showing that we are not to believe on Jesus 
on the ground that the prophets foretold concerning Him, but rather that we are to believe 
the prophets, that they were really prophets, because the Christ bears testimony to them; 
for it is the presence and coming of Christ that show that they are truly prophets: for testi- 
mony must be borne by the superior to his inferiors, not by the inferiors to their superior. 
After these and many similar statements, James also was silent. After him Lebbaeus began 
vehemently to charge it upon the people that they did not believe in Jesus, who had done 
them so much good by teaching them the things that are of God, by comforting the afflicted, 
healing the sick, relieving the poor; yet for all these benefits their return had been hatred 
and death. When he had declared these and many more such things to the people, he 
ceased.” 


198 



Disciples of John Refuted. 


Chapter LX. — Disciples of John Refuted. 

“And, behold, one of the disciples of John asserted that John was the Christ, and not 
Jesus, inasmuch as Jesus Himself declared that John was greater than all men and all 

r on 

prophets. ‘If, then,’ said he, ‘he be greater than all, he must be held to be greater than 
Moses, and than Jesus himself. But if he be the greatest of all, then must he be the Christ.’ 
To this Simon the Canaanite, answering, asserted that John was indeed greater than all the 
prophets, and all who are born of women, yet that he is not greater than the Son of man. 
Accordingly Jesus is also the Christ, whereas John is only a prophet: and there is as much 
difference between him and Jesus, as between the forerunner and Him whose forerunner 
he is; or as between Him who gives the law, and him who keeps the law. Having made these 
and similar statements, the Canaanite also was silent. After him Barnabas , 590 who also is 
called Matthias, who was substituted as an apostle in the place of Judas, began to exhort the 
people that they should not regard Jesus with hatred, nor speak evil of Him. For it were far 
more proper, even for one who might be in ignorance or in doubt concerning Jesus, to love 
than to hate Him. For God has affixed a reward to love, a penalty to hatred. ‘For the very 
fact,’ said he, ‘that He assumed a Jewish body, and was born among the Jews, how has not 
this incited us all to love Him?’ When he had spoken this, and more to the same effect, he 
stopped.” 


589 Matt. xi. 9, 11. 

590 We should doubtless read “Barsabas. 


199 


Caiaphas Answered. 


Chapter LXI. — Caiaphas Answered. 

“Then Caiaphas attempted to impugn the doctrine of Jesus, saying that He spoke vain 
things, for He said that the poor are blessed ; 591 and promised earthly rewards; and placed 
the chief gift in an earthly inheritance; and promised that those who maintain righteousness 
shall be satisfied with meat and drink; and many things of this sort He is charged with 
teaching. Thomas, in reply, proves that his accusation is frivolous; showing that the 
prophets, in whom Caiaphas believes, taught these things much more, and did not show in 
what manner these things are to be, or how they are to be understood; whereas Jesus pointed 
out how they are to be taken. And when he had spoken these things, and others of like kind, 
Thomas also held his peace.” 


591 Matt. v. 3; Luke vi. 20. 


200 


Foolishness of Preaching. 


Chapter LXII. — Foolishness of Preaching. 

“Therefore Caiaphas, again looking at me, and sometimes in the way of warning and 
sometimes in that of accusation, said that I ought for the future to refrain from preaching 
Christ Jesus, lest I should do it to my own destruction, and lest, being deceived myself, I 
should also deceive others. Then, moreover, he charged me with presumption, because, 
though I was unlearned, a fisherman, and a rustic, I dared to assume the office of a teacher. 
As he spoke these things, and many more of like kind, I said in reply, that I incurred less 
danger, if, as he said, this Jesus were not the Christ, because I received Him as a teacher of 
the law; but that he was in terrible danger if this be the very Christ, as assuredly He is: for 
I believe in Him who has appeared; but for whom else, who has never appeared, does he 
reserve his faith? But if I, an unlearned and uneducated man, as you say, a fisherman and 
a rustic, have more understanding than wise elders, this, said I, ought the more to strike 
terror into you. For if I disputed with any learning, and won over you wise and learned 
men, it would appear that I had acquired this power by long learning, and not by the grace 
of divine power; but now, when, as I have said, we unskilled men convince and overcome 
you wise men, who that has any sense does not perceive that this is not a work of human 
subtlety, but of divine will and gift?” 


201 



Appeal to the Jews. 


Chapter LXIII. — Appeal to the Jews. 

“Thus we argued and bore witness; and we who were unlearned men and fishermen, 
taught the priests concerning the one only God of heaven; the Sadducees, concerning the 
resurrection of the dead; the Samaritans, concerning the sacredness of Jerusalem (not that 
we entered into their cities, but disputed with them in public); the scribes and Pharisees, 
concerning the kingdom of heaven; the disciples of John, that they should not suffer John 
to be a stumbling-block to them; and all the people, that Jesus is the eternal Christ. At last, 
however, I warned them, that before we should go forth to the Gentiles, to preach to them 
the knowledge of God the Father, they should themselves be reconciled to God, receiving 
His Son; for I showed them that in no way else could they be saved, unless through the grace 
of the Holy Spirit they hasted to be washed with the baptism of threefold invocation, and 
received the Eucharist of Christ the Lord, whom alone they ought to believe concerning 
those things which He taught, that so they might merit to attain eternal salvation; but that 
otherwise it was utterly impossible for them to be reconciled to God, even if they should 
kindle a thousand altars and a thousand high altars to Him.” 



202 



Temple to Be Destroyed. 


Chapter LXIV. — Temple to Be Destroyed. 

‘“For we,’ said I, ‘have ascertained beyond doubt that God is much rather displeased 
with the sacrifices which you offer, the time of sacrifices having now passed away; and because 
ye will not acknowledge that the time for offering victims is now past, therefore the temple 

COO 

shall be destroyed, and the abomination of desolation shall stand in the holy place; and 
then the Gospel shall be preached to the Gentiles for a testimony against you, that your 
unbelief may be judged by their faith. For the whole world at different times suffers under 
divers maladies, either spreading generally over all, or affecting specially. Therefore it needs 
a physician to visit it for its salvation. We therefore bear witness to you, and declare to you 
what has been hidden from every one of you. It is for you to consider what is for your ad- 
vantage.’” 


592 Dan. ix. 27; Matt. xxiv. 15. 


203 


Tumult Stilled by Gamaliel. 


Chapter LXV. — Tumult Stilled by Gamaliel. 

“When I had thus spoken, the whole multitude of the priests were in a rage, because I 
had foretold to them the overthrow of the temple. Which when Gamaliel, a chief of the 
people, saw — who was secretly our brother in the faith, but by our advice remained among 
them — because they were greatly enraged and moved with intense fury against us, he stood 
up, and said, ‘Be quiet for a little, O men of Israel, for ye do not perceive the trial which 
hangs over you. Wherefore refrain from these men; and if what they are engaged in be of 
human counsel, it will soon come to an end; but if it be from God, why will you sin without 
cause, and prevail nothing? For who can overpower the will of God? Now therefore, since 
the day is declining towards evening, I shall myself dispute with these men to-morrow, in 
this same place, in your hearing, so that I may openly oppose and clearly confute every error.’ 
By this speech of his their fury was to some extent checked, especially in the hope that next 
day we should be publicly convicted of error; and so he dismissed the people peacefully.” 


593 Acts v. 35-39. 


204 


Discussion Resumed. 


Chapter LXVI. — Discussion Resumed. 

“Now when we had come to our James, while we detailed to him all that had been said 
and done, we supped, and remained with him, spending the whole night in supplication to 
Almighty God, that the discourse of the approaching disputation might show the unques- 
tionable truth of our faith. Therefore, on the following day, James the bishop went up to 
the temple with us, and with the whole church. There we found a great multitude, who had 
been waiting for us from the middle of the night. Therefore we took our stand in the same 
place as before, in order that, standing on an elevation, we might be seen by all the people. 
Then, when profound silence was obtained, Gamaliel, who, as we have said, was of our faith, 
but who by a dispensation remained amongst them, that if at any time they should attempt 
anything unjust or wicked against us, he might either check them by skillfully adopted 
counsel, or might warn us, that we might either be on our guard or might turn it aside; — he 
therefore, as if acting against us, first of all looking to James the bishop, addressed him in 
this manner: — 


205 



Speech of Gamaliel. 


Chapter LXVII. — Speech of Gamaliel. 

“‘If I, Gamaliel, deem it no reproach either to my learning or to my old age to learn 
something from babes and unlearned ones, if haply there be anything which it is for profit 
or for safety to acquire (for he who lives reasonably knows that nothing is more precious 
than the soul), ought not this to be the object of love and desire to all, to learn what they do 
not know, and to teach what they have learned? For it is most certain that neither friendship, 
nor kindred, nor lofty power, ought to be more precious to men than truth. Therefore you, 
O brethren, if ye know anything more, shrink not from laying it before the people of God 
who are present, and also before your brethren; while the whole people shall willingly and 
in perfect quietness hear what you say. For why should not the people do this, when they 
see even me equally with themselves willing to learn from you, if haply God has revealed 
something further to you? But if you in anything are deficient, be not ye ashamed in like 
manner to be taught by us, that God may fill up whatever is wanting on either side. But if 
any fear now agitates you on account of some of our people whose minds are prejudiced 
against you, and if through fear of their violence you dare not openly speak your sentiments, 
in order that I may deliver you from this fear, I openly swear to you by Almighty God, who 
liveth for ever, that I will suffer no one to lay hands upon you. Since, then, you have all this 
people witnesses of this my oath, and you hold the covenant of our sacrament as a fitting 
pledge, let each one of you, without any hesitation, declare what he has learned; and let us, 
brethren, listen eagerly and in silence.’” 


206 



The Rule of Faith. 


Chapter LXVIII. — The Rule of Faith. 

“These sayings of Gamaliel did not much please Caiaphas; and holding him in suspicion, 
as it seemed, he began to insinuate himself cunningly into the discussions: for, smiling at 
what Gamaliel had said, the chief of the priests asked of James, the chief of the bishops , 594 
that the discourse concerning Christ should not be drawn but from the Scriptures; ‘that we 
may know,’ said he, ‘whether Jesus be the very Christ or no.’ Then said James, ‘We must 
first inquire from what Scriptures we are especially to derive our discussion.’ Then he, with 
difficulty, at length overcome by reason, answered, that it must be derived from the law; 
and afterwards he made mention also of the prophets.” 


594 [This title is consistent with the position accorded to James the Lord’s brother in the entire pseudo- 
Clementine literature. — R.] 


207 



Two Comings of Christ. 


Chapter LXIX. — Two Comings of Christ. 

“To him our James began to show, that whatsoever things the prophets say they have 
taken from the law, and what they have spoken is in accordance with the law. He also made 
some statements respecting the books of the Kings, in what way, and when, and by whom 
they were written, and how they ought to be used. And when he had discussed most fully 
concerning the law, and had, by a most clear exposition, brought into light whatever things 
are in it concerning Christ, he showed by most abundant proofs that Jesus is the Christ, and 
that in Him are fulfilled all the prophecies which related to His humble advent. For he 
showed that two advents of Him are foretold: one in humiliation, which He has accom- 
plished; the other in glory, which is hoped for to be accomplished, when He shall come to 
give the kingdom to those who believe in Him, and who observe all things which He has 
commanded. And when he had plainly taught the people concerning these things, he added 
this also: That unless a man be baptized in water, in the name of the threefold blessedness, 
as the true Prophet taught, he can neither receive remission of sins nor enter into the kingdom 
of heaven; and he declared that this is the prescription of the unbegotten God. To which 
he added this also: ‘Do not think that we speak of two unbegotten Gods, or that one is divided 
into two, or that the same is made male and female. But we speak of the only-begotten Son 
of God, not sprung from another source, but ineffably self-originated; and in like manner 
we speak of the Paraclete .’ 595 But when he had spoken some things also concerning baptism, 
through seven successive days he persuaded all the people and the high priest that they 
should hasten straightway to receive baptism.” 


595 [This sentence seems to have been framed to accord with the Catholic doctrine. — R.] 


208 



Tumult Raised by Saul. 


Chapter LXX. — Tumult Raised by Saul. 

“And when matters were at that point that they should come and be baptized, some one 
of our enemies , 596 entering the temple with a few men, began to cry out, and to say, ‘What 
mean ye, O men of Israel? Why are you so easily hurried on? Why are ye led headlong by 
most miserable men, who are deceived by Simon, a magician?’ While he was thus speaking, 
and adding more to the same effect, and while James the bishop was refuting him, he began 
to excite the people and to raise a tumult, so that the people might not be able to hear what 
was said. Therefore he began to drive all into confusion with shouting, and to undo what 
had been arranged with much labour, and at the same time to reproach the priests, and to 
enrage them with revilings and abuse, and, like a madman, to excite every one to murder, 
saying, ‘What do ye? Why do ye hesitate? Oh sluggish and inert, why do we not lay hands 
upon them, and pull all these fellows to pieces?’ When he had said this, he first, seizing a 
strong brand from the altar, set the example of smiting. Then others also, seeing him, were 
carried away with like readiness. Then ensued a tumult on either side, of the beating and 
the beaten. Much blood is shed; there is a confused flight, in the midst of which that enemy 
attacked James, and threw him headlong from the top of the steps; and supposing him to 
be dead, he cared not to inflict further violence upon him.” 


596 A marginal note in one of the manuscripts states that this enemy was Saul. [This is confirmed by chap. 
71.— R.] 


209 



Flight to Jericho. 


Chapter LXXI. — Flight to Jericho. 


“But our friends lifted him up, for they were both more numerous and more powerful 
than the others; but, from their fear of God, they rather suffered themselves to be killed by 
an inferior force, than they would kill others. But when the evening came the priests shut 
up the temple, and we returned to the house of James, and spent the night there in prayer. 
Then before daylight we went down to Jericho, to the number of 5000 men. Then after 
three days one of the brethren came to us from Gamaliel, whom we mentioned before, 
bringing to us secret tidings that that enemy had received a commission from Caiaphas, the 
chief priest, that he should arrest all who believed in Jesus, and should go to Damascus with 
his letters, and that there also, employing the help of the unbelievers, he should make havoc 
among the faithful; and that he was hastening to Damascus chiefly on this account, because 
he believed that Peter had fled thither. And about thirty days thereafter he stopped on 
his way while passing through Jericho going to Damascus. At that time we were absent, 
having gone out to the sepulchres of two brethren which were whitened of themselves every 
year, by which miracle the fury of many against us was restrained, because they saw that 
our brethren were had in remembrance before God.” 


597 Acts xxii. 5. [There is an evident attempt to cast a slur upon the apostle Paul, but the suppression of the 
name is significant. — R.] 


210 


Peter Sent to Ccesarea. 


Chapter LXXII. — Peter Sent to Caesarea. 

“While, therefore, we abode in Jericho, and gave ourselves to prayer and fasting, James 
the bishop sent for me, and sent me here to Caesarea, saying that Zacchaeus had written to 
him from Caesarea, that one Simon, a Samaritan magician, was subverting many of our 
people, asserting that he was one Stans, — that is, in other words, the Christ, and the great 
power of the high God, which is superior to the Creator of the world; at the same time that 
he showed many miracles, and made some doubt, and others fall away to him. He informed 
me of all things that had been ascertained respecting this man from those who had formerly 
been either his associates or his disciples, and had afterwards been converted to Zacchaeus. 
‘Many therefore there are, O Peter,’ said James, ‘for whose safety’s sake it behoves you to 
go and to refute the magician, and to teach the word of truth. Therefore make no delay; 
nor let it grieve you that you set out alone, knowing that God by Jesus will go with you, and 
will help you, and that soon, by His grace, you will have many associates and sympathizers. 
Now be sure that you send me in writing every year an account of your sayings and doings, 
and especially at the end of every seven years.’ With these expressions he dismissed me, 
and in six days I arrived at Caesarea .” 599 


598 [Comp, book ii. 7 and Homily II. 22, 24. — R.] 

599 [The visit of Peter to Caesarea narrated in Acts x. was for a very different purpose. It is probable that the 
author of the Recognitions connected the persecution by Saul and the sorceries of Simon because of the similar 
juxtaposition in Acts viii. — R.] 


211 


Welcomed by Zacchceus. 


Chapter LXXIII. — Welcomed by Zacchseus. 

“When I entered the city, our most beloved brother Zacchseus met me; and embracing 
me, brought me to this lodging, in which he himself stayed, inquiring of me concerning 
each of the brethren, especially concerning our honourable brother James. And when I told 
him that he was still lame on one foot, on his immediately asking the cause of this, I related 
to him all that I have now detailed to you, how we had been called by the priests and Caiaphas 
the high priest to the temple, and how James the archbishop, standing on the top of the 
steps, had for seven successive days shown the whole people from the Scriptures of the Lord 
that Jesus is the Christ; and how, when all were acquiescing that they should be baptized by 
him in the name of Jesus, an enemy did all those things which I have already mentioned, 
and which I need not repeat.” 


212 



Simon Magus Challenges Peter. 


Chapter LXXIV. — Simon Magus Challenges Peter. 

“When Zacchaeus had heard these things, he told me in return of the doings of Simon; 
and in the meantime Simon himself — how he heard of my arrival I do not know — sent a 
message to me, saying, ‘Let us dispute to-morrow in the hearing of the people.’ To which 
I answered, ‘Be it so, as it pleaseth you.’ And this promise of mine was known over the 
whole city, so that even you, who arrived on that very day, learned that I was to hold a dis- 
cussion with Simon on the following day, and having found out my abode, according to the 
directions which you had received from Barnabas, came to me. But I so rejoiced at your 
coming, that my mind, moved I know not how, hastened to expound all things quickly to 
you, yet especially that which is the main point in our faith, concerning the true Prophet, 
which alone, I doubt not, is a sufficient foundation for the whole of our doctrine. Then, in 
the next place, I unfolded to you the more secret meaning of the written law, through its 
several heads, which there was occasion to unfold; neither did I conceal from you the good 
things of the traditions. But what remains, beginning from tomorrow, you shall hear from 
day to day in connection with the questions which will be raised in the discussion with Simon, 
until by God’s favour we reach that city of Rome to which we believe that our journey is to 
be directed.” 

I then declared that I owed him all thanks for what he had told me, and promised that 
I would most readily do all that he commanded. Then, having taken food, he ordered me 
to rest, and he also betook himself to rest.” 


213 



Book II. 


Book II. 


214 



Power of Habit. 


Chapter I. — Power of Habit. 

When the day dawned which had been fixed for the discussion with Simon, Peter, rising 
at the first cock-crowing, aroused us also: for we were sleeping in the same apartment, 
thirteen of us in all ; 600 of whom, next to Peter, Zacchaeus was first, then Sophonius, Joseph 
and Michaeas, Eliesdrus, Phineas, Lazarus, and Elisaeus: after these I (Clement) and 
Nicodemus; then Niceta and Aquila, who had formerly been disciples of Simon, and were 
converted to the faith of Christ under the teaching of Zacchaeus. Of the women there was 
no one present. As the evening light 601 was still lasting, we all sat down; and Peter, seeing 
that we were awake, and that we were giving attention to him, having saluted us, immediately 
began to speak, as follows: — 

“I confess, brethren, that I wonder at the power of human nature, which I see to be fit 
and suited to every call upon it. This, however, it occurs to me to say of what I have found 
by experience, that when the middle of the night is passed, I awake of my own accord, and 
sleep does not come to me again. This happens to me for this reason, that I have formed 
the habit of recalling to memory the words of my Lord, which I heard from Himself; and 
for the longing I have towards them, I constrain my mind and my thoughts to be roused, 
that, awaking to them, and recalling and arranging them one by one, I may retain them in 
my memory. From this, therefore, whilst I desire to cherish the sayings of the Lord with all 
delight in my heart, the habit of waking has come upon me, even if there be nothing that I 
wish to think of. Thus, in some unaccountable way, when any custom is established, the 
old custom is changed, provided indeed you do not force it above measure, but as far as the 
measure of nature admits. For it is not possible to be altogether without sleep; otherwise 
night would not have been made for rest.” 


600 [With this list compare that in iii. 68, where four others are added (or substituted), and some importance 
given to the number twelve. See also Homily II. 1 . The variety and correspondence point to the use of a common 
basis. — R.] 

601 That is, the lamp which had been lighted in the evening. 


215 



Curtailment of Sleep. 


Chapter II. — Curtailment of Sleep. 

Then I, when I heard this, said: “You have very well said, O Peter; for one custom is 
superseded by another. For when I was at sea, I was at first distressed, and all my system 
was disordered, so that I felt as if I had been beaten, and could not bear the tossing and tumult 
of the sea; but after a few days, when I had got accustomed to it, I began to bear it tolerably, 
so that I was glad to take food immediately in the morning along with the sailors, whereas 
before it was not my custom to eat anything before the seventh hour. Now, therefore, simply 
from the custom which I then acquired, hunger reminds me about that time at which I used 
to eat with the sailors; which, however, I hope to get rid of, when once another custom shall 
have been formed. I believe, therefore, that you also have acquired the habit of wakefulness, 
as you state; and you have wished at a fitting time to explain this to us, that we also may not 
grudge to throw off and dispense with some portion of our sleep, that we may be able to 
take in the precepts of the living doctrine. For when the food is digested, and the mind is 
under the influence of the silence of night, those things which are seasonably taught abide 
in it. 


216 



Need of Caution. 


Chapter III. — Need of Caution. 

Then Peter, being pleased to hear that I understood the purport of his preface, that he 
had delivered it for our advantage; and commending me, doubtless for the purpose of en- 
couraging, and stimulating me, began to deliver the following discourse: “It seems to 

me to be seasonable and necessary to have some discussion relating to those things that are 
near at hand; that is, concerning Simon. For I should wish to know of what character and 
of what conduct he is. Wherefore, if any one of you has any knowledge of him, let him not 
fail to inform me; for it is of consequence to know these things beforehand. For if we have 

mo 

it in charge, that when we enter into a city we should first learn who in it is worthy, that 
we may eat with him, how much more is it proper for us to ascertain who or what sort of 
man he is to whom the words of immortality are to be committed! For we ought to be 
careful, yea, extremely careful, that we cast not our pearls before swine . 604 


602 [In the Homilies the discourse before the discussion with Simon is much fuller. — R.] 

603 Matt. x. 11. 


604 Matt. vii. 6. 


217 


Prudence in Dealing with Opponents. 


Chapter IV. — Prudence in Dealing with Opponents. 

“But for other reasons also it is of importance that I should have some knowledge of 
this man. For if I know that in those things concerning which it cannot be doubted that 
they are good, he is faultless and irreproachable, — that is to say, if he is sober, merciful, up- 
right, gentle, and humane, which no one doubts to be good qualities, — then it will seem to 
be fitting, that upon him who possesses these good virtues, that which is lacking of faith 
and knowledge should be conferred; and so his life, which is in other respects worthy of 
approbation, should be amended in those points in which it shall appear to be imperfect. 
But if he remains wrapped up and polluted in those sins which are manifestly such, it does 
not become me to speak to him at all of the more secret and sacred things of divine know- 
ledge, but rather to protest and confront him, that he cease from sin, and cleanse his actions 
from vice. But if he insinuate himself, and lead us on to speak what he, while he acts improp- 
erly, ought not to hear, it will be our part to parry him cautiously. For not to answer him 
at all does not seem proper, for the sake of the hearers, lest haply they may think that we 
decline the contest through want of ability to answer him, and so their faith may be injured 
through their misunderstanding of our purpose.” 


218 



Simon Magus, a Formidable Antagonist. 


Chapter V. — Simon Magus, a Formidable Antagonist. 

When Peter had thus spoken to us, Niceta asks permission to say something to him ; 605 
and Peter having granted permission, he says: “With your pardon, I beseech you, my lord 
Peter, to hear me, who am very anxious for thee, and who am afraid lest, in the contest which 
you have in hand with Simon, you should seem to be overmatched. For it very frequently 
happens that he who defends the truth does not gain the victory, since the hearers are either 
prejudiced, or have no great interest in the better cause. But over and above all this, Simon 
himself is a most vehement orator, trained in the dialectic art, and in the meshes of syllogisms; 
and what is worse than all, he is greatly skilled in the magic art. And therefore I fear, lest 
haply, being so strongly fortified on every side, he shall be thought to be defending the truth, 
whilst he is alleging falsehoods, in the presence of those who do not know him. For neither 
should we ourselves have been able to escape from him, and to be converted to the Lord, 
had it not been that, while we were his assistants, and the sharers of his errors, we had ascer- 
tained that he was a deceiver and a magician.” 


605 [The statements of Niceta and Aquila are introduced in the Homilies before the postponement of the 
discussion with Simon. There is a remarkable variety in the minor details respecting Simon as given in the two 
narratives. — R.] 


219 



Simon Magus: His Wickedness. 


Chapter VI. — Simon Magus: His Wickedness. 

When Niceta had thus spoken, Aquila also, asking that he might be permitted to speak, 
proceeded in manner following: “Receive, I entreat thee, most excellent Peter, the assurance 
of my love towards thee; for indeed I also am extremely anxious on thy account. And do 
not blame us in this, for indeed to be concerned for any one cometh of affection; whereas 
to be indifferent is no less than hatred. But I call God to witness that I feel for thee, not as 
knowing thee to be weaker in debate, — for indeed I was never present at any dispute in 
which thou wert engaged, — but because I well know the impieties of this man, I think of 
thy reputation, and at the same time the souls of the hearers, and above all, the interests of 
the truth itself. For this magician is vehement towards all things that he wishes, and wicked 
above measure. For in all things we know him well, since from boyhood we have been as- 
sistants and ministers of his wickedness; and had not the love of God rescued us from him, 
we should even now be engaged in the same evil deeds with him. But a certain inborn love 
towards God rendered his wickedness hateful to us, and the worship of God attractive to 
us. Whence I think also that it was the work of Divine Providence, that we, being first made 
his associates, should take knowledge in what manner or by what art he effects the prodigies 
which he seems to work. For who is there that would not be astonished at the wonderful 
things which he does? Who would not think that he was a god come down from heaven 
for the salvation of men? For myself, I confess, if I had not known him intimately, and had 
taken part in his doings, I would easily have been carried away with him. Whence it was 
no great thing for us to be separated from his society, knowing as we did that he depends 
upon magic arts and wicked devices. But if thou also thyself wish to know all about 
him — who, what, and whence he is, and how he contrives what he does — then listen.” 


220 



Simon Magus: His History. 


Chapter VII. — Simon Magus: His History. 

“This Simon’s father was Antonius, and his mother Rachel. By nation he is a Samaritan, 
from a village of the Gettones; by profession a magician yet exceedingly well trained in the 
Greek literature; desirous of glory, and boasting above all the human race, so that he wishes 
himself to be believed to be an exalted power, which is above God the Creator, and to be 
thought to be the Christ, and to be called the Standing One. And he uses this name as im- 
plying that he can never be dissolved, asserting that his flesh is so compacted by the power 
of his divinity, that it can endure to eternity. Hence, therefore, he is called the Standing 
One, as though he cannot fall by any corruption.” 


221 



Simon Magus: His History. 


Chapter VIII. — Simon Magus: His History. 

“For after that John the Baptist was killed, as you yourself also know, when Dositheus 
had broached his heresy , 606 with thirty other chief disciples, and one woman, who was called 
Luna — whence also these thirty appear to have been appointed with reference to the 
number of the days, according to the course of the moon — this Simon ambitious of evil 
glory, as we have said, goes to Dositheus, and pretending friendship, entreats him, that if 
any one of those thirty should die, he should straightway substitute him in room of the 
dead: for it was contrary to their rule either to exceed the fixed number, or to admit any 
one who was unknown, or not yet proved; whence also the rest, desiring to become worthy 
of the place and number, are eager in every way to please, according to the institutions of 
their sect each one of those who aspire after admittance into the number, hoping that he 
may be deemed worthy to be put into the place of the deceased, when, as we have said, any 
one dies. Therefore Dositheus, being greatly urged by this man, introduced Simon when a 
vacancy occurred among the number.” 


606 [Comp. i. 54. In Homily II. 23 Simon is said to be a follower of John the Baptist, one of the thirty chief 
men: so Dositheus. Here Dositheus is represented as the head of a separate sect; so in i. 54. — R.] 

607 [Called “Helena” in the Homilies, and identified apparently with Helen, the cause of the Trojan War. — R.] 

222 



Simon Magus: His Profession. 


Chapter IX. — Simon Magus: His Profession. 

“But not long after he fell in love with that woman whom they call Luna; and he confided 
all things to us as his friends: how he was a magician, and how he loved Luna, and how, 
being desirous of glory, he was unwilling to enjoy her ingloriously, but that he was waiting 
patiently till he could enjoy her honourably; yet so if we also would conspire with him towards 
the accomplishment of his desires. And he promised that, as a reward of this service, he 
would cause us to be invested with the highest honours, and we should be believed by men 
to be gods; ‘Only, however, on condition,’ says he, ‘that you confer the chief place upon me, 
Simon, who by magic art am able to show many signs and prodigies, by means of which 
either my glory or our sect may be established. For I am able to render myself invisible to 
those who wish to lay hold of me, and again to be visible when I am willing to be seen. 

If I wish to flee, I can dig through the mountains, and pass through rocks as if they were 
clay. If I should throw myself headlong from a lofty mountain, I should be borne unhurt 
to the earth, as if I were held up; when bound, I can loose myself, and bind those who had 
bound me; being shut up in prison, I can make the barriers open of their own accord; I can 
render statues animated, so that those who see suppose that they are men. I can make new 
trees suddenly spring up, and produce sprouts at once. I can throw myself into the fire, and 
not be burnt; I can change my countenance, so that I cannot be recognised; but I can show 
people that I have two faces. I shall change myself into a sheep or a goat; I shall make a 
beard to grow upon little boys; I shall ascend by flight into the air; I shall exhibit abundance 
of gold, and shall make and unmake kings. I shall be worshipped as God; I shall have divine 
honours publicly assigned to me, so that an image of me shall be set up, and I shall be wor- 
shipped and adored as God. And what need of more words? Whatever I wish, that I shall 
be able to do. For already I have achieved many things by way of experiment. In short,’ 
says he, ‘once when my mother Rachel ordered me to go to the field to reap, and I saw a 
sickle lying, I ordered it to go and reap; and it reaped ten times more than the others. Lately, 
I produced many new sprouts from the earth, and made them bear leaves and produce fruit 
in a moment; and the nearest mountain I successfully bored through.’” 


608 [The statements made in the Recognitions respecting the claims of Simon are more extravagant and 
blasphemous than those occurring in the Homilies. Comp, the latter, ii, 26-32. — R.] 


223 



Simon Magus: His Deception. 


Chapter X. — Simon Magus: His Deception. 

“But when he spoke thus of the production of sprouts and the perforation of the 
mountain, I was confounded on this account, because he wished to deceive even us, in whom 
he seemed to place confidence; for we knew that those things had been from the days of our 
fathers, which he represented as having been done by himself lately. We then, although we 
heard these atrocities from him, and worse than these, yet we followed up his crimes, and 
suffered others to be deceived by him, telling also many lies on his behalf; and this before 
he did any of the things which he had promised, so that while as yet he had done nothing, 
he was by some thought to be God.” 


224 



Simon Magus, at the Head of the Sect of Dositheus. 

Chapter XI. — Simon Magus, at the Head of the Sect of Dositheus. 

“Meantime, at the outset, as soon as he was reckoned among the thirty disciples 
Dositheus, he began to depreciate Dositheus himself, saying that he did not teach purely or 
perfectly, and that this was the result not of ill intention, but of ignorance. But Dositheus, 
when he perceived that Simon was depreciating him, fearing lest his reputation among men 
might be obscured (for he himself was supposed to be the Standing One), moved with rage, 
when they met as usual at the school, seized a rod, and began to beat Simon; but suddenly 
the rod seemed to pass through his body, as if it had been smoke. On which Dositheus, 
being astonished, says to him, ‘Tell me if thou art the Standing One, that I may adore thee.’ 
And when Simon answered that he was, then Dositheus, perceiving that he himself was not 
the Standing One, fell down and worshipped him, and gave up his own place as chief to Si- 
mon, ordering all the rank of thirty men to obey him; himself taking the inferior place which 
Simon formerly occupied. Not long after this he died.” 



225 



Simon Magus and Luna. 


Chapter XII. — Simon Magus and Luna. 

“Therefore, after the death of Dositheus Simon took Luna to himself; and with her he 
still goes about, as you see, deceiving multitudes, and asserting that he himself is a certain 
power which is above God the Creator, while Luna, who is with him, has been brought down 
from the higher heavens, and that she is Wisdom, the mother of all things, for whom, says 
he, the Greeks and barbarians contending, were able in some measure to see an image of 
her; but of herself, as she is, as the dweller with the first and only God, they were wholly ig- 
norant. Propounding these and other things of the same sort, he has deceived many. But 
I ought also to state this, which I remember that I myself saw. Once, when this Luna of his 
was in a certain tower, a great multitude had assembled to see her, and were standing around 
the tower on all sides; but she was seen by all the people to lean forward, and to look out 
through all the windows of that tower . 609 Many other wonderful things he did and does; 
so that men, being astonished at them, think that he himself is the great God.” 


609 The meaning seems to be, that she was seen at all the windows at once. — Tr. 


226 



Simon Magus: Secret of His Magic. 


Chapter XIII. — Simon Magus: Secret of His Magic. 

“Now when Niceta and I once asked him to explain to us how these things could be ef- 
fected by magic art, and what was the nature of that thing, Simon began thus to explain it 
to us as his associates. ‘I have,’ said he, ‘made the soul of a boy, unsullied and violently slain, 
and invoked by unutterable adjurations, to assist me; and by it all is done that I command.’ 
‘But,’ said I, ‘is it possible for a soul to do these things?’ He answered: ‘I would have you 
know this, that the soul of man holds the next place after God, when once it is set free from 
the darkness of his body. And immediately it acquires prescience: wherefore it is invoked 
for necromancy.’ Then I answered: ‘Why, then, do not the souls of persons who are slain 
take vengeance on their slayers?’ ‘Do you not remember,’ said he, ‘that I told you, that when 
it goes out of the body it acquires knowledge of the future?’ ‘I remember,’ said I. ‘Well, 
then,’ said he, ‘as soon as it goes out of the body, it immediately knows that there is a judg- 
ment to come, and that every one shall suffer punishment for those evils that he hath done; 
and therefore they are unwilling to take vengeance on their slayers, because they themselves 
are enduring torments for their own evil deeds which they had done here, and they know 
that severer punishments await them in the judgment. Moreover, they are not permitted 
by the angels who preside over them to go out, or to do anything.’ ‘Then,’ I replied, ‘if the 
angels do not permit them to come hither, or to do what they please, how can the souls obey 
the magician who invokes them?’ ‘It is not,’ said he, ‘that they grant indulgence to the souls 
that are willing to come: but when the presiding angels are adjured by one greater than 
themselves, they have the excuse of our violence who adjure them, to permit the souls which 
we invoke to go out: for they do not sin who suffer violence, but we who impose necessity 
upon them.’ Thereupon Niceta, not able longer to refrain, hastily answered, as indeed I also 
was about to do, only I wished first to get information from him on several points; but, as 
I said, Niceta, anticipating me, said: ‘And do you not fear the day of judgment, who do vi- 
olence to angels, and invoke souls, and deceive men, and bargain for divine honour to 
yourself from men? And how do you persuade us that there shall be no judgment, as some 
of the Jews confess, and that souls are not immortal, as many suppose, though you see them 
with your very eyes, and receive from them assurance of the divine judgment?”’ 


227 



Simon Magus, Professes to Be God. 


Chapter XIV. — Simon Magus, Professes to Be God. 

“At those sayings of his Simon grew pale; but after a little, recollecting himself, he thus 
answered: ‘Do not think that I am a man of your race. I am neither magician, nor lover of 
Luna, nor son of Antonius. For before my mother Rachel and he came together, she, still 
a virgin, conceived me, while it was in my power to be either small or great, and to appear 
as a man among men. 610 Therefore I have chosen you first as my friends, for the purpose 
of trying you, that I may place you first in my heavenly and unspeakable places when I shall 
have proved you. Therefore I have pretended to be a man, that I might more clearly ascertain 
if you cherish entire affection towards me.’ But when I heard that, judging him indeed to 
be a wretch, yet wondering at his impudence; and blushing for him, and at the same time 
fearing lest he should attempt some evil against us, I beckoned to Niceta to feign for a little 
along with me, and said to him: ‘Be not angry with us, corruptible men, O thou incorruptible 
God, but rather accept our affection, and our mind willing to know who God is; for we did 
not till now know who thou art, nor did we perceive that thou art he whom we were seeking.’” 


610 [This parody of the miraculous conception is not found in the Homilies. — R.] 


228 



Simon Magus, Professed to Have Made a Boy of Air: 


Chapter XV. — Simon Magus, Professed to Have Made a Boy of Air. 

“As we spoke these and such like words with looks suited to the occasion, this most vain 
fellow believed that we were deceived; and being thereby the more elated, he added also 
this: ‘I shall now be propitious to you, for the affection which you bear towards me as God; 
for you loved me while you did not know me, and were seeking me in ignorance. But I 
would not have you doubt that this is truly to be God, when one is able to become small or 
great as he pleases; for I am able to appear to man in whatever manner I please. Now, then, 
I shall begin to unfold to you what is true. Once on a time, I, by my power, turning air into 
water, and water again into blood, and solidifying it into flesh, formed a new human 
creature — a boy — and produced a much nobler work than God the Creator. For He created 
a man from the earth, but I from air — a far more difficult matter; and again I unmade him 
and restored him to air, but not until I had placed his picture and image in my bed-chamber, 
as a proof and memorial of my work.’ Then we understood that he spake concerning that 
boy, whose soul, after he had been slain by violence, he made use of for those services which 
he required.” 


229 



Simon Magus: Hopelessness of His Case. 


Chapter XVI. — Simon Magus: Hopelessness of His Case. 

But Peter, hearing these things, said with tears : 611 “Greatly do I wonder at the infinite 
patience of God, and, on the other hand, at the audacity of human rashness in some. For 
what further reason can be found to persuade Simon that God judges the unrighteous, since 
he persuades himself that he employs the obedience of souls for the service of his crimes? 
But, in truth, he is deluded by demons. Yet, although he is sure by these very things that 
souls are immortal, and are judged for the deeds which they have done, and although he 
thinks that he really sees those things which we believe by faith; though, as I said, he is de- 
luded by demons, yet he thinks that he sees the very substance of the soul. How shall such 
a man, I say, be brought to confess either that he acts wickedly while he occupies such an 
evil position, or that he is to be judged for those things which he hath done, who, knowing 
the judgment of God, despises it, and shows himself an enemy to God, and dares commit 
such horrid things? Wherefore it is certain, my brethren, that some oppose the truth and 
religion of God, not because it appears to them that reason can by no means stand with 
faith, but because they are either involved in excess of wickedness, or prevented by their 
own evils, or elated by the swelling of their heart, so that they do not even believe those 
things which they think that they see with their own eyes.” 


61 1 [In Homily II. 37-53 the discourse of Peter is quite different and far less worthy. In Homily III. 1-28 a 
similar discourse is given, just before the discussion with Simon, abounding in statements that suggest erroneous 
views of Scripture, and indicate a Gnostic origin. — R.] 


230 



Men Enemies to God. 


Chapter XVII. — Men Enemies to God. 

“But, inasmuch as inborn affection towards God the Creator seemed to suffice for sal- 
vation to those who loved Him, the enemy studies to pervert this affection in men, and to 
render them hostile and ungrateful to their Creator. For I call heaven and earth to witness, 
that if God permitted the enemy to rage as much as he desires, all men should have perished 
long ere now; but for His mercy’s sake God doth not suffer him. But if men would turn 
their affection towards God, all would doubtless be saved, even if for some faults they might 
seem to be corrected for righteousness. But now the most of men have been made enemies 
of God, whose hearts the wicked one has entered, and has turned aside towards himself the 
affection which God the Creator had implanted in them, that they might have it towards 
Him. But of the rest, who seemed for a time to be watchful, the enemy, appearing in a 
phantasy of glory and splendour, and promising them certain great and mighty things, has 
caused their mind and heart to wander away from God; yet it is for some just reason that 
he is permitted to accomplish these things.” 


231 



Responsibility of Men. 


Chapter XVIII. — Responsibility of Men. 

“To this Aquila answered: “How, then, are men in fault, if the wicked one, transforming 

/T1 T 

himself into the brightness of light, promises to men greater things than the Creator 
Himself does?” Then Peter answered: “I think,” says he “that nothing is more unjust than 
this; and now listen while I tell you how unjust it is. If your son, whom you have trained 
and nourished with all care, and brought to man’s estate, should be ungrateful to you, and 
should leave you and go to another, whom perhaps he may have seen to be richer, and 
should show to him the honour which he owed to you, and, through hope of greater profit, 
should deny his birth, and refuse you your paternal rights, would this seem to you right or 
wicked?” Then Aquila answered: “It is manifest to all that it would be wicked.” Then Peter 
said: “If you say that this would be wicked among men, how much more so is it in the case 
of God, who, above all men, is worthy of honour from men; whose benefits we not only 
enjoy, but by whose means and power it is that we began to be when we were not, and whom, 
if we please, we shall obtain from Him to be for ever in blessedness! In order, therefore, 
that the unfaithful maybe distinguished from the faithful, and the pious from the impious, 
it has been permitted to the wicked one to use those arts by which the affections of every 
one towards the true Father may be proved. But if there were in truth some strange God, 
were it right to leave our own God, who created us, and who is our Father and our Maker, 
and to pass over to another?” “God forbid!” said Aquila. Then said Peter: “How, then, 
shall we say that the wicked one is the cause of our sin, when this is done by permission of 
God, that those may be proved and condemned in the day of judgment, who, allured by 
greater promises, have abandoned their duty towards their true Father and Creator; while 
those who have kept the faith and the love of their own Father, even with poverty, if so it 
has befallen, and with tribulation, may enjoy heavenly gifts and immortal dignities in His 
kingdom. But we shall expound these things more carefuhy at another time. Meantime I 
desire to know what Simon did after this.” 


612 2 Cor. xi. 14. 


232 


Disputation Begun. 


Chapter XIX. — Disputation Begun. 

And Niceta answered: “When he perceived that we had found him out, having spoken 
to one another concerning his crimes, we left him, and came to Zacchaeus, telling him those 
same things which we have now told to you. But he, receiving us most kindly, and instructing 
us concerning the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, enrolled us in the number of the faithful.” 
When Niceta had done speaking, Zacchaeus, who had gone out a little before, entered, saying, 
“It is time, O Peter, that you proceed to the disputation; for a great crowd, collected in the 
court of the house, is awaiting you, in the midst of whom stands Simon, supported by many 
attendants.” Then Peter, when he heard this, ordering me to withdraw for the sake of 
prayer (for I had not yet been washed from the sins which I had committed in ignorance), 
said to the rest, “Brethren, let us pray that God, for His unspeakable mercy through His 
Christ, would help me going out on behalf of the salvation of men who have been created 
by Him.” Having said this, and having prayed, he went forth to the court of the house, in 
which a great multitude of people were assembled; and when he saw them all looking intently 
on him in profound silence, and Simon the magician standing in the midst of them like a 
standard-bearer, he began in manner following. 

613 [Three discussions with Simon Magus are detailed in the pseudo-Clementine literature, — one in the Re- 
cognitions, ii. 20-iii. 48; two in the Homilies, iii. 30-58 and xvi.-xix. The differences between these are quite 
remarkable. I. External Differences. — That in the Recognitions is assigned to Caesarea and is represented as 
lasting three days, details of each day’s discussion being given. The earlier one in the Homilies is given the same 
place and time, but it is very brief. The details of the first day alone are mentioned; and it resembles that in the 
Recognitions less than does the later one. This is represented as taking place at Laodicea, and as occupying four 
days. The account is the longest of the three. In its historical setting this discussion has no parallel in the Recog- 
nitions. Faustus, the father of Clement, is made the umpire; and this discussion before him takes the place of 
the discussions with him which occupy so large a part of Recognitions, viii.-x. II. Internal Differences. — Of 
course there are many thoughts common to the discussions; but the treatment is so varied as to form one of the 
most perplexing points in the literary problem. All are somewhat irregular in arrangement, hence an analysis 
is difficult. The discussion in the Recognitions seems to be more ethical and philosophical than those in the 
Homilies; the latter contain more theosophical views. Both of them emphasize the falsehoods of Scripture and 
abound more in sophistries and verbal sword-play. In the Recognitions against Simon’s polytheism and theory 
of an unknown God, Peter opposes the righteousness of God, emphasizing the freedom of the will, discussing 
the existence and origin of evil, reverting to the righteousness of God as proving the immortality of the soul. 
The defeat of Simon is narrated in a peculiar way. The Caesarean discussion in the Homilies is very briefly narrated. 
After the preliminary parley, Simon attacks the God of the Scriptures attributing defects to Him. Peter’s reply, 
while explaining many passages correctly, is largely taken up with a statement of the view of the Scripture pecu- 
liar to the Homilies. This is really the weapon with which Simon is defeated. The discussion, therefore, presents 
few points of resemblance to that in the Recognitions. The Laodicean discussion in the Homilies, covering four 


233 



The Kingdom of God and His Righteousness. 


Chapter XX. — The Kingdom of God and His Righteousness. 

“Peace be to all of you who are prepared to give your right hands to truth : 614 for who- 
soever are obedient to it seem indeed themselves to confer some favour upon God; whereas 
they do themselves obtain from Him the gift of His greatest bounty, walking in His paths 
of righteousness. Wherefore the first duty of all is to inquire into the righteousness of God 
and His kingdom ; 615 His righteousness, that we maybe taught to act rightly; His kingdom, 
that we may know what is the reward appointed for labour and patience; in which kingdom 
there is indeed a bestowal of eternal good things upon the good, but upon those who have 
acted contrary to the will of God, a worthy infliction of penalties in proportion to the doings 
of every one. It becomes you, therefore, whilst you are here, — that is, whilst you are in the 
present life, — to ascertain the will of God, while there is opportunity also of doing it. For 
if any one, before he amends his doings, wishes to investigate concerning things which he 
cannot discover, such investigation will be foolish and ineffectual. For the time is short, 
and the judgment of God shall be occupied with deeds, not questions. Therefore before all 
things let us inquire into this, what or in what manner we must act that we may merit to 
obtain eternal life. 



days, is of a higher character than the preceding. It is not strictly parallel to that in the Recognitions. The 
opening argument is concerning polytheism. To Peter’s monotheism Simon opposes the contradictions of 
Scripture: these Peter explains, including some christological statements which lead to a declaration of the 
nature, name and character of God. On the second day, after some personal discussion, Simon asserts that 
Christ’s teaching differs from that of Peter; the argument reverts to the shape and figure of God. The evidence 
of the senses is urged against fancied revelations, which are attributed to demons. On the third day the question 
of God the Framer of the world is introduced, and His moral character. Peter explains the nature of revelation, 
with some sharp personal thrusts at Simon, but soon reverts to the usual explanation of Scripture. On the fourth 
day the existence of the evil one becomes the prominent topic: the existence of sin is pressed; and the discussion 
closes with a justification of the inequalities of human life, and an expression of judgment against Simon by 
Faustus. Throughout these portions footnotes have been added, to indicate the correspondences of thought in 
the several accounts — R.] 

614 [This opening sentence occurs in the Homilies , but in other parts the discourses differ. This is far more 
dignified and consistent than that in the Homilies, which at once introduces a claim to authority as messenger 
of the Prophet. — R.] 

615 Matt. vi. 33. 


234 


Righteousness the Way to the Kingdom. 


Chapter XXI. — Righteousness the Way to the Kingdom. 

“For if we occupy the short time of this life with vain and useless questions, we shall 
without doubt go into the presence of God empty and void of good works, when, as I have 
said, our works shall be brought into judgment. For everything has its own time and place. 
This is the place, this the time of works; the world to come, that of recompenses. That we 
may not therefore be entangled, by changing the order of places and times, let us inquire, 
in the first place, what is the righteousness of God; so that, like persons going to set out on 
a journey, we may be filled with good works as with abundant provision, so that we may be 
able to come to the kingdom of God, as to a very great city. For to those who think aright, 
God is manifest even by the operations of the world which He hath made, using the evidence 
of His creation ; 616 and therefore, since there ought to be no doubt about God, we have now 
to inquire only about His righteousness and His kingdom. But if our mind suggest to us to 
make any inquiry concerning secret and hidden things before we inquire into the works of 
righteousness, we ought to render to ourselves a reason, because if acting well we shall 
merit to obtain salvation: then, going to God chaste and clean, we shall be filled with the 
Holy Spirit, and shall know all things that are secret and hidden, without any cavilling of 
questions; whereas now, even if any one should spend the whole of his life in inquiring into 
these things, he not only shall not be able to find them, but shall involve himself in greater 
errors, because he did not first enter through the way of righteousness, and strive to reach 
the haven of life.” 


616 Rom. i. 20. 


235 


Righteousness; What It is. 


Chapter XXII. — Righteousness; What It is. 

“And therefore I advise that His righteousness be first inquired into, that, pursuing our 
journey through it, and placed in the way of truth, we may be able to find the true Prophet, 
running not with swiftness of foot, but with goodness of works, and that, enjoying His 
guidance, we may be under no danger of mistaking the way. For if under His guidance we 
shall merit to enter that city to which we desire to come, all things concerning which we 
now inquire we shall see with our eyes, being made, as it were, heirs of all things. Understand, 
therefore, that the way is this course of our life; the travellers are those who do good works; 
the gate is the true Prophet, of whom we speak; the city is the kingdom in which dwells the 
Almighty Father, whom only those can see who are of pure heart. Let us not then think 

the labour of this journey hard, because at the end of it there shall be rest. For the true 
Prophet Himself also from the beginning of the world, through the course of time, hastens 
to rest. For He is present with us at all times; and if at any time it is necessary, He appears 
and corrects us, that He may bring to eternal life those who obey Him. Therefore this is my 
judgment, as also it is the pleasure of the true Prophet, that inquiry should first be made 
concerning righteousness, by those especially who profess that they know God. If therefore 
any one has anything to propose which he thinks better, let him speak; and when he has 
spoken, let him hear, but with patience and quietness: for in order to this at the first, by 
way of salutation, I prayed for peace to you all.” 


617 Matt. v. 8. 


236 


Simon Refuses Peace. 


Chapter XXIII. — Simon Refuses Peace. 

zr i q 

To this Simon answered: “We have no need of your peace; for if there be peace and 

concord, we shall not be able to make any advance towards the discovery of truth. For 
robbers and debauchees have peace among themselves, and every wickedness agrees with 
itself; and if we have met with this view, that for the sake of peace we should give assent to 
all that is said, we shall confer no benefit upon the hearers; but, on the contrary, we shall 
impose upon them, and shall depart friends. Wherefore, do not invoke peace, but rather 
battle, which is the mother of peace; and if you can, exterminate errors. And do not seek 
for friendship obtained by unfair admissions; for this I would have you know, above all, 
that when two fight with each other, then there will be peace when one has been defeated 
and has fallen. And therefore fight as best you can, and do not expect peace without war, 
which is impossible; or if it can be attained, show us how.” 


618 [In Homily III. 38, 39, Simon is represented as at once attacking the Apostle and his monotheism; the 
arguments are, in the main, those given in chap. 39 of this book. Chaps. 23-36 are without a direct parallel in 
the Homilies. — R.] 


237 



Peter's Explanation. 


Chapter XXIV. — Peter’s Explanation. 

To this Peter answered: “Hear with all attention, O men, what we say. Let us suppose 
that this world is a great plain, and that from two states, whose kings are at variance with 
each other, two generals were sent to fight: and suppose the general of the good king gave 
this counsel, that both armies should without bloodshed submit to the authority of the better 
king, whereby all should be safe without danger; but that the opposite general should say, 
No, but we must fight; that not he who is worthy, but who is stronger, may reign, with those 
who shall escape; — which, I ask you, would you rather choose? I doubt not but that you 
would give your hands to the better king, with the safety of all. And I do not now wish, as 
Simon says that I do, that assent should be given, for the sake of peace, to those things that 
are spoken amiss but that truth be sought for with quietness and order. 


238 



Principles on Which the Discussion Should Be Conducted. 


Chapter XXV. — Principles on Which the Discussion Should Be Conducted. 

“For some, in the contest of disputations, when they perceive that their error is confuted, 
immediately begin, for the sake of making good their retreat, to create a disturbance, and 
to stir up strifes, that it may not be manifest to all that they are defeated; and therefore I 
frequently entreat that the investigation of the matter in dispute may be conducted with all 
patience and quietness, so that if perchance anything seem to be not rightly spoken, it may 
be allowed to go back over it, and explain it more distinctly. For sometimes a thing may be 
spoken in one way and heard in another, while it is either advanced too obscurely, or not 
attended to with sufficient care; and on this account I desire that our conversation should 
be conducted patiently, so that neither should the one snatch it away from the other, nor 
should the unseasonable speech of one contradicting interrupt the speech of the other; and 
that we should not cherish the desire of finding fault, but that we should be allowed, as I 
have said, to go over again what has not been clearly enough spoken, that by fairest examin- 
ation the knowledge of the truth may become clearer. For we ought to know, that if any 
one is conquered by the truth, it is not he that is conquered, but the ignorance which is in 
him, which is the worst of all demons; so that he who can drive it out receives the palm of 
salvation. For it is our purpose to benefit the hearers, not that we may conquer badly, but 
that we may be well conquered for the acknowledgment of the truth. For if our speech be 
actuated by the desire of seeking the truth, even although we shall speak anything imperfectly 
through human frailty, God in His unspeakable goodness will fill up secretly in the under- 
standings of the hearers those things that are lacking. For He is righteous; and according 
to the purpose of every one, He enables some to find easily what they seek, while to others 
He renders even that obscure which is before their eyes. Since, then, the way of God is the 
way of peace, let us with peace seek the things which are God’s. If any one has anything to 
advance in answer to this, let him do so; but if there is no one who wishes to answer, I shall 
begin to speak, and I myself shall bring forward what another may object to me, and shall 
refute it.” 


239 



Simon 's Interruption. 


Chapter XXVI. — Simon’s Interruption. 

When therefore Peter had begun to continue his discourse, Simon, interrupting his 
speech, said: “Why do you hasten to speak whatever you please? I understand your tricks. 

You wish to bring forward those matters whose explanation you have well studied, that you 
may appear to the ignorant crowd to be speaking well; but I shall not allow you this subter- 
fuge. Now therefore, since you promise, as a brave man, to answer to all that any one chooses 
to bring forward, be pleased to answer me in the first place.” Then Peter said: “I am ready, 
only provided that our discussion may be with peace.” Then Simon said: “Do not you see, 

O simpleton, that in pleading for peace you act in opposition to your Master, and that what 
you propose is not suitable to him who promises that he will overthrow ignorance? Or, if 
you are right in asking peace from the audience, then your Master was wrong in saying, ‘I 
have not come to send peace on earth, but a sword .’ 619 For either you say well, and he not 
well; or else, if your Master said well, then you not at all well: for you do not understand 
that your statement is contrary to his, whose disciple you profess yourself to be.” 

— u 

105 


619 Matt. x. 34. 


240 


Questions and Answers. 


Chapter XXVII. — Questions and Answers. 

Then Peter: “Neither He who sent me did amiss in sending a sword upon the earth, 
nor do I act contrary to Him in asking peace of the hearers. But you both unskilfully and 
rashly find fault with what you do not understand: for you have heard that the Master came 
not to send peace on earth; but that He also said, ‘Blessed are the peace-makers, for they 
shall be called the very sons of God, you have not heard. Wherefore my sentiments are 
not different from those of the Master when I recommend peace, to the keepers of which 
He assigned blessedness.” Then Simon said: “In your desire to answer for your Master, O 
Peter, you have brought a much more serious charge against him, if he himself came not to 
make peace, yet enjoined upon others to keep it. Where, then, is the consistency of that 
other saying of his, ‘it is enough for the disciple that he be as his master?’” 


620 Matt. v. 9. 


621 Matt. x. 25. 


241 


Consistency of Christ's Teaching. 


Chapter XXVIII. — Consistency of Christ’s Teaching. 

To this Peter answered: “Our Master, who was the true Prophet, and ever mindful of 
Himself, neither contradicted Himself, nor enjoined upon us anything different from what 
Himself practised. For whereas He said, ‘I am not come to send peace on earth, but a sword; 
and henceforth you shall see father separated from son, son from father, husband from wife 
and wife from husband, mother from daughter and daughter from mother, brother from 
brother, father-in-law from daughter-in-law, friend from friend,’ all these contain the doctrine 
of peace; and I will tell you how. At the beginning of His preaching, as wishing to invite 
and lead all to salvation, and induce them to bear patiently labours and trials, He blessed 
the poor, and promised that they should obtain the kingdom of heaven for their endurance 
of poverty, in order that under the influence of such a hope they might bear with equanimity 
the weight of poverty, despising covetousness; for covetousness is one, and the greatest, of 
most pernicious sins. But He promised also that the hungry and the thirsty should be satisfied 
with the eternal blessings of righteousness, in order that they might bear poverty patiently, 
and not be led by it to undertake any unrighteous work. In like manner, also, He said that 
the pure in heart are blessed, and that thereby they should see God, in order that every one 
desiring so great a good might keep himself from evil and polluted thoughts.” 


242 



Peace and Strife. 


Chapter XXIX. — Peace and Strife. 

“Thus, therefore, our Master, inviting His disciples to patience, impressed upon them 
that the blessing of peace was also to be preserved with the labour of patience. But, on the 
other hand, He mourned over those who lived in riches and luxury, who bestowed nothing 
upon the poor; proving that they must render an account, because they did not pity their 
neighbours, even when they were in poverty, whom they ought to love as themselves. And 
by such sayings as these He brought some indeed to obey Him, but others He rendered 
hostile. The believers therefore, and the obedient, He charges to have peace among them- 
selves. and says to them, ‘Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called the very sons 
of God.’ But to those who not only did not believe, but set themselves in opposition to 
His doctrine, He proclaims the war of the word and of confutation, and says that ‘henceforth 
ye shall see son separated from father, and husband from wife, and daughter from mother, 
and brother from brother, and daughter-in-law from mother-in-law, and a man’s foes shall 
be they of his own house. For in every house, when there begins to be a difference betwixt 

believer and unbeliever, there is necessarily a contest: the unbelievers, on the one hand, 
fighting against the faith; and the believers on the other, confuting the old error and the 
vices of sins in them.” 


622 Matt. v. 9. 

623 Matt. x. 35, 36; Luke xii. 53. 


243 


Peace to the Sons of Peace. 


Chapter XXX. — Peace to the Sons of Peace. 

“In like manner, also, during the last period of His teaching, He wages war against the 
scribes and Pharisees, charging them with evil deeds and unsound doctrine, and with hiding 
the key of knowledge which they had handed down to them from Moses, by which the gate 
of the heavenly kingdom might be opened . 624 But when our Master sent us forth to preach, 
He commanded us, that into whatsoever city or house we should enter, we should say, ‘Peace 
be to this house.’ ‘And if,’ said He, ‘a son of peace be there, your peace shall come upon 
him; but if there be not, your peace shall return to you.’ Also that, going out from that house 
or city, we should shake off upon them the very dust which adhered to our feet. ‘But it shall 
be more tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment than for 
that city or house. This indeed He commanded to be done at length, if first the word of 
truth be preached in the city or house, whereby they who receive the faith of the truth may 
become sons of peace and sons of God; and those who will not receive it may be convicted 
as enemies of peace and of God.” 


624 Matt, xxiii.; Luke xi. 

625 Matt. x. 12-15; Luke x. 5, 6. 


244 


Peace and War. 


Chapter XXXI. — Peace and War. 

“Thus, therefore, we, observing the commands of our Master, first offer peace to our 
hearers, that the way of salvation may be known without any tumult. But if any one do not 
receive the words of peace, nor acquiesce in the truth, we know how to direct against him 
the war of the word, and to rebuke him sharply by confuting his ignorance and charging 
home upon him his sins. Therefore of necessity we offer peace, that if any one is a son of 
peace, our peace may come upon him; but from him who makes himself an enemy of peace, 
our peace shall return to ourselves. We do not therefore, as you say, propose peace by 
agreement with the wicked, for indeed we should straightway have given you the right hand; 
but only in order that, through our discussing quietly and patiently, it might be more easily 
ascertained by the hearers which is the true speech. But if you differ and disagree with 
yourself, how shall you stand? He must of necessity fall who is divided in himself; ‘for every 
kingdom divided against itself shall not stand. If you have aught to say to this, say on.” 


626 Matt. xii. 25. 


245 


Simon 's Challenge. 


Chapter XXXII. — Simon’s Challenge. 

Then said Simon: “I am astonished at your folly. For you so propound the words of 
your Master, as if it were held to be certain concerning him that he is a prophet; while I can 
very easily prove that he often contradicted himself. In short, I shall refute you from those 
words which you have yourself brought forward. For you say, that he said that every kingdom 
or every city divided in itself shall not stand; and elsewhere you say, that he said that he 
would send a sword, that he might separate those who are in one house, so that son shall 
be divided from father, daughter from mother, brother from brother; so that if there be five 
in one house, three shall be divided against two, and two against three. If, then, everything 
that is divided falls, he who makes divisions furnishes causes of falling; and if he is such, 
assuredly he is wicked. Answer this if you can.” 


62 7 Luke xii. 51-53. 


246 


Authority. 


Chapter XXXIII. — Authority. 

Then Peter: “Do not rashly take exception, O Simon, against the things which you do 
not understand. In the first place, I shall answer your assertion, that I set forth the words 
of my Master, and from them resolve matters about which there is still doubt. Our Lord, 
when He sent us apostles to preach, enjoined us to teach all nations the things which 
were committed to us. We cannot therefore speak those things as they were spoken by 
Himself. For our commission is not to speak, but to teach those things, and from them to 
show how every one of them rests upon truth. Nor, again, are we permitted to speak anything 
of our own. For we are sent; and of necessity he who is sent delivers the message as he has 
been ordered, and sets forth the will of the sender. For if I should speak anything different 
from what He who sent me enjoined me, I should be a false apostle, not saying what I am 
commanded to say, but what seems good to myself. Whoever does this, evidently wishes 
to show himself to be better than he is by whom he is sent, and without doubt is a traitor. 
If, on the contrary, he keeps by the things that he is commanded, and brings forward most 
clear assertions of them, it will appear that he is accomplishing the work of an apostle; and 
it is by striving to fulfil this that I displease you. Blame me not, therefore, because I bring 
forward the words of Him who sent me. But if there is aught in them that is not fairly 
spoken, you have liberty to confute me; but this can in no wise be done, for He is a prophet, 
and cannot be contrary to Himself. But if you do not think that He is a prophet, let this be 
first inquired into.” 


628 Matt, xxviii. 19, 20. 


247 


Order of Proof. 


Chapter XXXIV. — Order of Proof. 

Then said Simon: “I have no need to learn this from you, but how these things agree 
with one another. For if he shall be shown to be inconsistent, he shall be proved at the same 
time not to be a prophet.” Then says Peter: “But if I first show Him to be a prophet, it will 
follow that what seems to be inconsistency is not such. For no one can be proved to be a 
prophet merely by consistency, because it is possible for many to attain this; but if consistency 
does not make a prophet, much more inconsistency does not. Because, therefore, there are 
many things which to some seem inconsistent, which yet have consistency in them on a 
more profound investigation; as also other things which seem to have consistency, but 
which, being more carefully discussed, are found to be inconsistent; for this reason I do not 
think there is any better way to judge of these things than to ascertain in the first instance 
whether He be a prophet who has spoken those things which appear to be inconsistent. For 
it is evident that, if He be found a prophet, those things which seem to be contradictory 
must have consistency, but are misunderstood. Concerning these things, therefore, proofs 
will be properly demanded. For we apostles are sent to expound the sayings and affirm the 
judgments of Him who has sent us; but we are not commissioned to say anything of our 
own, but to unfold the truth, as I have said, of His words.” 


248 



How Error Cannot Stand with Truth. 


Chapter XXXV. — How Error Cannot Stand with Truth. 

Then Simon said: “Instruct us, therefore, how it can be consistent that he who causes 
divisions, which divisions cause those who are divided to fall, can either seem to be good, 
or to have come for the salvation of men.” Then Peter said: “I will tell you how our Master 
said that every kingdom and every house divided against itself cannot stand; and whereas 
He Himself did this, see how it makes for salvation. By the word of truth He certainly divides 
the kingdom of the world, which is founded in error, and every home in it, that error may 
fall, and truth may reign. But if it happen to any house, that error, being introduced by any 
one, divides the truth, then, where error has gained a footing, it is certain that truth cannot 
stand.” Then Simon said: “But it is uncertain whether your master divides error or truth.” 
Then Peter: “That belongs to another question; but if you are agreed that everything which 
is divided falls, it remains that I show, if only you will hear in peace, that our Jesus has divided 
and dispelled error by teaching truth.” 


249 



Altercation. 


Chapter XXXVI. — Altercation. 

Then said Simon: “Do not repeat again and again your talk of peace, but expound briefly 
what it is that you think or believe.” Peter answered: “Why are you afraid of hearing fre- 
quently of peace? for do you not know that peace is the perfection of law? For wars and 
disputes spring from sins; and where there is no sin, there is peace of soul; but where there 
is peace, truth is found in disputations, righteousness in works.” Then Simon: “You seem 
to me not to be able to profess what you think.” Then Peter: “I shall speak, but according 
to my own judgment, not under constraint of your tricks. For I desire that what is salutary 
and profitable be brought to the knowledge of all and therefore I shall not delay to state it 
as briefly as possible. There is one God; and He is the creator of the world, a righteous judge, 
rendering to every one at some time or other according to his deeds. But now for the 
assertion of these things I know that countless thousands of words can be called forth.” 


629 [The discussion in the Homilies is represented as virtually beginning with this statement of the Apostle; 
comp. Homily III. 37. The arguments here, however, are given with greater detail. — R.] 


250 



Simon 's Subtlety. 


Chapter XXXVII. — Simon’s Subtlety. 

Then Simon said: “I admire, indeed, the quickness of your wit, yet I do not embrace 
the error of your faith. For you have wisely foreseen that you may be contradicted; and you 
have even politely confessed, that for the assertion of these things countless thousands of 
words will be called forth, for no one agrees with the profession of your faith. In short, as 
to there being one God, and the world being His work, who can receive this doctrine? 
Neither, I think, any one of the Pagans, even if he be an unlearned man, and certainly no 
one of the philosophers; but not even the rudest and most wretched of the Jews, nor I myself, 
who am well acquainted with their law.” Then Peter said: “Put aside the opinions of those 
who are not here, and tell us face to face what is your own.” Then Simon said: “I can state 
what I really think; but this consideration makes me reluctant to do so, that if I say what is 
neither acceptable to you, nor seems right to this unskilled rabble, you indeed, as confounded, 
will straightway shut your ears, that they may not be polluted with blasphemy, forsooth, 
and will take to flight because you cannot find an answer; while the unreasoning populace 
will assent to you, and embrace you as one teaching those things which are commonly re- 
ceived among them; and will curse me, as professing things new and unheard of, and instilling 
my error into the minds of others.” 


251 



Simon's Creed. 


Chapter XXXVIII. — Simon’s Creed. 

Then Peter: “Are not you making use of long preambles, as you accused us of doing, 
because you have no truth to bring forward? For if you have, begin without circumlocution, 
if you have so much confidence. And if, indeed, what you say be displeasing to any one of 
the hearers, he will withdraw; and those who remain shall be compelled by your assertion 
to approve what is true. Begin, therefore, to expound what seemeth to you to be right.” 
Then Simon said: “I say that there are many gods; but that there is one incomprehensible 
and unknown to all, and that He is the God of all these gods.” Then Peter answered: “This 
God whom you assert to be incomprehensible and unknown to all, can you prove His exist- 

cm 

ence from the Scriptures of the Jews, which are held to be of authority, or from some 

others of which we are all ignorant, or from the Greek authors, or from your own writings? 
Certainly you are at liberty to speak from whatever writings you please, yet so that you first 
show that they are prophetic; for so their authority will be held without question.” 


630 [In both the Recognitions and the Homilies the contest turns upon the monotheistic teaching of the Old 
Testament and the supreme Deity of Jehovah. This is rightly regarded as an evidence of Ebionitic origin. But 
Gnostic elements enter again and again. — R.] 


252 



Argument for Polytheism. 


Chapter XXXIX. — Argument for Polytheism. 

Then Simon said: “I shall make use of assertions from the law of the Jews only. For it 
is manifest to all who take interest in religion, that this law is of universal authority, yet that 
every one receives the understanding of this law according to his own judgment. For it has 
so been written by Him who created the world, that the faith of things is made to depend 
upon it. Whence, whether any one wishes to bring forward truth, or any one to bring forward 
falsehood, no assertion will be received without this law. Inasmuch, therefore, as my 
knowledge is most fully in accordance with the law, I rightly declared that there are many 
gods, of whom one is more eminent than the rest, and incomprehensible, even He who is 
God of gods. But that there are many gods, the law itself informs me. For, in the first place, 
it says this in the passage where one in the figure of a serpent speaks to Eve, the first woman, 

/CO 1 

‘On the day ye eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, ye shall be as gods, that 

is, as those who made man; and after they have tasted of the tree, God Himself testifies, 

/COO 

saying to the rest of the gods, ‘Behold, Adam is become as one of us;’ thus, therefore, it 
is manifest that there were many gods engaged in the making of man. Also, whereas at the 

/TOO 

first God said to the other gods, ‘Let us make man after our image and likeness; also His 
saying, ‘Let us drive him out ;’ 634 and again, ‘Come, let us go down, and confound their 
language; all these things indicate that there are many gods. But this also is written, 
‘Thou shalt not curse the gods, nor curse the chief of thy people; and again this writing, 
‘God alone led them, and there was no strange god with them,’ shows that there are many 
gods. There are also many other testimonies which might be adduced from the law, not 

/TOO 

only obscure, but plain, by which it is taught that there are many gods. One of these was 
chosen by lot, that he might be the god of the Jews. But it is not of him that I speak, but of 
that God who is also his God, whom even the Jews themselves did not know. For he is not 
their God, but the God of those who know him.” 


631 

Gen. iii. 5. 

632 

Gen. iii. 22. 

633 

Gen. i. 26. 

634 

Gen. iii. 22. 

635 

Gen. xi. 7. 

636 

Exod. xxii. 28. 

637 

Deut. xxxii. 12. 

638 

[Compare Homily XVI. 6. — R. 


253 


Peter's Answer. 


Chapter XL. — Peter’s Answer. 

When Peter had heard this, he answered: “Fear nothing, Simon: for, behold, we have 
neither shut our ears, nor fled; but we answer with words of truth to those things which you 
have spoken falsely, asserting this first, that there is one God, even the God of the Jews, who 
is the only God, the Creator of heaven and earth, who is also the God of all those whom you 
call gods. If, then, I shall show you that none is superior to Him, but that He Himself is 
above all, you will confess that your error is above all.” Then Simon said: “Why, indeed, 
though I should be unwilling to confess it, would not the hearers who stand by charge me 
with unwillingness to profess the things that are true?” 


639 [The reply of Peter here is of a higher character than that given in the Homilies (see iii. 40, etc.). Indeed, 
the report of the entire discussion in the Recognitions shows a superior conception of the Apostle. — R.] 


254 



The Answer, Continued. 


Chapter XLI. — The Answer, Continued. 

“Listen, then,” says Peter, “that you may know, first of all, that even if there are many 
gods, as you say, they are subject to the God of the Jews, to whom no one is equal, than 
whom no one can be greater; for it is written that the prophet Moses thus spoke to the Jews: 
‘The Lord your God is the God of gods, and the Lord of lords, the great God .’ 640 Thus, al- 
though there are many that are called gods, yet He who is the God of the Jews is alone called 
the God of gods. For not every one that is called God is necessarily God. Indeed, even 
Moses is called a god to Pharaoh , 641 and it is certain that he was a man; and judges were 
called gods, and it is evident that they were mortal. The idols also of the Gentiles are called 
gods, and we all know that they are not; but this has been inflicted as a punishment on the 
wicked, that because they would not acknowledge the true God, they should regard as God 
whatever form or image should occur to them. Because they refused to receive the knowledge 
of the One who, as I said, is God of all, therefore it is permitted to them to have as gods 
those who can do nothing for their worshippers. For what can either dead images or living 
creatures confer upon men, since the power of all things is with One? 


640 Deut. x. 17. 

641 Exod. vii. 1. 


255 


Guardian Angels. 


Chapter XLII. — Guardian Angels. 

“Therefore the name God is applied in three ways : 642 either because he to whom it is 
given is truly God, or because he is the servant of him who is truly; and for the honour of 
the sender, that his authority may be full, he that is sent is called by the name of him who 
sends, as is often done in respect of angels: for when they appear to a man, if he is a wise 
and intelligent man, he asks the name of him who appears to him, that he may acknowledge 
at once the honour of the sent, and the authority of the sender. For every nation has an 
angel, to whom God has committed the government of that nation; and when one of these 
appears, although he be thought and called God by those over whom he presides, yet, being 
asked, he does not give such testimony to himself. For the Most High God, who alone holds 
the power of all things, has divided all the nations of the earth into seventy-two parts, and 
over these He hath appointed angels as princes. But to the one among the archangels who 
is greatest, was committed the government of those who, before all others, received the 
worship and knowledge of the Most High God. But holy men also, as we have said, are 
made gods to the wicked, as having received the power of life and death over them, as we 
mentioned above with respect to Moses and the judges. Wherefore it is also written con- 
cerning them, ‘Thou shalt not curse the gods, and thou shalt not curse the prince of thy 
people .’ 643 Thus the princes of the several nations are called gods. But Christ is God of 
princes, who is Judge of all. Therefore neither angels, nor men, nor any creature, can be 
truly gods, forasmuch as they are placed under authority, being created and changeable: 
angels, for they were not, and are; men, for they are mortal; and every creature, for it is 
capable of dissolution, if only He dissolve it who made it. And therefore He alone is the 
true God, who not only Himself lives, but also bestows life upon others, which He can also 
take away when it pleaseth Him. 


642 [This remarkable chapter is peculiar to the Recognitions. The angelology seems to be Ebionitic, rather 
than Gnostic. — R.] 

643 Exod. xxii. 28. 


256 


No God But Jehovah. 


Chapter XLIII. — No God But Jehovah. 

“Wherefore the Scripture exclaims in name of the God of the Jews, saying, ‘Behold, be- 
hold, seeing that I am God, and there is none else besides me, I will kill, and I will make 
alive; I will smite, and I will heal; and there is none who can deliver out of my hands .’ 644 
See therefore how, by some ineffable virtue, the Scripture, opposing the future errors of 
those who should affirm that either in heaven or on earth there is any other god besides 
Him who is the God of the Jews, decides thus: ‘The Lord your God is one God, in heaven 
above, and in the earth beneath; and besides Him there is none else .’ 645 How, then, hast 
thou dared to say that there is any other God besides Him who is the God of the Jews? And 
again the Scripture says, ‘Behold, to the Lord thy God belong the heaven, and the heaven 
of heavens, the earth, and all things that are in them: nevertheless I have chosen your fathers, 
that I might love them, and you after them .’ 646 Thus that judgment is supported by the 
Scripture on every side, that He who created the world is the true and only God. 


644 Deut. xxxii. 39. 

645 Deut. iv. 39. 

646 Deutx. 14, 15. 


257 


The Serpent, the Author of Polytheism. 


Chapter XLIV. — The Serpent, the Author of Polytheism. 

“But even if there be others, as we have said, who are called gods, they are under the 
power of the God of the Jews; for thus saith the Scripture to the Jews, ‘The Lord our God, 
He is God of gods, and Lord of lords .’ 647 Him alone the Scripture also commands to be 

fZAQ 

worshipped, saying, ‘Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve; 
and, ‘Hear, O Israel: the Lord thy God is one God .’ 649 Yea, also the saints, filled with the 
Spirit of God, and bedewed with the drops of His mercy, cried out, saying, ‘Who is like unto 
Thee among the gods? O Lord, who is like unto Thee ?’ 650 And again, ‘Who is God, but the 
Lord; and who is God, but our Lord ?’ 651 Therefore Moses, when he saw that the people 
were advancing, by degrees initiated them in the understanding of the monarchy and the 
faith of one God, as he says in the following words: ‘Thou shalt not make mention of the 
names of other gods; doubtless remembering with what penalty the serpent was visited, 

which had first namedgods. For it is condemned to feed upon dust, and is judged worthy 

of such food, for this cause, that it first of all introduced the name of gods into the world. 
But if you also wish to introduce many gods, see that you partake not the serpent’s doom. 


647 Deut. x. 17. 

648 Deut. vi. 13, x. 20. 

649 Deut. vi. 4. 

650 Ps. lxxxvi. 8; lxxi. 19. 

651 Ps. xviii. 31. 

652 Josh, xxiii. 7, in Sept. 

653 Gen. iii. [The same thought occurs in Homily X. 10, 11 — R.] 


258 


Polytheism Inexcusable. 


Chapter XLV. — Polytheism Inexcusable. 

“For be sure of this, that you shall not have us participators in this attempt; nor will we 
suffer ourselves to be deceived by you. For it will not serve us for an excuse in the judgment, 
if we say that you deceived us; because neither could it excuse the first woman, that she had 
unhappily believed the serpent; but she was condemned to death, because she believed 
badly. For this cause therefore, Moses, also commending the faith of one God to the people, 
says, ‘Take heed to thyself, that thou be not seduced from the Lord thy God .’ 654 Observe 
that he makes use of the same word which the first woman also made use of in excusing 
herself, saying that she was seduced; but it profited her nothing. But over and above all this, 
even if some true prophet should arise, who should perform signs and miracles, but should 
wish to persuade us to worship other gods besides the God of the Jews, we should never be 
able to believe him. For so the divine law has taught us, handing down a secret injunction 
more purely by means of tradition, for thus it saith: ‘If there arise among you a prophet, or 
one dreaming a dream, and give you signs or wonders, and these signs or wonders come to 
pass, and he say to you, Let us go and worship strange gods, whom ye know not; ye shall 
not hear the words of that prophet, nor the dream of that dreamer, because proving he hath 
proved you, that he may see if ye love the Lord your God .’ 655 


654 Deut.viii.il. 


655 Deut. xiii. 1-3. 


259 


Christ Acknowledged the God of the Jews. 


Chapter XLVI. — Christ Acknowledged the God of the Jews. 

“Wherefore also our Lord, who wrought signs and wonders, preached the God of the 
Jews; and therefore we are right in believing what He preached. But as for you, even if you 
were really a prophet, and performed signs and wonders, as you promise to do, if you were 
to announce other gods besides Him who is the true God, it would be manifest that you 
were raised up as a trial to the people of God; and therefore you can by no means be believed. 
For He alone is the true God, who is the God of the Jews; and for this reason our Lord Jesus 
Christ did not teach them that they must inquire after God, for Him they knew well already, 
but that they must seek His kingdom and righteousness , 656 which the scribes and Pharisees, 

f.tZH 

having received the key of knowledge, had not shut in, but shut out. For if they had been 

ignorant of the true God, surely He would never have left the knowledge of this thing, which 
was the chief of all, and blamed them for small and little things, as for enlarging their fringes, 
and claiming the uppermost rooms in feasts, and praying standing in the highways, and 
such like things; which assuredly, in comparison of this great charge, ignorance of God, 
seem to be small and insignificant matters.” 


656 Matt. vi. 33. 

657 Luke xi. 52. 


260 


Simon's Cavil. 


Chapter XLVII. — Simon’s Cavil. 

/rr o 

To this Simon replied: “From the words of your master I shall refute you, because 

even he introduces to all men a certain God who was known. For although both Adam 
knew the God who was his creator, and the maker of the world; and Enoch knew him, 
inasmuch as he was translated by him; and Noah, since he was ordered by him to construct 
the ark; and although Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and Moses, and all, even every people 
and all nations, know the maker of the world, and confess him to be a God, yet your Jesus, 
who appeared long after the patriarchs, says: ‘No one knows the Son, but the Father; neither 
knoweth any one the Father, but the Son, and he to whom the Son has been pleased to reveal 
Him .’ 659 Thus, therefore, even your Jesus confesses that there is another God, incompre- 
hensible and unknown to all.” 


658 [Compare Homily XVII. 4. — R.] 

659 Matt. xi. 27. [Comp. Luke x. 22. This objection is given in Homilies XVII. 4, XVIII. 4. — R.] 


261 


Peter's Answer. 


Chapter XLVIII. — Peter’s Answer. 

Then Peter says: “You do not perceive that you are making statements in opposition 
to yourself. For if our Jesus also knows Him whom ye call the unknown God, then He is 
not known by you alone. Yea, if our Jesus knows Him, then Moses also, who prophesied 
that Jesus should come, assuredly could not himself be ignorant of Him. For he was a 
prophet; and he who prophesied of the Son doubtless knew the Father. For if it is in the 
option of the Son to reveal the Father to whom He will, then the Son, who has been with 
the Father from the beginning, and through all generations, as He revealed the Father to 
Moses, so also to the other prophets; but if this be so, it is evident that the Father has not 
been unknown to any of them. But how could the Father be revealed to you, who do not 
believe in the Son, since the Father is known to none except him to whom the Son is pleased 
to reveal Him? But the Son reveals the Father to those who honour the Son as they honour 
the Father .” 660 


660 John v. 23. 


262 


The Supreme Light. 


Chapter XLIX. — The Supreme Light. 

Then Simon said: “Remember that you said that God has a son, which is doing Him 
wrong; for how can He have a son, unless He is subject to passions, like men or animals? 
But on these points there is not time now to show your profound folly, for I hasten to make 
a statement concerning the immensity of the supreme light; and so now listen. My opinion 
is, that there is a certain power of immense and ineffable light, whose greatness maybe held 
to be incomprehensible, of which power even the maker of the world is ignorant, and Moses 
the lawgiver, and Jesus your master .” 661 


661 This chapter presents the topic which is made the main point in a subsequent discussion with Simon; see 
Homily XVIII. — R.] 


263 



Simon 's Presumption. 


Chapter L. — Simon’s Presumption. 

Then Peter: “Does it not seem to you to be madness, that any one should take upon 

himself to assert that there is another God than the God of all; and should say that he supposes 
there is a certain power, and should presume to affirm this to others, before he himself is 
sure of what he says? Is any one so rash as to believe your words, of which he sees that you 
are yourself doubtful, and to admit that there is a certain power unknown to God the Creator, 
and to Moses, and the prophets, and the law, and even to Jesus our Master, which power is 
so good, that it will not make itself known to any but to one only, and that one such an one 
as thou! Then, further, if that is a new power, why does it not confer upon us some new 
sense, in addition to those five which we possess, that by that new sense, bestowed upon us 
by it, we may be able to receive and understand itself which is new? Or if it cannot bestow 
such a sense upon us, how has it bestowed it upon you? Or if it has revealed itself to you, 
why not also to us? But if you of yourself understand things which not even the prophets 
were able to perceive or understand, come, tell us what each one of us is thinking now; for 
if there is such a spirit in you that you know those things which are above the heavens, which 
are unknown to all, and incomprehensible by all, much more easily do you know the thoughts 
of men upon the earth. But if you cannot know the thoughts of us who are standing here, 
how can you say that you know those things which, you assert, are known to none?” 



662 [With chaps. 50, 51, comp. Homily XVII. 13, etc. — R.] 


264 



The Sixth Sense. 


Chapter LI. — The Sixth Sense. 

“But believe me, that you could never know what light is unless you had received both 
vision and understanding from light itself; so also in other things. Hence, having received 
understanding, you are framing in imagination something greater and more sublime, as if 
dreaming, but deriving all your hints from those five senses, to whose Giver you are unthank- 
ful. But be sure of this, that until you find some new sense which is beyond those five which 
we all enjoy, you cannot assert the existence of a new God.” Then Simon answered: “Since 
all things that exist are in accordance with those five senses, that power which is more excel- 
lent than all cannot add anything new.” Then Peter said: “It is false; for there is also a sixth 
sense, namely that of foreknowledge: for those five senses are capable of knowledge, but 
the sixth is that of foreknowledge: and this the prophets possessed. How, then, can you 
know a God who is unknown to all, who do not know the prophetic sense, which is that of 
prescience?” Then Simon began to say: “This power of which I speak, incomprehensible 
and more excellent than all, ay, even than that God who made the world, neither any of the 
angels has known, nor of the demons, nor of the jews, nay, nor any creature which subsists 
by means of God the creator. How, then, could that creator’s law teach me that which the 
creator himself did not know, since neither did the law itself know it, that it might teach it?” 


265 



Reductio Ad Absurdum. 


Chapter LII. — Reductio Ad Absurdum 

Then Peter said: “I wonder how you have been able to learn more from the law than 
the law was able to know or to teach; and how you say that you adduce proofs from the law 
of those things which you are pleased to assert, when you declare that neither the law, nor 
He who gave the law — that is, the Creator of the world — knows those things of which you 
speak! But this also I wonder at, how you, who alone know these things, should be standing 
here now with us all, circumscribed by the limits of this small court.” Then Simon, seeing 
Peter and all the people laughing, said: “Do you laugh, Peter, while so great and lofty matters 
are under discussion?” Then said Peter: “Be not enraged, Simon, for we are doing no more 
than keeping our promise: for we are neither shutting our ears, as you said, nor did we take 
to flight as soon as we heard you propound your unutterable things; but we have not even 
stirred from the place. For indeed you do not even propound things that have any resemb- 
lance to truth, which might to a certain extent frighten us. Yet, at all events, disclose to us 
the meaning of this saying, how from the law you have learned of a God whom the law itself 
does not know, and of whom He who gave the law is ignorant.” Then Simon said: “If you 
have done laughing, I shall prove it by clear assertions.” Then Peter said: “Assuredly I shall 
give over, that I may learn from you how you have learned from the law what neither the 
law nor the God of the law Himself knows.” 


266 



Simon 's Blasphemy. 


Chapter LIII. — Simon’s Blasphemy. 

Then says Simon: “Listen: it is manifest to all, and ascertained in a manner of which 
no account can be given, that there is one God, who is better than all, from whom all that 
is took its beginning; whence also of necessity, all things that are after him are subject to 
him, as the chief and most excellent of all. When, therefore, I had ascertained that the God 
who created the world, according to what the law teaches, is in many respects weak, 
whereas weakness is utterly incompatible with a perfect God, and I saw that he is not perfect, 
I necessarily concluded that there is another God who is perfect . 664 For this God, as I have 
said, according to what the writing of the law teaches, is shown to be weak in many things. 
In the first place, because the man whom he formed was not able to remain such as he had 
intended him to be; and because he cannot be good who gave a law to the first man, that he 
should eat of all the trees of paradise, but that he should not touch the tree of knowledge; 
and if he should eat of it, he should die. For why should he forbid him to eat, and to know 
what is good and what evil, that, knowing, he might shun the evil and choose the good? 
But this he did not permit; and because he did eat in violation of the commandment, and 
discovered what is good, and learned for the sake of honour to cover his nakedness (for he 
perceived it to be unseemly to stand naked before his Creator), he condemns to death him 
who had learned to do honour to God, and curses the serpent who had shown him these 
things. But truly, if man was to be injured by this means, why did he place the cause of injury 
in paradise at all? But if that which he placed in paradise was good, it is not the part of one 
that is good to restrain another from good.” 


663 We render by a periphrasis the expression ineffabili quadam ratione compertum. The meaning seems to 
be, that the belief of the existence and unity of God is not the result of reasoning, but of intuition or instinct. 

664 [The argument of Simon here differs from that represented in Homilies XVII. , XVIII. There Simon asserts 
that the Framer of the world is not the highest God, because He is not both just and good. Comp, also book iii. 
37, 38.— R.] 


267 



How Simon Learned from the Law What the Law Does Not Teach. 


Chapter LIV. — How Simon Learned from the Law What the Law Does Not Teach. 

“Thus then, since he who made man and the world is, according to what the law relates, 
imperfect, we are given to understand, without doubt, that there is another who is perfect. 
For it is of necessity that there be one most excellent of all, on whose account also every 
creature keeps its rank. Whence also I, knowing that it is every way necessary that there be 
some one more benignant and more powerful than that imperfect God who gave the law, 
understanding what is perfect from comparison of the imperfect, understood even from 
the Scripture that God who is not mentioned there. And in this way I was able, O Peter, to 
learn from the law what the law did not know. But even if the law had not given indications 
from which it might be gathered that the God who made the world is imperfect, it was still 
possible for me to infer from those evils which are done in this world, and are not corrected, 
either that its creator is powerless, if he cannot correct what is done amiss; or else, if he does 
not wish to remove the evils, that he is himself evil; but if he neither can nor will, that he is 
neither powerful nor good. And from this it cannot but be concluded that there is another 
God more excellent and more powerful than all. If you have aught to say to this, say on.” 


268 



Simon 's Objections Turned Against Himself. 


Chapter LV. — Simon’s Objections Turned Against Himself. 

Peter answered: “O Simon, they are wont to conceive such absurdities against God who 
do not read the law with the instruction of masters, but account themselves teachers, and 
think that they can understand the law, though he has not explained it to them who has 
learned of the Master . 665 Nevertheless now, that we also may seem to follow the book of 
the law according to your apprehension of it; inasmuch as you say that the creator of the 
world is shown to be both impotent and evil, how is it that you do not see that that power 
of yours, which you say is superior to all, fails and lies under the very same charges? For 
the very same thing may be said of it, that it is either powerless, since it does not correct 
those things which here are done amiss; or if it can and will not, it is evil; or if it neither can 
nor will, then it is both impotent and imperfect. Whence that new power of yours is not 
only found liable to a similar charge, but even to a worse one, if, in addition to all these 
things, it is believed to be, when it is not. For He who created the world, His existence is 
manifest by His very operation in creating the world, as you yourself also confess. But this 
power which you say that you alone know, affords no indication of itself, by which we might 
perceive, at least, that it is, and subsists.” 


665 [The attitude of the Apostle Peter toward the Old Testament is differentiy represented in the Homilies , 
where false views are admitted to exist in the Scriptures. Comp. Homilies II. 38, 40, 41, 51, III. 4, 5, etc. — R.] 

269 



No God Above the Creator. 


Chapter LVI. — No God Above the Creator. 

“What kind of conduct, then, would it be that we should forsake God, in whose world 
we live and enjoy all things necessary for life, and follow I know not whom, from whom we 
not only obtain no good, but cannot even know that he exists? Nor truly does he exist. For 
whether you call him light, and brighter than that light which we see, you borrow that very 
name from the Creator of the world; or whether you say that he is a substance above all, 
you derive from Him the idea with enlargement of speech . 666 Whether you make mention 
of mind, or goodness, or life, or whatever else, you borrow the words from Him. Since, 
then, you have nothing new concerning that power you speak of, not only as regards under- 
standing, but even in respect of naming him, how do you introduce a new God, for whom 
you cannot even find a new name? For not only is the Creator of the world called a Power, 
but even the ministers of His glory, and all the heavenly host. Do you not then think it 
better that we should follow our Creator God, as a Father who trains us and endows us as 
He knows how? But if, as you say, there be some God more benignant than all, it is certain 
that he will not be angry with us; or if he be angry, he is evil. For if our God is angry and 
punishes, He is not evil, but righteous, for He corrects and amends His own sons. But he 
who has no concern with us, if he shall punish us, how should he be good? Inflicting pun- 
ishments upon us because we have not been drawn by vain imaginations to forsake our own 
Father and follow him, how can you assert that he is so good, when he cannot be regarded 
as even just?” 


666 That is, you take the idea of substance from the God of the Jews, and only enlarge it by the addition of 
the words above all. 


270 



Simon 's Inconsistency. 


Chapter LVII. — Simon’s Inconsistency. 

Then Simon: “Do you so far err, Peter, as not to know that our souls were made by that 
good God, the most excellent of all, but they have been brought down as captives into this 
world?” To this Peter answered: “Then he is not unknown by all, as you said a little while 
ago; and yet how did the good God permit his souls to be taken captive, if he be a power 
over all?” Then Simon said: “He sent God the creator to make the world; and he, when he 
had made it, gave out that himself was God.” Then Peter said: “Then he is not, as you said, 
unknown to Him who made the world; nor are souls ignorant of him, if indeed they were 
stolen away from him. To whom, then, can he be unknown, if both the Creator of the world 
know him, as having been sent by him; and all souls know him, as having been violently 
withdrawn from him? Then, further, I wish you would tell us whether he who sent the 
creator of the world did not know that he would not keep faith? For if he did not know it, 
then he was not prescient; while if he foreknew it, and suffered it, he is himself guilty of this 
deed, since he did not prevent it; but if he could not, then he is not omnipotent. But if, 
knowing it as good, he did not prohibit it, he is found to be better, who presumed to do that 
which he who sent him did not know to be good.” 


271 



Simon's God Unjust. 


Chapter LVIII. — Simon’s God Unjust. 

Then Simon said: “He receives those who will come to him, and does them good.” 
Peter answered: “But there is nothing new in this; for He whom you acknowledge to be the 
Creator of the world also does so.” Then Simon: “But the good God bestows salvation if 
he is only acknowledged; but the creator of the world demands also that the law be fulfilled.” 
Then said Peter: “He saves adulterers and men-slayers, if they know him; but good, and 
sober, and merciful persons, if they do not know him, in consequence of their having no 
information concerning him, he does not save! Great and good truly is he whom you pro- 
claim, who is not so much the saviour of the evil, as he is one who shows no mercy to the 
good.” Then Simon: “It is truly very difficult for man to know him, as long as he is in the 
flesh; for blacker than all darkness, and heavier than all clay, is this body with which the 
soul is surrounded.” Then says Peter: “That good God of yours demands things which are 
difficult; but He who is truly God seeks easier things. Let him then, since he is so good, 
leave us with our Father and Creator; and when once we depart from the body, and leave 
that darkness that you speak of, we shall more easily know Him; and then the soul shall 
better understand that God is its Creator, and shall remain with Him, and shall no more be 
harassed with diverse imaginations; nor shall wish to betake itself to another power, which 
is known to none but Simon only, and which is of such goodness that no one can come to 
it, unless he be first guilty of impiety towards his own father! I know not how this power 
can be called either good or just, which no one can please except by acting impiously towards 
him by whom he was made!” 


272 



The Creator Our Father. 


Chapter LIX. — The Creator Our Father. 

Then Simon: “It is not impious for the sake of greater profit and advantage to flee to 
him who is of richer glory.” Then Peter: “If, as you say, it is not impious to flee to a stranger, 
it is at all events much more pious to remain with our own father, even if he be poor. But 
if you do not think it impious to leave our father, and flee to another, as being better than 
he; and you do not believe that our Creator will take this amiss; much more the good God 
will not be angry, because, when we were strangers to him, we have not fled to him, but 
have remained with our own Creator. Yea, I think he will rather commend us the more for 
this, that we have kept faith with God our Creator; for he will consider that, if we had been 
his creatures, we should never have been seduced by the allurements of any other to forsake 
him. For if any one, allured by richer promises, shall leave his own father and betake himself 
to a stranger, it may be that he will leave him in his turn, and go to another who shall 
promise him greater things, and this the rather because he is not his son, since he could 
leave even him who by nature was his father.” Then Simon said: “But what if souls are from 
him, and do not know him, and he is truly their father?” 

— ^1 

114 


273 



The Creator the Supreme God. 


Chapter LX. — The Creator the Supreme God. 

Then Peter said: “You represent him as weak enough. For if, as you say, he is more 
powerful than all, it can never be believed the weaker wrenched the spoils from the 
stronger. Or if God the Creator was able by violence to bring down souls into this world, 

how can it be that, when they are separated from the body and freed from the bonds of 
captivity, the good God shall call them to the sufferance of punishment, on the ground that 
they, either through his remissness or weakness, were dragged away to this place, and were 
involved in the body, as in the darkness of ignorance? You seem to me not to know what 
a father and a God is: but I could tell you both whence souls are, and when and how they 
were made; but it is not permitted to me now to disclose these things to you, who are in 
such error in respect of the knowledge of God.” Then said Simon: “A time will come when 
you shall be sorry that you did not understand me speaking of the ineffable power.” Then 
said Peter: “Give us then, as I have often said, as being yourself a new God, or as having 
yourself come down from him, some new sense, by means of which we may know that new 
God of whom you speak; for those five senses, which God our Creator has given us, keep 
faith to their own Creator, and do not perceive that there is any other God, for so their 
nature necessitates them.” 


667 Luke xi. 22. 


274 


Imagination. 


Chapter LXI. — Imagination. 

To this Simon answered: “Apply your mind to those things which I am going to say, 
and cause it, walking in peaceable paths, to attain to those things which I shall demonstrate. 
Listen now, therefore. Did you never in thought reach forth your mind into regions or islands 
situated far away, and remain so fixed in them, that you could not even see the people that 
were before you, or know where yourself were sitting, by reason of the delightfulness of 
those things on which you were gazing?” And Peter said: “It is true, Simon, this has often 
occurred to me.” Then Simon said: “In this way now reach forth your sense into heaven, 
yea above the heaven, and behold that there must be some place beyond the world, or outside 
the world, in which there is neither heaven nor earth, and where no shadow of these things 
produces darkness; and consequently, since there are neither bodies in it, nor darkness oc- 
casioned by bodies, there must of necessity be immense light; and consider of what sort that 
light must be, which is never succeeded by darkness. For if the light of this sun fills this 
whole world, how great do you suppose that bodiless and infinite light to be? So great, 
doubtless, that this light of the sun would seem to be darkness and not light, in comparison.” 


275 



Peter's Experience of Imagination. 


Chapter LXII. — Peter’s Experience of Imagination. 

/r/r o 

When Simon thus spoke, Peter answered: “Now listen patiently concerning both 

these matters, that is, concerning the example of stretching out the senses, and concerning 
the immensity of light. I know that I myself, O Simon, have sometimes in thought extended 
my sense, as you say, into regions and islands situated afar off, and have seen them with my 
mind not less than if it had been with my eyes. When I was at Capernaum, occupied in the 
taking of fishes, and sat upon a rock, holding in my hand a hook attached to a line, and fitted 
for deceiving the fishes, I was so absorbed that I did not feel a fish adhering to it while my 
mind eagerly ran through my beloved Jerusalem, to which I had frequently gone up, waking, 
for the sake of offerings and prayers. But I was accustomed also to admire this Caesarea, 
hearing of it from others, and to long to see it; and I seemed to myself to see it, although I 
had never been in it; and I thought of it what was suitable to be thought of a great city, its 
gates, walls, baths, streets, lanes, markets, and the like, in accordance with what I had seen 
in other cities; and to such an extent was I delighted with the intentness of such inspection, 
that, as you said, I neither saw one who was present and standing by me, nor knew where 
myself was sitting.” Then said Simon: “Now you say well.” 


668 [This story (chaps. 62-65) is peculiar to the Recognitions. In Homily XVII. 14-19 there is an argument 
against the trustworthiness of supernatural visions, which is supposed to be anti-Pauline in its aim. — R.] 


276 



Peter's Reverie. 


Chapter LXIII. — Peter’s Reverie. 

Then Peter: “In short, when I did not perceive, through the occupation of my mind, 
that I had caught a very large fish which was attached to the hook, and that although it was 
dragging the hook-line from my hand, my brother Andrew, who was sitting by me, seeing 
me in a reverie and almost ready to fall, thrusting his elbow into my side as if he would 
awaken me from sleep, said: ‘Do you not see, Peter, what a large fish you have caught? Are 
you out of your senses, that you are thus in a stupor of astonishment? Tell me, What is the 
matter with you?’ But I was angry with him for a little, because he had withdrawn me from 
the delight of those things which I was contemplating; then I answered that I was not suffering 
from any malady, but that I was mentally gazing on the beloved Jerusalem, and at the same 
time on Caesarea; and that, while I was indeed with him in the body, in my mind I was wholly 
carried away thither. But he, I know not whence inspired, uttered a hidden and secret word 
of truth.” 


277 



Andrew's Rebuke. 


Chapter LXIV. — Andrew’s Rebuke. 

“‘Give over,’ says he, ‘O Peter. What is it that you are doing? For those who are begin- 
ning to be possessed with a demon, or to be disturbed in their minds, begin in this way. 
They are first carried away by fancies to some pleasant and delightful things, then they are 
poured out in vain and fond motions towards things which have no existence. Now this 
happens from a certain disease of mind, by reason of which they see not the things which 
are, but long to bring to their sight those which are not. But thus it happens also to those 
who are suffering phrenzy, and seem to themselves to see many images, because their soul, 
being torn and withdrawn from its place by excess of cold or of heat, suffers a failure of its 
natural service. But those also who are in distress through thirst, when they fall asleep, seem 
to themselves to see rivers and fountains, and to drink; but this befalls them through being 
distressed by the dryness of the unmoistened body. Wherefore it is certain that this occurs 
through some ailment either of the soul or body.’ 


278 



Fallacy of Imagination. 


Chapter LXV. — Fallacy of Imagination. 

“In short, that you may receive the faith of the matter; concerning Jerusalem, which I 
had often seen, I told my brother what places and what gatherings of people I had seemed 
to myself to see. But also concerning Caesarea, which I had never seen, I nevertheless con- 
tended that it was such as I had conceived it in my mind and thought. But when I came 
hither, and saw nothing at all like to those things which I had seen in phantasy, I blamed 
myself, and observed distinctly, that I had assigned to it gates, and walls, and buildings from 
others which I had seen, taking the likeness in reality from others. Nor indeed can any one 
imagine anything new, and of which no form has ever existed. For even if any one should 
fashion from his imagination bulls with five heads, he only forms them with five heads out 
of those which he has seen with one head. And you therefore, now, if truly you seem to 
yourself to perceive anything with your thought, and to look above the heavens, there is no 
doubt but that you imagine them from those things which you see, placed as you are upon 
the earth. But if you think that there is easy access for your mind above the heavens, and 
that you are able to conceive the things that are there, and to apprehend knowledge of that 
immense light, I think that for him who can comprehend these things, it were easier to 
throw his sense, which knows how to ascend thither, into the heart and breast of some one 
of us who stand by, and to tell what thoughts he is cherishing in his breast. If therefore you 
can declare the thoughts of the heart of any one of us, who is not pre-engaged in your favour, 
we shall perhaps be able to believe you, that you are able to know those things that are above 
the heavens, although these are much loftier.” 


279 



Existence and Conception. 


Chapter LXVI. — Existence and Conception. 

To this Simon replied : 669 “O thou who hast woven a web of many frivolities, listen 
now. It is impossible that anything which comes into a man’s thoughts should not also 
subsist in truth and reality. For things that do not subsist, have no appearances; but 
things that have no appearances, cannot present themselves to our thoughts.” Then said 
Peter: “If everything that can come into our thoughts has a subsistence, then, with respect 
to that place of immensity which you say is outside the world, if one thinks in his heart that 
it is light, and another that it is darkness, how can one and the same place be both light and 
darkness, according to their different thoughts concerning it?” Then said Simon: “Let pass 
for the present what I have said; and tell us what you suppose to be above the heavens.” 


669 [The remaining chapters of this book hare no exact parallel in the Homilies. — R.] 

670 That is, have no visible or sensible species, according to the Platonic theory of perception. 


280 



The Law Teaches of Immensity. 


Chapter LXVII. — The Law Teaches of Immensity. 

Then said Peter: “If you believed concerning the true fountain of light, I could instruct 
you what and of what sort is that which is immense, and should render, not a vain fancy, 
but a consistent and necessary account of the truth, and should make use, not of sophistical 
assertions, but testimonies of the law and nature, that you might know that the law especially 
contains what we ought to believe in regard to immensity. But if the doctrine of immensity 
is not unknown to the law, then assuredly, nought else can be unknown to it; and therefore 
it is a false supposition of yours, that there is anything of which the law is not cognisant. 
Much more shall nothing be unknown to Him who gave the law. Yet I cannot speak anything 
to you of immensity and of those things which are without limit, unless first you either accept 
our account of those heavens which are bounded by a certain limit, or else propound your 
own account of them. But if you cannot understand concerning those which are compre- 
hended within fixed boundaries, much more can you neither know nor learn anything 
concerning those which are without limit.” 


281 



The Visible and the Invisible Heaven. 


Chapter LXVIII. — The Visible and the Invisible Heaven. 

To this Simon answered: “It seems to me to be better to believe simply that God is, and 
that that heaven which we see is the only heaven in the whole universe.” But Peter said: 
“Not so; but it is proper to confess one God who truly is; but that there are heavens, which 
were made by Him, as also the law says, of which one is the higher, in which also is contained 
the visible firmament; and that that higher heaven is perpetual and eternal, with those who 
dwell in it; but that this visible heaven is to be dissolved and to pass away at the end of the 
world, in order that that heaven which is older and higher may appear after the judgment 
to the holy and the worthy.” To this Simon answered: “That these things are so, as you say, 
may appear to those who believe them; but to him who seeks for reasons of these things, it 
is impossible that they can be produced from the law, and especially concerning the immens- 
ity of light.” 


— ^ 
116 


282 



Faith and Reason. 


Chapter LXIX. — Faith and Reason. 

Then Peter: “Do not think that we say that these things are only to be received by faith, 
but also that they are to be asserted by reason. For indeed it is not safe to commit these 
things to bare faith without reason, since assuredly truth cannot be without reason. And 
therefore he who has received these things fortified by reason, can never lose them; whereas 
he who receives them without proofs, by an assent to a simple statement of them, can neither 
keep them safely, nor is certain if they are true; because he who easily believes, also easily 
yields. But he who has sought reason for those things which he has believed and received, 
as though bound by chains of reason itself, can never be torn away or separated from those 
things which he hath believed. And therefore, according as any one is more anxious in de- 
manding a reason, by so much will he be the firmer in preserving his faith.” 


283 



Adjournment. 


Chapter LXX. — Adjournment. 

To this Simon replied: “It is a great thing which you promise, that the eternity of 
boundless light can be shown from the law.” And when Peter said, “I shall show it 
whenever you please,” Simon answered: “Since now it is a late hour, I shall stand by you 
and oppose you to-morrow; and if you can prove that this world was created, and that souls 
are immortal, you shall have me to assist you in your preaching.” When he had said thus, 
he departed, and was followed by a third part of all the people who had come with him, who 
were about one thousand men. But the rest with bended knees prostrated themselves before 
Peter; and he, invoking upon them the name of God, cured some who had demons, healed 
others who were sick, and so dismissed the people rejoicing, commanding them to come 
early the next day. But Peter, when the crowds had withdrawn, commanded the table to be 
spread on the ground, in the open air, in the court where the disputation had been held, 
and sat down together with those eleven; but I dined reclining with some others who also 
had made a beginning of hearing the word of God, and were greatly beloved. 


284 



Separation from the Unclean. 


Chapter LXXI. — Separation from the Unclean. 

But Peter, most benignantly regarding me, lest haply that separation might cause me 
sorrow, says to me: “It is not from pride, O Clement, that I do not eat with those who have 
not yet been purified; but I fear lest perhaps I should injure myself, and do no good to 
them. For this I would have you know for certain, that every one who has at any time 
worshipped idols, and has adored those whom the pagans call gods, or has eaten of the 
things sacrificed to them, is not without an unclean spirit; for he has become a guest of 
demons, and has been partaker with that demon of which he has formed the image in his 
mind, either through fear or love. And by these means he is not free from an unclean 
spirit, and therefore needs the purification of baptism, that the unclean spirit may go out 
of him, which has made its abode in the inmost affections of his soul, and what is worse, 
gives no indication that it lurks within, for fear it should be exposed and expelled.” 


671 [Comp, book i. 19, vii. 29; Homilies I. 22, XIII. 4. — R.] 

672 1 Cor. x. 20. 


285 


The Remedy. 


Chapter LXXII. — The Remedy. 

“For these unclean spirits love to dwell in the bodies of men, that they may fulfil their 
own desires by their service, and, inclining the motions of their souls to those things which 
they themselves desire, may compel them to obey their own lusts, that they may become 
wholly vessels of demons. One of whom is this Simon, who is seized with such disease, 

and cannot now be healed, because he is sick in his will and purpose. Nor does the demon 
dwell in him against his will; and therefore, if any one would drive it out of him, since it is 
inseparable from himself, and, so to speak, has now become his very soul, he should seem 
rather to kill him, and to incur the guilt of manslaughter. Let no one of you therefore be 
saddened at being separated from eating with us, for every one ought to observe that it is 
for just so long a time as he pleases. For he who wishes soon to be baptized is separated but 
for a little time, but he for a longer who wishes to be baptized later. Every one therefore has 
it in his own power to demand a shorter or a longer time for his repentance; and therefore 
it lies with you, when you wish it, to come to our table; and not with us, who are not permitted 
to take food with any one who has not been baptized. It is rather you, therefore, who hinder 
us from eating with you, if you interpose delays in the way of your purification, and defer 
your baptism.” Having said thus, and having blessed, he took food. And afterwards, when 
he had given thanks to God, he went into the house and went to bed; and we all did the like, 
for it was now night. 


673 [On the demonology of this work see book iv. 15-19; comp. Homily IX. 8-22. — R.] 


286 



Book III 


Book III . 674 


Chapter I. — Pearls Before Swine. 

Meantime Peter, rising at the crowing of the cock, and wishing to rouse us, found us 
awake, the evening light still burning; and when, according to custom, he had saluted us, 
and we had all sat down, he thus began. “Nothing is more difficult, my brethren, than to 
reason concerning the truth in the presence of a mixed multitude of people. For that which 
is may not be spoken to all as it is, on account of those who hear wickedly and treacherously; 
yet it is not proper to deceive, on account of those who desire to hear the truth sincerely. 
What, then, shall he do who has to address a mixed multitude? Shall he conceal what is 
true? How, then, shall he instruct those who are worthy? But if he set forth pure truth to 
those who do not desire to obtain salvation, he does injury to Him by whom he has been 
sent, and from whom he has received commandment not to throw the pearls of His words 

cn c 

before swine and dogs, who, striving against them with arguments and sophisms, roll 
them in the mud of carnal understanding, and by their barkings and base answers break 
and weary the preachers of God’s word. Wherefore I also, for the most part, by using a 
certain circumlocution, endeavour to avoid publishing the chief knowledge concerning the 
Supreme Divinity to unworthy ears.” Then, beginning from the Father, and the Son, and 
the Holy Spirit, he briefly and plainly expounded to us, so that all of us hearing him wondered 
that men have forsaken the truth, and have turned themselves to vanity. 


674 [The larger part of book iii. has no direct parallel in the Homilies, though, of course, many of the views 
presented are given in the latter under different circumstances. — R.] 

675 Matt. vii. 6. 


287 


Second Day's Discussion. 


Chapter XII. 676 — Second Day’s Discussion. 

But when the day had dawned, some one came in and said: “There is a very great mul- 
titude waiting in the court, and in the midst of them stands Simon, endeavouring to preoc- 
cupy the ears of the people with most wicked persuasions.” Then Peter, immediately going 
out, stood in the place where he had disputed the day before, and all the people turning to 
him with joy, gave heed to him. But when Simon perceived that the people rejoiced at the 
sight of Peter, and were moved to love him, he said in confusion: “I wonder at the folly of 
men, who call me a magician, and love Peter; whereas, having knowledge of me of old, they 
ought to love me rather. And therefore from this sign those who have sense may understand 
that Peter may rather seem to be the magician, since affection is not borne to me, to whom 

it is almost due from acquaintance, but is abundantly expended upon him, to whom it is 

fan 

not due by any familiarity.” 


676 Chaps ii.-xii. are wanting in the mss. of best authority; and it seems to us indisputable that they form no 
part of the original work. For this reason, and because we have found them utterly untranslatable, we have 
omitted them. 

677 [Comp. Homily XVII. 2 for a similar accusation made by Simon. — R.] 


288 



Simon a Seducer. 


Chapter XIII. — Simon a Seducer. 

While Simon was talking on in this style, Peter, having saluted the people in his usual 
way, thus answered: “O Simon, his own conscience is sufficient for every one to confute 
him; but if you wonder at this, that those who are acquainted with you not only do not love 
you but even hate you, learn the reason from me. Since you are a seducer you profess to 
proclaim the truth; and on this account you had many friends who had a desire to learn the 
truth. But when they saw in you things contrary to what you professed, they being, as I said, 
lovers of truth, began not only not to love you, but even to hate you. But yet they did not 
immediately forsake you, because you still promised that you could show them what is true. 
As long, therefore, as no one was present who could show them, they bore with you; but 
since the hope of better instruction has dawned upon them, they despise you, and seek to 
know what they understand to be better. And you indeed, acting by nefarious arts, thought 
at first that you should escape detection. But you are detected. For you are driven into a 
corner, and, contrary to your expectation, you are made notorious, not only as being ignorant 
of the truth, but as being unwilling to hear it from those who know it. For if you had been 
willing to hear, that saying would have been exemplified in you, of Him who said that ‘there 
is nothing hidden which shall not be known, nor covered which shall not be disclosed.’” 


678 Matt. x. 26. 


289 


Simon Claims the Fulfilment of Peter's Promise. 


Chapter XIV. — Simon Claims the Fulfilment of Peter’s Promise. 

While Peter spoke these words, and others to the same effect, Simon answered: “I will 
not have you detain me with long speeches, Peter; I claim from you what you promised 
yesterday. You then said that you could show that the law teaches concerning the immensity 
of the eternal light, and that there are only two heavens, and these created, and that the 
higher is the abode of that light, in which the ineffable Father dwells alone for ever; but that 
after the pattern of that heaven is made this visible heaven, which you asserted is to pass 
away. You said, therefore, that the Father of all is one, because there cannot be two infinites; 
else neither of them would be infinite, because in that in which the one subsists, he makes 
a limit of the subsistence of the other. Since then you not only promised this, but are able 
to show it from the law, leave off other matters and set about this.” Then Peter said: “If I 
were asked to speak of these things only on your account, who come only for the purpose 
of contradicting, you should never hear a single discourse from me; but seeing it is necessary 
that the husbandman, wishing to sow good ground, should sow some seeds, either in stony 
places, or places that are to be trodden of men, or in places filled with brambles and briers 
(as our Master also set forth, indicating by these the diversities of the purposes of several 

fflCk 

souls), I shall not delay.” 


679 Lukeviii. 5. [Comp. Matt. xiii. 3, etc.; Mark iv. 3, etc. — R.] 


290 


Simon 's Arrogance. 


Chapter XV. — Simon’s Arrogance. 

Then said Simon: “You seem to me to be angry; but if it be so, it is not necessary to 
enter into the conflict.” Then Peter: “I see that you perceive that you are to be convicted, 
and you wish politely to escape from the contest; for what have you seen to have made me 
angry against you, a man desiring to deceive so great a multitude, and when you have 
nothing to say, pretending moderation, who also command, forsooth, by your authority 
that the controversy shall be conducted as you please, and not as order demands?” Then 
Simon: “I shall enforce myself to bear patiently your unskilfulness, that I may show that 
you indeed wish to seduce the people, but that I teach the truth. But now I refrain from a 
discussion concerning that boundless light. Answer me, therefore, what I ask of you. Since 
God, as you say, made all things, whence comes evil ?” 680 Then said Peter: “To put questions 
in this way is not the part of an opponent, but of a learner. If therefore you wish to learn, 
confess it; and I shall first teach you how you ought to learn, and when you have learned to 
listen, then straightway I shall begin to teach you. But if you do not wish to learn, as though 
you knew all things, I shall first set forth the faith which I preach, and do you also set forth 
what you think to be true; and when the profession of each of us has been disclosed, let our 
hearers judge whose discourse is supported by truth.” To this Simon answered: “This is a 
good joke: behold a fellow who offers to teach me! Nevertheless I shall suffer you, and bear 
with your ignorance and your arrogance. I confess, then, I do wish to learn; let us see how 
you can teach me.” 


680 [In Homily XIX. the discussion with Simon is respecting the existence of the evil one. Here the treatment 

is apparently of a higher philosophical character. — R.] 


291 



Existence of Evil. 


Chapter XVI. — Existence of Evil. 

Then Peter said: “If you truly wish to learn, then first learn this, how unskilfully you 
have framed your question; for you say, Since God has created all things, whence is evil? 
But before you asked this, three sorts of questions should have had the precedence: First, 
Whether there be evil? Secondly, What evil is? Thirdly, To whom it is, and whence?” To 
this Simon answered: “Oh thou most unskilful and unlearned, is there any man who does 
not confess that there is evil in this life? Whence I also, thinking that you had even the 
common sense of all men, asked, whence evil is; not as wishing to learn, since I know all 
things, least of all from you, who know nothing, but that I might show you to be ignorant 
of all things. And that you may not suppose that it is because I am angry that I speak 
somewhat sternly, know that I am moved with compassion for those who are present, whom 
you are attempting to deceive.” Then Peter said: “The more wicked are you, if you can do 
such wrong, not being angry; but smoke must rise where there is fire. Nevertheless I shall 
tell you, lest I should seem to take you up with words, so as not to answer to those things 
which you have spoken disorderly. You say that all confess the existence of evil, which is 
verily false; for, first of all, the whole Hebrew nation deny its existence.” 


292 



Not Admitted by All. 


Chapter XVII. — Not Admitted by All. 

Then Simon, interrupting his discourse, said: “They do rightly who say that there is no 
evil.” Then Peter answered: “We do not propose to speak of this now, but only to state the 
fact that the existence of evil is not universally admitted. But the second question that you 
should have asked is, What is evil? — a substance, an accident, or an act? And many other 
things of the same sort. And after that, towards what, or how it is, or to whom it is 
evil, — whether to God, or to angels, or to men, to the righteous or the wicked, to all or to 
some, to one’s self or to no one? And then you should inquire, Whence it is? — whether 
from God, or from nothing; whether it has always been, or has had its beginning in time; 
whether it is useful or useless? and many other things which a proposition of this sort de- 
mands.” T o this Simon answered: “Pardon me; I was in error concerning the first question; 
but suppose that I now ask first, whether evil is or not?” 


293 



Manner of Conducting the Discussion. 


Chapter XVIII. — Manner of Conducting the Discussion. 

Then Peter said: “In what way do you put the question; as wishing to learn, or to teach 
or for the sake of raising the question? If indeed as wishing to learn, I have something to 
teach you first, that coming by consequence and the right order of doctrine, you may under- 
stand from yourself what evil is. But if you put the question as an instructor, I have no need 
to be taught by you, for I have a Master from whom I have learned all things. But if you ask 
merely for the sake of raising a question and disputing, let each of us first set forth his 
opinion, and so let the matter be debated. For it is not reasonable that you should ask as 
one wishing to learn, and contradict as one teaching, so that after my answer it should be 
in your discretion to say whether I have spoken well or ill. Wherefore you cannot stand in 
the place of a gainsay er and be judge of what we say. And therefore, as I said, if a discussion 
is to be held, let each of us state his sentiments; and while we are placed in conflict, these 
religious hearers will be just judges.” 


294 



Desire of Instruction. 


Chapter XIX. — Desire of Instruction. 

Then Simon said: “Does it not seem to you to be absurd that an unskilled people should 
sit in judgment upon our sayings?” Then Peter: “It is not so; for what perhaps is less clear 
to one, can be investigated by many, for oftentimes even a popular rumour has the aspect 
of a prophecy. But in addition to all this, all these people stand here constrained by the love 
of God, and by a desire to know the truth, and therefore all these are to be regarded as one, 
by reason of their affection being one and the same towards the truth; as, on the other hand, 
two are many and diverse, if they disagree with each other. But if you wish to receive an 
indication how all these people who stand before us are as one man, consider from their 
very silence and quietness how with all patience, as you see, they do honour to the truth of 
God, even before they learn it, for they have not yet learned the greater observance which 
they owe to it. Wherefore I hope, through the mercy of God, that He will accept the religious 
purpose of their mind towards Him, and will give the palm of victory to him who preaches 
the truth, that He may make manifest to them the herald of truth.” 


295 



Common Principles. 


Chapter XX. — Common Principles. 

Then Simon: “On what subject do you wish the discussion to be held? Tell me, that I 
also may define what I think, and so the inquiry may begin.” And Peter answered: “If indeed, 
you will do as I think right, I would have it done according to the precept of my Master, 
who first of all commanded the Hebrew nation, whom He knew to have knowledge of God, 
and that it is He who made the world, not that they should inquire about Him whom they 
knew, but that, knowing Him, they should investigate His will and His righteousness; because 
it is placed in men’s power that, searching into these things, they may find, and do, and 
observe those things concerning which they are to be judged. Therefore He commanded 
us to inquire, not whence evil cometh, as you asked just now, but to seek the righteousness 

/TO 1 

of the good God, and His kingdom; and all these things, says He, shall be added to you.” 
Then Simon said: “Since these things are commanded to Hebrews, as having a right 
knowledge of God, and being of opinion that every one has it in his power to do these things 
concerning which he is to be judged, — but my opinion differs from theirs, — where do you 
wish me to begin?” 


681 Matt. vi. 33. 


296 


Freedom of the Will. 


Chapter XXI. — Freedom of the Will. 

Then said Peter: “I advise that the first inquiry be, whether it be in our power to know 
whence we are to be judged.” But Simon said: “Not so; but concerning God, about whom 
all who are present are desirous to hear.” Then Peter: “You admit, then, that something is 
in the power of the will: only confess this, if it is so, and let us inquire, as you say, concerning 
God.” To this Simon answered: “By no means.” Then Peter said: “If, then, nothing is in 
our power, it is useless for us to inquire anything concerning God, since it is not in the 
power of those who seek to find; hence I said well, that this should be the first inquiry, 

COT 

whether anything is in the power of the will.” Then said Simon: “We cannot even un- 
derstand this that you say, if there is anything in the power of the will.” But Peter, seeing 
that he was turning to contention, and, through fear of being overcome, was confounding 
all things as being in general uncertain, answered: “How then do you know that it is not in 
the power of man to know anything, since this very thing at least you know?” 


682 [Comp. Homilies XI. 8, XIX. 15. But in the Recognitions this topic is more frequently treated. See chap. 
26, and elsewhere. — R.] 


297 



Responsibility. 


Chapter XXII. — Responsibility. 

Then Simon said: “I know not whether I know even this; for every one, according as it 
is decreed to him by fate, either does, or understands, or suffers.” Then Peter said: “See, 
my brethren, into what absurdities Simon has fallen, who before my coming was teaching 
that men have it in their power to be wise and to do what they will, but now, driven into a 
corner by the force of my arguments, he denies that man has any power either of perceiving 
or of acting; and yet he presumes to profess himself to be a teacher! But tell me how then 
God judges according to truth every one for his doings, if men have it not in their own 
power to do anything? If this opinion be held, all things are torn up by the roots; vain will 
be the desire of following after goodness; yea, even in vain do the judges of the world admin- 
ister laws and punish those who do amiss, for they had it not in their power not to sin; vain 
also will be the laws of nations which assign penalties to evil deeds. Miserable also will those 
be who laboriously keep righteousness; but blessed those who, living in pleasure, exercise 
tyranny, living in luxury and wickedness. According to this, therefore, there can be neither 
righteousness, nor goodness, nor any virtue, nor, as you would have it, any God. But, O 
Simon, I know why you have spoken thus: truly because you wished to avoid inquiry, lest 
you should be openly confuted; and therefore you say that it is not in the power of man to 
perceive or to discern anything. But if this had really been your opinion, you would not 
surely, before my coming, have professed yourself before the people to be a teacher. I say, 
therefore, that man is under his own control.” Then said Simon: “What is the meaning of 
being under his own control? Tell us.” To this Peter: “If nothing can be learned, why do 
you wish to hear?” And Simon said: “You have nothing to answer to this.” 


298 



Origin of Evil. 


Chapter XXIII. — Origin of Evil. 

Then said Peter: “I shall speak, not as under compulsion from you, but at the request 
of the hearers. The power of choice is the sense of the soul, possessing a quality by which 
it can be inclined towards what acts it wills.” Then Simon, applauding Peter for what he 
had spoken, said: “Truly you have expounded it magnificently and incomparably, for it is 
my duty to bear testimony to your speaking well. Now if you will explain to me this which 
I now ask you, in all things else I shall submit to you. What I wish to learn, then, is this: if 
what God wishes to be, is; and what He does not wish to be, is not. Answer me this.” Then 
Peter: “If you do not know that you are asking an absurd and incompetent question, I shall 
pardon you and explain; but if you are aware that you are asking inconsequently, you do 
not well.” Then Simon said: “I swear by the Supreme Divinity, whatsoever that may be, 
which judges and punishes those who sin, that I know not what I have said inconsequently, 
or what absurdity there is in my words, that is, in those that I have just uttered.” 


299 



God the Author of Good, Not of Evil. 


Chapter XXIV. — God the Author of Good, Not of Evil. 

To this Peter answered: “Since, then, you confess that you are ignorant, now learn. 
Your question demanded our deliverance on two matters that are contrary to one another. 
For every motion is divided into two parts, so that a certain part is moved by necessity, and 
another by will; and those things which are moved by necessity are always in motion, those 
which are moved by will, not always. For example, the sun’s motion is performed by necessity 
to complete its appointed circuit, and every state and service of heaven depends upon neces- 
sary motions. But man directs the voluntary motions of his own actions. And thus there 
are some things which have been created for this end, that in their services they should be 
subject to necessity, and should be unable to do aught else than what has been assigned to 
them; and when they have accomplished this service, the Creator of all things, who thus 
arranged them according to His will, preserves them. But there are other things, in which 
there is a power of will, and which have a free choice of doing what they will. These, as I 
have said, do not remain always in that order in which they were created: but according as 
their will leads them, and the judgment of their mind inclines them, they effect either good 
or evil; and therefore He hath proposed rewards to those who do well, and penalties to those 
who do evil . 683 


683 [Comp. Homily XIX. 12. The argument here is far more philosophical. — R.] 


300 



Who Hath Resisted His Will? 


Chapter XXV. — “Who Hath Resisted His Will?” 

You say, therefore, if God wishes anything to be, it is; and if He do not wish it, it is not. 
But if I were to answer that what He wishes is, and what He wishes not is not, you would 
say that then He wishes the evil things to be which are done in the world, since everything 
that He wishes is, and everything that He wishes not is not. But if I had answered that it is 
not so that what God wishes is, and what He wishes not is not, then you would retort upon 
me that God must then be powerless, if He cannot do what He wills; and you would be all 
the more petulant, as thinking that you had got a victory, though had said nothing to the 
point. Therefore you are ignorant, O Simon, yea very ignorant, how the will of God acts in 
each individual case. For some things, as we have said, He has so willed to be, that they 
cannot be otherwise than as they are ordained by Him; and to these He has assigned neither 
rewards nor punishments; but those which He has willed to be so that they have it in their 
power to do what they will, He has assigned to them according to their actions and their 
wills, to earn either rewards or punishments. Since, therefore, as I have informed you, all 
things that are moved are divided into two parts, according to the distinction that I formerly 
stated, everything that God wills is, and everything that He wills not is not. 


301 



No Goodness Without Liberty. 


Chapter XXVI. — No Goodness Without Liberty. 

To this Simon answered: “Was not He able to make us all such that we should be good, 
and that we should not have it in our power to be otherwise?” Peter answered: “This also 
is an absurd question. For if He had made us of an unchangeable nature and incapable of 
being moved away from good, we should not be really good, because we could not be aught 
else; and it would not be of our purpose that we were good; and what we did would not be 
ours, but of the necessity of our nature. But how can that be called good which is not 
done of purpose? And on this account the world required long periods, until the number 
of souls which were predestined to fill it should be completed, and then that visible heaven 
should be folded up like a scroll, and that which is higher should appear, and the souls of 
the blessed, being restored to their bodies, should be ushered into light; but the souls of the 
wicked, for their impure actions being surrounded with fiery spirit, should be plunged into 
the abyss of unquenchable fire, to endure punishments through eternity. Now that these 
things are so, the true Prophet, has testified to us; concerning whom, if you wish to know 
that He is a prophet, I shall instruct you by innumerable declarations. For of those things 
which were spoken by Him, even now everything that He said is being fulfilled; and those 
things which He spoke with respect to the future are believed to be about to be fulfilled, for 
faith is given to the future from those things which have already come to pass.” 


684 [Comp. Homily XIX. 15. — R.] 


302 



The Visible Heaven: Why Made. 


Chapter XXVII. — The Visible Heaven: Why Made. 

But Simon, perceiving that Peter was clearly assigning a reason from the head of 
prophecy, from which the whole question is settled, declined that the discourse should take 
this turn; and thus answered: “Give me an answer to the questions that I put, and tell me, 
if that visible heaven is, as you say, to be dissolved, why was it made at first?” Peter answered: 
“It was made for the sake of this present life of men, that there might be some sort of inter- 
position and separation, lest any unworthy one might see the habitation of the celestials and 
the abode of God Himself, which are prepared in order to be seen by those only who are of 

roc 

pure heart. But now, that is in the time of the conflict, it has pleased Him that those 
things be invisible, which are destined as a reward to the conquerers.” Then Simon said: 
“If the Creator is good, and the world is good, how shall He who is good ever destroy that 
which is good? But if He shall destroy that which is good, how shall He Himself be thought 
to be good? But if He shall dissolve and destroy it as evil, how shall He not appear to be 
evil, who has made that which is evil?” 


685 Matt. v. 8. 


303 


Why to Be Dissolved. 


Chapter XXVIII. — Why to Be Dissolved. 

To this Peter replied: “Since we have promised not to run away from your blasphemies, 
we endure them patiently, for you shall yourself render an account for the things that you 
speak. Listen now, therefore. If indeed that heaven which is visible and transient had been 
made for its own sake, there would have been some reason in what you say, that it ought 
not to be dissolved. But if it was made not for its own sake, but for the sake of something 
else, it must of necessity be dissolved, that that for which it seems to have been made may 
appear. As I might say, by way of illustration, however fairly and carefully the shell of the 
egg may seem to have been formed, it is yet necessary that it be broken and opened, that 
the chick may issue from it, and that may appear for which the form of the whole egg seems 
to have been moulded. So also, therefore, it is necessary that the condition of this world 
pass away, that that sublimer condition of the heavenly kingdom may shine forth.” 


304 



Corruptible and Temporary Things Made by the Incorruptible and Eternal. 


Chapter XXIX. — Corruptible and T emporary Things Made by the Incorruptible and y 

Eternal. 122 

Then Simon: “It does not seem to me that the heaven, which has been made by God, 
can be dissolved. For things made by the Eternal One are eternal, while things made by a 
corruptible one are temporary and decaying.” Then Peter: “It is not so. Indeed corruptible 
and temporary things of all sorts are made by mortal creatures; but the Eternal does not al- 
ways make things corruptible, nor always incorruptible; but according to the will of God 
the Creator, so will be the things which He creates. For the power of God is not subject to 
law, but His will is law to His creatures.” Then Simon answered: “I call you back to the first 
question. You said now that God is visible to no one; but when that heaven shall be dissolved, 
and that superior condition of the heavenly kingdom shall shine forth, then those who are 

/ro/r 

pure in heart shall see God; which statement is contrary to the law, for there it is written 

fZO'7 

that God said, ‘None shall see my face and live.’” 


686 Matt. v. 8. 

687 Ex. xxxiii. 20. 


305 


How the Pure in Heart See God. 


Chapter XXX. — How the Pure in Heart See God. 

Then Peter answered: “To those who do not read the law according to the tradition of 
Moses, my speech appears to be contrary to it; but I will show you how it is not contradictory. 
God is seen by the mind, not by the body; by the spirit, not by the flesh. Whence also angels, 
who are spirits, see God; and therefore men, as long as they are men, cannot see Him. But 

/TOO 

after the resurrection of the dead, when they shall have been made like the angels, they 
shall be able to see God. And thus my statement is not contrary to the law; neither is that 
which our Master said, ‘Blessed are they of a pure heart, for they shall see God. For He 
showed that a time shall come in which of men shall be made angels, who in the spirit of 
their mind shall see God.” After these and many similar sayings, Simon began to assert with 
many oaths, saying: “Concerning one thing only render me a reason, whether the soul is 
immortal, and I shall submit to your will in all things. But let it be to-morrow, for to-day 
it is late.” When therefore Peter began to speak, Simon went out, and with him a very few 
of his associates; and that for shame. But all the rest, turning to Peter, on bended knees 
prostrated themselves before him; and some of those who were afflicted with diverse sick- 
nesses, or invaded by demons, were healed by the prayer of Peter, and departed rejoicing, 
as having obtained at once the doctrine of the true God, and also His mercy. When therefore 
the crowds had withdrawn, and only we his attendants remained with him, we sat down on 
couches placed on the ground, each one recognising his accustomed place, and having taken 
food, and given thanks to God, we went to sleep. 


688 Matt. xxii. 30. 


689 Matt. v. 8. 


306 


Diligence in Study. 


Chapter XXXI. — Diligence in Study. 

But on the following day, Peter, as usual, rising before dawn, found us already awake 
and ready to listen; and thus began: “I entreat you, my brethren and fellow-servants, that 
if any of you is not able to wake, he should not torment himself through respect to my 
presence, because sudden change is difficult; but if for a long time one gradually accustoms 
himself, that will not be distressing which comes of use. For we had not all the same training; 
although in course of time we shall be able to be moulded into one habit, for they say that 
custom holds the place of a second nature. But I call God to witness that I am not offended, 
if any one is not able to wake; but rather by this, if, when any one sleeps all through the 
night, he does not in the course of the day fulfil that which he omitted in the night. For it 
is necessary to give heed intently and unceasingly, to the study of doctrine, that our mind 
may be filled with the thought of God only: because in the mind which is filled with the 
thought of God, no place will be given to the wicked one.” 


307 



Peter's Private Instruction. 


Chapter XXXII. — Peter’s Private Instruction. 

When Peter spoke thus to us, every one of us eagerly assured him, that ere now we were 
awake, being satisfied with short sleep, but that we were afraid to arouse him, because it did 
not become the disciples to command the master; “and yet even this, O Peter, we had almost 
ventured to take upon ourselves, because our hearts, agitated with longing for your words, 
drove sleep wholly from our eyes. But again our affection towards you opposed it, and did 
not suffer us violently to rouse you.” Then Peter said: “Since therefore you assert that you 
are willingly awake through desire of hearing, I wish to repeat to you more carefully, and 
to explain in their order, the things that were spoken yesterday without arrangement. And 
this I propose to do throughout these daily disputations, that by night, when privacy of time 
and place is afforded, I shall unfold in correct order, and by a straight line of explanation, 
anything that in the controversy has not been stated with sufficient fulness.” And then he 
began to point out to us how the yesterday’s discussion ought to have been conducted, and 
how it could not be so conducted on account of the contentiousness or the unskilfulness of 
his opponent; and how therefore he only made use of assertion, and only overthrew what 
was said by his adversary, but did not expound his own doctrines either completely or dis- 
tinctly. Then repeating the several matters to us, he discussed them in regular order and 
with full reason. 


308 



Learners and Cavillers. 


Chapter XXXIII. — Learners and Cavillers. 

But when the day began to be light, after prayer he went out to the crowds and stood 
in his accustomed place, for the discussion; and seeing Simon standing in the middle of the 
crowd, he saluted the people in his usual way, and said to them: “I confess that I am grieved 
with respect to some men, who come to us in this way that they may learn something, but 
when we begin to teach them, they profess that they themselves are masters, and while indeed 
they ask questions as ignorant persons, they contradict as knowing ones. But perhaps some 
one will say, that he who puts a question, puts it indeed in order that he may learn, but when 
that which he hears does not seem to him to be right, it is necessary that he should answer, 
and that seems to be contradiction which is not contradiction, but further inquiry. 


309 



Against Order is Against Reason. 


Chapter XXXIV. — Against Order is Against Reason. 

“Let such a one then hear this: The teaching of all doctrine has a certain order, and 
there are some things which must be delivered first, others in the second place, and others 
in the third, and so all in their order; and if these things be delivered in their order, they 
become plain; but if they be brought forward out of order, they will seem to be spoken 
against reason. And therefore order is to be observed above all things, if we seek for the 
purpose of finding what we seek. For he who enters rightly upon the road, will observe the 
second place in due order, and from the second will more easily find the third; and the further 
he proceeds, so much the more will the way of knowledge become open to him, even until 
he arrive at the city of truth, whither he is bound, and which he desires to reach. But he 
who is unskilful, and knows not the way of inquiry, as a traveller in a foreign country, ignor- 
ant and wandering, if he will not employ a native of the country as a guide, — undoubtedly 
when he has strayed from the way of truth, shall remain outside the gates of life, and so, 
involved in the darkness of black night, shall walk through the paths of perdition. Inasmuch 
therefore, as, if those things which are to be sought, be sought in an orderly manner, they 
can most easily be found, but the unskilful man is ignorant of the order of inquiry, it is right 
that the ignorant man should yield to the knowing one, and first learn the order of inquiry, 
that so at length he may find the method of asking and answering.” 


310 



Learning Before Teaching. 


Chapter XXXV. — Learning Before Teaching. 

To this Simon replied: “Then truth is not the property of all, but of those only who 
know the art of disputation, which is absurd; for it cannot be, since He is equally the God 
of all, that all should not be equally able to know His will.” Then Peter: “All were made 
equal by Him, and to all He has given equally to be receptive of truth. But that none of those 
who are born, are born with education, but education is subsequent to birth, no one can 
doubt. Since, therefore, the birth of men holds equity in this respect, that all are equally 
capable of receiving discipline, the difference is not in nature, but in education. Who does 
not know that the things which any one learns, he was ignorant of before he learned them?” 
Then Simon said “Y ou say truly.” Then Peter said, “If then in those arts which are in common 
use, one first learns and then teaches, how much more ought those who profess to be the 
educators of souls, first to learn, and so to teach, that they may not expose themselves to 
ridicule, if they promise to afford knowledge to others, when they themselves are unskilful?” 
Then Simon: “This is true in respect of those arts which are in common use; but in the word 
of knowledge, as soon as any one has heard, he has learned.” 


311 



Self-Evidence of the Truth. 


Chapter XXXVI. — Self-Evidence of the Truth. 

Then said Peter: “If indeed one hear in an orderly and regular manner he is able to 
know what is true; but he who refuses to submit to the rule of a reformed life and a pure 
conversation, which truly is the proper result of knowledge of the truth, will not confess 
that he knows what he does know. For this is exactly what we see in the case of some who, 
abandoning the trades which they learned in their youth, betake themselves to other per- 
formances, and by way of excusing their own sloth, begin to find fault with the trade as un- 
profitable.” Then Simon: “Ought all who hear to believe that whatever they hear is true?” 

Then Peter: “Whoever hears an orderly statement of the truth, cannot by any means gainsay 
it, but knows that what is spoken is true, provided he also willingly submit to the rules of 
life. But those who, when they hear, are unwilling to betake themselves to good works, are 
prevented by the desire of doing evil from acquiescing in those things which they judge to 
be right. Hence it is manifest that it is in the power of the hearers to choose which of the 
two they prefer. But if all who hear were to obey, it would be rather a necessity of nature, 
leading all in one way. For as no one can be persuaded to become shorter or taller, because 
the force of nature does not permit it; so also, if either all were converted to the truth by a 
word, or all were not converted, it would be the force of nature which compelled all in the 
one case, and none at all in the other, to be converted.” 

— ^ 

124 


312 



God Righteous as Well as Good. 


Chapter XXXVII. — God Righteous as Well as Good. 

Then said Simon: “Inform us, therefore, what he who desires to know the truth must 
first learn.” Then Peter: “Before all things it must be inquired what it is possible for man 
to find out. For of necessity the judgment of God turns upon this, if a man was able to do 
good and did it not. And therefore men must inquire whether they have it in their power 
by seeking to find what is good, and to do it when they have found it; for this is that for 
which they are to be judged. But more than this there is no occasion for any one but a 
prophet to know: for what is the need for men to know how the world was made? This, 
indeed, would be necessary to be learned if we had to enter upon a similar construction. 
But now it is sufficient for us, in order to the worship of God, to know that He made the 
world; but how He made it is no subject of inquiry for us, because, as I have said, it is not 
incumbent upon us to acquire the knowledge of that art, as though we were about to make 
something similar. But neither are we to be judged for this, why we have not learned how 
the world was made, but only for that, if we be without knowledge of its Creator. For we 
shall know that the Creator of the world is the righteous and good God, if we seek Him in 
the paths of righteousness. For if we only know regarding Him that He is good, such 
knowledge is not sufficient for salvation. For in the present life not only the worthy, but 
also the unworthy, enjoy His goodness and His benefits. But if we believe Him to be not 
only good, but also righteous, and if, according to what we believe concerning God, we ob- 
serve righteousness in the whole course of our life, we shall enjoy His goodness for ever. 
In a word, to the Hebrews, whose opinion concerning God was that He is only good, our 
Master said that they should seek also His righteousness ; 690 that is, that they should know 
that He is good indeed in this present time, that all may live in His goodness, but that He 
shall be righteous at the day of judgment, to bestow eternal rewards upon the worthy, from 
which the unworthy shall be excluded. 


690 Matt. vi. 33. 


313 


God's Justice Shown at the Day of Judgment. 


Chapter XXXVIII. — God’s Justice Shown at the Day of Judgment. 

Then Simon: “How can one and the same being be both good and righteous ?” 691 Peter 
answered: “Because without righteousness, goodness would be unrighteousness; for it is 
the part of a good God to bestow His sunshine and rain equally on the just and the unjust; 
but this would seem to be unjust, if He treated the good and the bad always with equal for- 
tune, and were it not that He does it for the sake of the fruits, which all may equally enjoy 
who are born in this world. But as the rain given by God equally nourishes the corn and 
the tares, but at the time of harvest the crops are gathered into the barn, but the chaff or the 
tares are burnt in the fire, so in the day of judgment, when the righteous shall be intro- 

duced into the kingdom of heaven, and the unrighteous shall be cast out, then also the justice 
of God shall be shown. For if He remained for ever alike to the evil and the good, this would 
not only not be good, but even unrighteous and unjust; that the righteous and the unrighteous 
should be held by Him in one order of desert.” 


691 [Comp. Homilies XVII. 4, etc., XVIII. 1. The objection is of Gnostic origin. — R.] 

692 Matt. v. 45. 


693 Matt. iii. 12. 


314 


Immortality of the Soul. 


Chapter XXXIX. — Immortality of the Soul. 

Then said Simon: “The one point on which I should wish to be satisfied is, whether the 
soul is immortal; for I cannot take up the burden of righteousness unless I know first con- 
cerning the immortality of the soul; for indeed if it is not immortal, the profession of your 
preaching cannot stand.” Then said Peter: “Let us first inquire whether God is just; for if 
this were ascertained, the perfect order of religion would straight-way be established.” Then 
Simon: “With all your boasting of your knowledge of the order of discussion, you seem to 
me now to have answered contrary to order; for when I ask you to show whether the soul 
is immortal, you say that we must first inquire whether God is just.” Then said Peter: “That 
is perfectly right and regular.” Simon: “I should wish to learn how.” 


315 



Proved by the Success of the Wicked in This Life. 


Chapter XL. — Proved by the Success of the Wicked in This Life. 

“Listen, then,” said Peter: “Some men who are blasphemers against God, and who spend 
their whole life in injustice and pleasure die in their own bed and obtain honourable burial; 
while others who worship God, and maintain their life frugally with all honesty and sobriety, 
die in deserted places for their observance of righteousness, so that they are not even thought 
worthy of burial. Where, then, is the justice of God, if there be no immortal soul to suffer 
punishment in the future for impious deeds, or enjoy rewards for piety and rectitude?” 

Then Simon said: “It is this indeed that makes me incredulous, because many well-doers 
perish miserably, and again many evil-doers finish long lives in happiness .” 694 

— ^ 
125 


694 [Comp. Homily XIX. 23. — R.] 


316 



Cavils of Simon. 


Chapter XLI. — Cavils of Simon. 

Then said Peter: “This very thing which draws you into incredulity, affords to us a 
certain conviction that there shall be a judgment. For since it is certain that God is just, it 
is a necessary consequence that there is another world, in which every one receiving according 
to his deserts, shall prove the justice of God. But if all men were now receiving according 
to their deserts, we should truly seem to be deceivers when we say that there is a judgment 
to come; and therefore this very fact, that in the present life a return is not made to every 
one according to his deeds, affords, to those who know that God is just, an indubitable proof 
that there shall be a judgment.” Then said Simon: “Why, then, am I not persuaded of it?” 
Peter: “Because you have not heard the true Prophet saying, ‘Seek first His righteousness, 
and all these things shall be added to you .’ 695 “Then said Simon: “Pardon me if I am un- 
willing to seek righteousness, before I know if the soul is immortal.” Then Peter: “You also 
pardon me this one thing, because I cannot do otherwise than the Prophet of truth has in- 
structed me.” Then said Simon: “It is certain that you cannot assert that the soul is immortal, 
and therefore you cavil, knowing that if it be proved to be mortal, the whole profession of 
that religion which you are attempting to propagate will be plucked up by the roots. And 
therefore, indeed, I commend your prudence, while I do not approve your persuasiveness; 
for you persuade many to embrace your religion, and to submit to the restraint of pleasure, 
in hope of future good things; to whom it happens that they lose the enjoyment of things 
present, and are deceived with hopes of things future. For as soon as they die, their soul 
shall at the same time be extinguished.” 


695 Matt. vi. 33. 


317 


Full of All Subtlety and All Mischief.” 


Chapter XLII. — “Full of All Subtlety and All Mischief.” 

But Peter, when he heard him speak thus, grinding his teeth, and rubbing his forehead 
with his hand, and sighing with profound grief, said : 696 “Armed with the cunning of the 
old serpent, you stand forth to deceive souls; and therefore, as the serpent is more subtile 
than any other beast, you profess that you are a teacher from the beginning. And again, like 
the serpent you wished to introduce many gods; but now, being confuted in that, you assert 
that there is no God at all. For by occasion of I know not what unknown God, you denied 
that the Creator of the world is God, but asserted that He is either an evil being, or that He 
has many equals, or, as we have said, that He is not God at all. And when you had been 
overcome in this position, you now assert that the soul is mortal, so that men may not live 
righteously and uprightly in hope of things to come. For if there be no hope for the future, 
why should not mercy be given up, and men indulge in luxury and pleasures, from which 
it is manifest that all unrighteousness springs? And while you introduce so impious a doctrine 
into the miserable life of men, you call yourself pious, and me impious, because, under the 
hope of future good things, I will not suffer men to take up arms and fight against one an- 
other, plunder and subvert everything, and attempt whatsoever lust may dictate. And what 
will be the condition of that life which you would introduce, that men will attack and be 
attacked, be enraged and disturbed, and live always in fear? For those who do evil to others 
must expect like evil to themselves. Do you see that you are a leader of disturbance and not 
of peace, of iniquity and not of equity? But I feigned anger, not because I could not prove 
that the soul is immortal, but because I pity the souls which you are endeavouring to deceive. 
I shall speak, therefore, but not as compelled by you; for I know how I should speak; and 
you will be the only one who wants not so much persuasion as admonition on this subject. 
But those who are really ignorant of this, I shall instruct as is suitable.” 


696 [The concluding portion of this discussion (chaps. 42-48) is peculiar alike in its argument and its col- 
loquies. — R.] 


318 



Simon 's Subterfuges. 


Chapter XLIII. — Simon’s Subterfuges. 

Then says Simon: “If you are angry, I shall neither ask you any questions, nor do I wish 
to hear you.” Then Peter: “If you are now seeking a pretext for escaping, you have full 
liberty, and need not use any special pretext. For all have heard you speaking all amiss, and 
have perceived that you can prove nothing, but that you only asked questions for the sake 
of contradiction; which any one can do. For what difficulty is there in replying, after the 
clearest proofs have been adduced, ‘You have said nothing to the purpose?’ But that you 
may know that I am able to prove to you in a single sentence that the soul is immortal, I 
shall ask you with respect to a point which all know; answer me, and I shall prove to you in 
one sentence that it is immortal.” Then Simon, who had thought that he had got, from the 
anger of Peter, a pretext for departing, stopped on account of the remarkable promise that 
was made to him, and said: “Ask me then, and I shall answer you what all know, that I may 
hear in a single sentence, as you have promised, how the soul is immortal.” 

— ^1 
126 


319 



Sight or Hearing? 


Chapter XLIV. — Sight or Hearing? 

Then Peter: “I shall speak so that it may be proved to you before all the rest. Answer 
me, therefore, which of the two can better persuade an incredulous man, seeing or hearing?” 
Then Simon said: “Seeing.” Then Peter: “Why then do you wish to learn from me by words, 
what is proved to you by the thing itself and by sight?” Then Simon: “I know not what you 
mean.” Then Peter: “If you do not know, go now to your house, and entering the inner 
bed-chamber you will see an image placed, containing the figure of a murdered boy clothed 
in purple; ask him, and he will inform you either by hearing or seeing. For what need is 
there to hear from him if the soul is immortal, when you see it standing before you? For if 
it were not in being, it assuredly could not be seen. But if you know not what image I speak 

f.Q r 7 

of, let us straightway go to your house, with ten other men, of those who are here present.” 


697 [Comp, book ii. 15 and Homily II. 26. — R.] 


320 



A Home-Thrust. 


Chapter XLV. — A Home-Thrust. 

But Simon hearing this, and being smitten by his conscience, changed colour and became 
bloodless; for he was afraid, if he denied it, that his house would be searched, or that Peter 
in his indignation would betray him more openly, and so all would learn what he was. Thus 
he answered: “I beseech thee, Peter, by that good God who is in thee, to overcome the 
wickedness that is in me. Receive me to repentance, and you shall have me as an assistant 
in your preaching. For now I have learned in very deed that you are a prophet of the true 

/rQO 

God, and therefore you alone know the secret and hidden things of men.” Then said 
Peter: “You see, brethren, Simon seeking repentance; in a little while you shall see him re- 
turning again to his infidelity. For, thinking that I am a prophet, forasmuch as I have dis- 
closed his wickedness, which he supposed to be secret and hidden, he has promised that he 
will repent. But it is not lawful for me to lie, nor must I deceive, whether this infidel be 
saved or not saved. For I call heaven and earth to witness, that I spoke not by a prophetic 
spirit what I said, and what I intimated, as far as was possible, to the listening crowds; but 
I learned from some who once were his associates in his works, but have now been converted 
to our faith, what things he did in secret. Therefore I spoke what I knew, not what I 
foreknew.” 


698 Evidently parodied from Acts viii. 18-24. This incident is peculiar to the Recognitions. — R.] 


321 


Simon 's Rage. 


Chapter XLVI. — Simon’s Rage. 

But when Simon heard this, he assailed Peter with curses and reproaches, saying: “Oh 
most wicked and most deceitful of men, to whom fortune, not truth, hath given the victory. 
But I sought repentance not for defect of knowledge, but in order that you, thinking that 
by repentance I should become your disciple, might entrust to me all the secrets of your 
profession, and so at length, knowing them all, I might confute you. But as you cunningly 
understood for what reason I had pretended penitence, and acquiesced as if you did not 
understand my stratagem, that you might first expose me in presence of the people as un- 
skilful, then foreseeing that being thus exposed to the people, I must of necessity be indignant, 
and confess that I was not truly penitent, you anticipated me, that you might say, that I 
should, after my penitence, again return to my infidelity, that you might seem to have 
conquered on all sides, both if I continued in the penitence which I had professed, and if I 
did not continue; and so you should be believed to be wise, because you had foreseen these 
things, while I should seem to be deceived, because I did not foresee your trick. But you 
foreseeing mine, have used subtlety and circumvented me. But, as I said, your victory is the 
result of fortune, not of truth: yet I know why I did not foresee this; because I stood by you 
and spoke with you in my goodness, and bore patiently with you. But now I shall show you 
the power of my divinity, so that you shall quickly fall down and worship me.” 


322 



Simon's Vaunt. 


Chapter XLVII. — Simon’s Vaunt. 

“I am the first power, who am always, and without beginning . 699 But having entered 
the womb of Rachel, I was born of her as a man, that I might be visible to men. I have flown 
through the air; I have been mixed with fire, and been made one body with it; I have made 
statues to move; I have animated lifeless things; I have made stones bread; I have flown from 
mountain to mountain; I have moved from place to place, upheld by angels’ hands, and 
have lighted on the earth. Not only have I done these things; but even now I am able to do 
them, that by facts I may prove to all, that I am the Son of God, enduring to eternity, and 
that I can make those who believe on me endure in like manner for ever. But your words 
are all vain; nor can you perform any real works such as I have now mentioned, as he also 
who sent you is a magician, who yet could not deliver himself from the suffering of the 
cross.” 


699 [Compare with this chapter book ii. 9, 14; Homily II. 32. — R.] 


323 



Attempts to Create a Disturbance. 


Chapter XLVIII. — Attempts to Create a Disturbance. 

To this speech of Simon, Peter answered: “Do not meddle with the things that belong 
to others; for that you are a magician, you have confessed and made manifest by the very 
deeds that you have done; but our Master, who is the Son of God and of man, is manifestly 
good; and that he is truly the Son of God has been told, and shall be told to those to whom 
it is fitting. But if you will not confess that you are a magician, let us go, with all this multi- 
tude, to your house, and then it will be evident who is a magician.” While Peter was 
speaking thus, Simon began to assail him with blasphemies and curses, that he might make 
a riot, and excite all so that he could not be refuted, and that Peter, withdrawing on account 
of his blasphemy, might seem to be overcome. But he stood fast, and began to charge him 
more vehemently. 


324 



Simon 's Retreat. 


Chapter XLIX. — Simon’s Retreat. 

Then the people in indignation cast Simon from the court, and drove him forth from 
the gate of the house; and only one person followed him when he was driven out . 700 Then 
silence being obtained, Peter began to address the people in this manner: “You ought, 
brethren, to bear with wicked men patiently; knowing that although God could cut them 
off, yet He suffers them to remain even till the day appointed, in which judgment shall pass 
upon all. Why then should not we bear with those whom God suffers? Why should not we 
bear with fortitude the wrongs that they do to us, when He who is almighty does not take 
vengeance on them, that both His own goodness and the impiety of the wicked may be 
known? But if the wicked one had not found Simon to be his minister, he would doubtless 
have found another: for it is of necessity that in this life offences come, ‘but woe to that 
man by whom they come; and therefore Simon is rather to be mourned over, because 
he has become a choice vessel for the wicked one, which undoubtedly would not have 
happened had he not received power over him for his former sins. For why should I further 
say that he once believed in our Jesus, and was persuaded that souls are immortal? Al- 
though in this he is deluded by demons, yet he has persuaded himself that he has the soul 
of a murdered boy ministering to him in whatever he pleases to employ it in; in which truly, 
as I have said, he is deluded by demons, and therefore I spoke to him according to his own 
ideas: for he has learned from the Jews, that judgment and vengeance are to be brought 
forth against those who set themselves against the true faith, and do not repent. But here 
are men to whom, as being perfect in crimes, the wicked one appears, that he may deceive 
them, so that they may never be turned to repentance. 


700 [This account of the close of the discussion is peculiar to the Recognitions. — R.] 

701 Matt, xviii. 7. 

702 Actsviii. 13. 


325 


Peter's Benediction. 


Chapter L. — Peter’s Benediction. 

“You therefore who are turned to the Lord by repentance, bend to Him your knees.” 
When he had said this, all the multitude bent their knees to God; and Peter, looking towards 
heaven, prayed for them with tears that God, for His goodness, would deign to receive those 
betaking themselves to Him. And after he had prayed and had instructed them to meet 
early the next day, he dismissed the multitude. Then according to custom, having taken 
food, we went to sleep. 


326 



Peter's Accessibility. 


Chapter LI. — Peter’s Accessibility. 

Peter, therefore, rising at the usual hour of the night, found us waking; and when, saluting 
us, in his usual manner, he had taken his seat, first of all Niceta, said: “If you will permit 
me, my lord Peter, I have something to ask of you.” Then Peter said: “I permit not only 
you, but all, and not only now, but always, that every one confess what moves him, and the 
part in his mind that is pained, in order that he may obtain healing. For things which are 
covered with silence, and are not made known to us, are cured with difficulty, like maladies 
of long standing; and therefore, since the medicine of seasonable and necessary discourse 
cannot easily be applied to those who keep silence, every one ought to declare in what respect 
his mind is feeble through ignorance. But to him who keeps silence, it belongs to God alone 
to give a remedy. We indeed also can do it, but by the lapse of a long time. For it is necessary 
than the discourse of doctrine, proceeding in order from the beginning, and meeting each 
single question, should disclose all things, and resolve and reach to all things, even to that 
which every one required in his mind; but that, as I have said, can only be done in the course 
of a long time. Now, then, ask what you please.” 


327 



False Signs and Miracles. 


Chapter LII. — False Signs and Miracles. 

Then Niceta said: “I give you abundant thanks, O most clement Peter; but this is what 
I desire to learn, how Simon, who is the enemy of God, is able to do such and so great things? 
For indeed he told no lie in his declaration of what he has done.” To this the blessed Peter 
thus answered: “God, who is one and true, has resolved to prepare good and faithful friends 
for His first begotten; but knowing that none can be good, unless they have in their power 
that perception by which they may become good, that they may be of their own intent what 
they choose to be, — and otherwise they could not be truly good, if they were kept in goodness 
not by purpose, but by necessity, — has given to every one the power of his own will, that he 
may be what he wishes to be. And again, foreseeing that that power of will would make 
some choose good things and others evil, and so that the human race would necessarily be 
divided into two classes, He has permitted each class to choose both a place and a king, 
whom they would. For the good King rejoices in the good, and the wicked one in the evil. 
And although I have expounded those things more fully to you, O Clement, in that treatise 
in which I discoursed on predestination and the end, yet it is fitting that I should now make 
clear to Niceta also, as he asks me, what is the reason than Simon, whose thoughts are against 
God, is able to do so great marvels. 


328 



Self-Love the Foundation of Goodness. 


Chapter LIII. — Self-Love the Foundation of Goodness. 

“First of all, then, he is evil, in the judgment of God, who will not inquire what is advant- 
ageous to himself. For how can any one love another, if he does not love himself? Or to 
whom will that man not be an enemy, who cannot be a friend to himself? In order, therefore, 
that there might be a distinction between those who choose good and those who choose 
evil, God has concealed that which is profitable to men, i.e., the possession of the kingdom 
of heaven, and has laid it up and hidden it as a secret treasure, so that no one can easily attain 
it by his own power or knowledge. Yet He has brought the report of it, under various names 
and opinions, through successive generations, to the hearing of all: so that whosoever should 
be lovers of good, hearing it, might inquire and discover what is profitable and salutary to 
them; but that they should ask it, not from themselves, but from Him who has hidden it, 
and should pray that access and the way of knowledge might be given to them: which way 
is opened to those only who love it above all the good things of this world; and on no other 
condition can any one even understand it, however wise he may seem; but that those who 
neglect to inquire what is profitable and salutary to themselves, as self- haters and self-enemies, 
should be deprived of its good things, as lovers of evil things. 


329 



God to Be Supremely Loved. 


Chapter LIV. — God to Be Supremely Loved. 

“It behoves, therefore, the good to love that way above all things, that is, above riches, 
glory, rest, parents, relatives, friends, and everything in the world. But he who perfectly 
loves this possession of the kingdom of heaven, will undoubtedly cast away all practice of 
evil habit, negligence, sloth, malice, anger, and such like. For if you prefer any of these to 
it, as loving the vices of your own lust more than God, you shall not attain to the possession 
of the heavenly kingdom; for truly it is foolish to love anything more than God. For 
whether they be parents, they die; or relatives, they do not continue; or friends, they change. 
But God alone is eternal, and abideth unchangeable. He, therefore, who will not seek after 
that which is profitable to himself, is evil, to such an extent that his wickedness exceeds the 
very prince of impiety. For he abuses the goodness of God to the purpose of his own 
wickedness, and pleases himself; but the other neglects the good things of his own salvation, 
that by his own destruction he may please the evil one.” 


330 



Ten Commandmen ts Corresponding to the Plagues of Egypt. 


Chapter LV. — Ten Commandments Corresponding to the Plagues of Egypt. 

“On account of those, therefore, who by neglect of their own salvation please the evil 
one, and those who by study of their own profit seek to please the good One, ten things have 
been prescribed as a test to this present age, according to the number of the ten plagues 
which were brought upon Egypt. For when Moses, according to the commandment of God, 
demanded of Pharaoh that he should let the people go, and in token of his heavenly com- 

'jO'i 

mission showed signs, his rod being thrown upon the ground was turned into a serpent. 
And when Pharaoh could not by these means be brought to consent, as having freedom of 
will, again the magicians seemed to do similar signs, by permission of God, that the purpose 
of the king might be proved from the freedom of his will, whether he would rather believe 
the signs wrought by Moses, who was sent by God, or those which the magicians rather 
seemed to work than actually wrought. For truly he ought to have understood from their 
very name that they were not workers of truth, because they were not called messengers of 
God, but magicians, as the tradition also intimates. Moreover, they seemed to maintain the 
contest up to a certain point, and afterwards they confessed of themselves, and yielded to 
their superior . 704 Therefore the last plague is inflicted , 705 the destruction of the first-born, 
and then Moses is commanded to consecrate the people by the sprinkling of blood; and so, 
gifts being presented, with much entreaty he is asked to depart with the people. 


703 Ex. vii., viii. 

704 Ex. viii. 19. 


705 


Ex. xii. 


331 


Simon Resisted Peter, as the Magicians Moses. 


Chapter LVI. — Simon Resisted Peter, as the Magicians Moses. 

“In a similar transaction I see that I am even now engaged. For as then, when Moses 
exhorted the king to believe God, the magicians opposed him by a pretended exhibition of 
similar signs, and so kept back the unbelievers from salvation; so also now, when I have 
come forth to teach all nations to believe in the true God, Simon the magician resists me, 
acting in opposition to me, as they also did in opposition to Moses; in order that whosoever 
they be from among the nations that do not use sound judgment, they may be made manifest; 
but that those may be saved who rightly distinguish signs from signs.” While Peter thus 
spoke, Niceta answered: “I beseech you that you would permit me to state whatever occurs 
to my mind.” Then Peter, being delighted with the eagerness of his disciples, said: “Speak 
what you will.” 


332 



Miracles of the Magicians. 


Chapter LVII. — Miracles of the Magicians. 

Then said Niceta: “In what respect did the Egyptians sin in not believing Moses, since 
the magicians wrought like signs, even although they were done rather in appearance than 
in truth? For if I had been there then, should I not have thought, from the fact that the 
magicians did like things to those which Moses did, either that Moses was a magician, or 
that the magicians wrought their signs by divine commission? For I should not have thought 
it likely that the same things could be effected by magicians, even in appearance, which he 
who was sent by God performed. And now, in what respect do they sin who believe Simon, 
since they see him do so great marvels? Or is it not marvellous to fly through the air, to be 
so mixed with fire as to become one body with it, to make statues walk, brazen dogs bark, 
and other such like things, which assuredly are sufficiently wonderful to those who know 
not how to distinguish? Yea, he has also been seen to make bread of stones. But if he sins 
who believes those who do signs, how shall it appear that he also does not sin who has be- 
lieved our Ford for His signs and works of power?” 


333 



Truth Veiled with Love. 


Chapter LVIII. — Truth Veiled with Love. 

Then said Peter: “I take it well that you bring the truth to the rule, and do not suffer 
hindrances of faith to lurk in your soul. For thus you can easily obtain the remedy. Do you 
remember that I said, that the worst of all things is when any one neglects to learn what is 
for his good?” Niceta answered: “I remember.” Then Peter: “And again, that God has 
veiled His truth, that He may disclose it to those who faithfully follow Him?” “Neither,” 
said Niceta, “have I forgotten this.” Then said Peter: “What think you then? That God has 
buried His truth deep in the earth, and has heaped mountains upon it, that it may be found 
by those only who are able to dig down into the depths? It is not so; but as He has surrounded 
the mountains and the earth with the expanse of heaven, so hath He veiled the truth with 
the curtain of His own love, that he alone may be able to reach it, who has first knocked at 
the gate of divine love. 


334 



Good and Evil in Pairs. 


Chapter LIX. — Good and Evil in Pairs. 

“For, as I was beginning to say, God has appointed for this world certain pairs; and 
he who comes first of the pairs is of evil, he who comes second, of good. And in this is given 
to every man an occasion of right judgment, whether he is simple or prudent. For if he is 
simple, and believes him who comes first, though moved thereto by signs and prodigies, he 
must of necessity, for the same reason, believe him who comes second; for he will be per- 
suaded by signs and prodigies, as he was before. When he believes this second one, he will 
learn from him that he ought not to believe the first, who comes of evil; and so the error of 
the former is corrected by the emendation of the latter. But if he will not receive the second, 
because he has believed the first, he will deservedly be condemned as unjust; for unjust it 
is, that when he believed the first on account of his signs, he will not believe the second, 
though he bring the same, or even greater signs. But if he has not believed the first, it follows 
that he may be moved to believe the second. For his mind has not become so completely 
inactive but that it may be roused by the redoubling of marvels. But if he is prudent, he can 
make distinction of the signs. And if indeed he has believed in the first, he will be moved 
to the second by the increase in the miracles, and by comparison he will apprehend which 
are better; although clear tests of miracles are recognised by all learned men, as we have 
shown in the regular order of our discussion. But if any one, as being whole and not needing 
a physician, is not moved to the first, he will be drawn to the second by the very continuance 
of the thing, and will make a distinction of signs and marvels after this fashion; — he who is 
of the evil one, the signs that he works do good to no one; but those which the good man 
worketh are profitable to men.” 

130 


706 [The substance of chaps. 59, 60, occurs in Homily II. 33, 34, just before the postponement of the discussion 
with Simon. — R.] 


335 



Uselessness of Pretended Miracles. 


Chapter LX. — Uselessness of Pretended Miracles. 

“For tell me, I pray you, what is the use of showing statues walking, dogs of brass or 
stone barking, mountains dancing, of flying through the air, and such like things, which 
you say that Simon did? But those signs which are of the good One, are directed to the ad- 
vantage of men, as are those which were done by our Lord, who gave sight to the blind and 
hearing to the deaf, raised up the feeble and the lame, drove away sicknesses and demons, 
raised the dead, and did other like things, as you see also that I do. Those signs, therefore, 
which make for the benefit of men, and confer some good upon them, the wicked one cannot 
do, excepting only at the end of the world. For then it shall be permitted him to mix up 
with his signs some good ones, as the expelling of demons or the healing of diseases; by this 
means going beyond his bounds, and being divided against himself, and fighting against 
himself, he shall be destroyed. And therefore the Lord has foretold, that in the last times 
there shall be such temptation, that, if it be possible, the very elect shall be deceived; that is 
to say, that by the marks of signs being confused, even those must be disturbed who seem 
to be expert in discovering spirits and distinguishing miracles. 


336 



Ten Pairs. 


Chapter LXI. — Ten Pairs. 

“The ten pairs of which we have spoken have therefore been assigned to this world 
from the beginning of time. Cain and Abel were one pair. The second was the giants and 
Noah; the third, Pharaoh and Abraham; the fourth, the Philistines and Isaac; the fifth, Esau 
and Jacob; the sixth, the magicians and Moses the lawgiver; the seventh, the tempter and 
the Son of man; the eighth, Simon and I, Peter; the ninth, all nations, and he who shall be 
sent to sow the word among the nations; the tenth, Antichrist and Christ. Concerning these 
pairs we shall give you fuller information at another time.” When Peter spoke thus, Aquila 
said: “Truly there is need of constant teaching, that one may learn what is true about 
everything.” 


707 [On the doctrine of pairs compare Homily II. 15, etc., 33; III. 23. — R.] 


337 



The Christian Life. 


Chapter LXII. — The Christian Life. 

But Peter said: “Who is he that is earnest toward instruction, and that studiously inquires 
into every particular, except him who loves his own soul to salvation, and renounces all the 
affairs of this world, that he may have leisure to attend to the word of God only? Such is he 
whom alone the true Prophet deems wise, even he who sells all that he has and buys the one 
true pearl, who understands what is the difference between temporal things and eternal, 
small and great, men and God. For he understands what is the eternal hope in presence of 
the true and good God. But who is he that loves God, save him who knows His wisdom? 
And how can any one obtain knowledge of God’s wisdom, unless he be constant in hearing 
His word? Whence it comes, that he conceives a love for Him, and venerates Him with 
worthy honour, pouring out hymns and prayers to Him, and most pleasantly resting in 
these, accounteth it his greatest damage if at any time he speak or do aught else even for a 
moment of time; because, in reality, the soul which is filled with the love of God can neither 
look upon anything except what pertains to God, nor, by reason of love of Him, can be sat- 
isfied with meditating upon those things which it knows to be pleasing to Him. But those 
who have not conceived affection for Him, nor bear His love lighted up in their mind, are 
as it were placed in darkness and cannot see light; and therefore, even before they begin to 
learn anything of God, they immediately faint as though worn out by labour; and filled with 
weariness, they are straightway hurried by their own peculiar habits to those words with 
which they are pleased. For it is wearisome and annoying to such persons to hear anything 
about God; and that for the reason I have stated, because their mind has received no 
sweetness of divine love.” 


708 Matt. xiii. 46. 


338 


A Deserter from Simon's Camp. 


Chapter LXIII. — A Deserter from Simon’s Camp. 

While Peter was thus speaking, the day dawned; and, behold, one of the disciples of Si- 
mon came, crying out : 709 “I beseech thee, O Peter, receive me, a wretch, who have been 
deceived by Simon the magician, to whom I gave heed as to a heavenly God, by reason of 
those miracles which I saw him perform. But when I heard your discourses, I began to think 
him a man, and indeed a wicked man; nevertheless, when he went out from this I alone 
followed him, for I had not yet clearly perceived his impieties. But when he saw me following 
him, he called me blessed, and led me to his house; and about the middle of the night he 
said to me, ‘I shall make you better than all men, if you will remain with me even till the 
end.’ When I had promised him this, he demanded of me an oath of perseverance; and 
having got this, he placed upon my shoulders some of his polluted and accursed secret 
things, that I might carry them, and ordered me to follow him. But when we came to the 
sea, he went aboard a boat which happened to be there, and took from my neck what he 
had ordered me to carry. And as he came out a little after, bringing nothing with him, he 
must have thrown it into the sea. Then he asked me to go with him, saying that he was going 
to Rome, and that there he would please the people so much, that he should be reckoned a 
god, and publicly gifted with divine honours. ‘Then,’ said he, ‘if you wish to return hither, 
I shall send you back, loaded with all riches, and upheld by various services.’ When I heard 
this, and saw nothing in him in accordance with this profession, but perceived that he was 
a magician and a deceiver, I answered: ‘Pardon me, I pray you; for I have a pain in my feet, 
and therefore I am not able to leave Caesarea. Besides, I have a wife and little children, whom 
I cannot leave by any means.’ When he heard this, he charged me with sloth, and set out 
towards Dora, saying, ‘You will be sorry, when you hear what glory I shall get in the city of 
Rome.’ And after this he set out for Rome, as he said; but I hastily returned hither, entreating 
you to receive me to penitence, because I have been deceived by him.” 


709 [This incident is narrated only in the Recognitions. — R.] 


339 



Declaration of Simon's Wickedness. 


Chapter LXIV. — Declaration of Simon’s Wickedness. 

When he who had returned from Simon had thus spoken, Peter ordered him to sit down 
in the court. And he himself going forth, and seeing immense crowds, far more than on 
the previous days, stood in his usual place; and pointing out him who had come, began to 
discourse as follows: “This man whom I point out to you, brethren, has just come to me, 
telling me of the wicked practices of Simon, and how he has thrown the implements of his 
wickedness into the sea, not induced to do so by repentance, but being afraid lest, being 
detected, he should be subjected to the public laws. And he asked this man, as he tells me, 
to remain with him, promising him immense gifts; and when he could not persuade him 
to do so, he left him, reproaching him for sluggishness, and set out for Rome.” When Peter 
had intimated this to the crowd, the man himself who had returned from Simon stood up, 
and began to state to the people everything relating to Simon’s crimes. And when they were 
shocked by the things which they heard that Simon had done by his magical acts, Peter 
said : 710 


710 [With the remainder of the book compare Homily III. 58-73. The resemblance is general rather than 
particular. — R.] 


340 



Peter Resolves to Follow Simon. 


Chapter LXV. — Peter Resolves to Follow Simon. 

“Be not, my brethren, distressed by those things that have been done, but give heed to 
the future: for what is passed is ended; but the things which threaten are dangerous to those 
who shall fall in with them. For offences shall never be wanting in this world, so long as 
the enemy is permitted to act according to his will; in order that the prudent and those who 
understood his wiles may be conquerors in the contests which he raises against them; but 
that those who neglect to learn the things that pertain to the salvation of their souls, may 
be taken by him with merited deceptions. Since, therefore, as you have heard, Simon has 
gone forth to preoccupy the ears of the Gentiles who are called to salvation, it is necessary 
that I also follow upon his track, so that whatever disputations he raises may be corrected 
by us. But inasmuch as it is right that greater anxiety should be felt concerning you who 
are already received within the walls of life, — for if that which has been actually acquired 
perish, a positive loss is sustained; while with respect to that which has not yet been acquired, 
if it can be got, there is so much gain; but if not, the only loss is that there is no gain; — in 
order, therefore, that you may be more and more confirmed in the truth, and the nations 
who are called to salvation may in no way be prevented by the wickedness of Simon, I have 
thought good to ordain Zacchaeus as pastor over you, and to remain with you myself for 
three months; and so to go to the Gentiles, lest through our delaying longer, and the crimes 
of Simon stalking in every direction, they should become incurable.” 


711 Matt, xviii. 7; Luke xvii. 1. 

712 [In the Homilies full details are given respecting the choice of Zacchaeus (who is identified with the pub- 
lican in Luke xix.), his unwillingness to serve; precepts are also added concerning Church officers. — R.] 


341 


Zacchceus Made Bishop of Ccesarea; Presbyters and Deacons Ordained. 


Chapter LXVI. — Zacchaeus Made Bishop of Caesarea; Presbyters and Deacons Or- 
dained. 

At this announcement all the people wept, hearing that he was going to leave them; and 
Peter, sympathizing with them, himself also shed tears; and looking up to heaven, he said: 
“To Thee, O God, who hast made heaven and earth, and all things that are in them, we pour 
out the prayer of supplication, that Thou wouldest comfort those who have recourse to Thee 
in their tribulation. For by reason of the affection that they have towards Thee, they do love 
me who have declared to them Thy truth. Wherefore guard them with the right hand of 
Thy compassion; for neither Zacchaeus nor any other man can be a sufficient guardian to 
them.” When he had said this, and more to the same effect, he laid his hands upon Zacchaeus, 
and prayed that he might blamelessly discharge the duty of his bishopric. Then he ordained 
twelve presbyters and four deacons, and said: “I have ordained you this Zacchaeus as a 
bishop, knowing that he has the fear of God, and is expert in the Scriptures. You ought 
therefore to honour him as holding the place of Christ, obeying him for your salvation, and 
knowing that whatever honour and whatever injury is done to him, redounds to Christ, and 
from Christ to God. Hear him therefore with all attention, and receive from him the doctrine 
of the faith; and from the presbyters the monitions of life; and from the deacons the order 
of discipline. Have a religious care of widows; vigorously assist orphans; take pity on the 
poor; teach the young modesty; — and in a word, sustain one another as circumstances shall 
demand; worship God, who created heaven and earth; believe in Christ; love one another; 
be compassionate to all; and fulfil charity not only in word, but in act and deed.” 


342 



Invitation to Baptism. 


Chapter LXVII. — Invitation to Baptism. 

When he had given them these and such like precepts, he made proclamation to the 
people, saying: “Since I have resolved to stay three months with you, if any one desires it, 
let him be baptized; that, stripped of his former evils, he may for the future, in consequence 
of his own conduct, become heir of heavenly blessings, as a reward for his good actions. 
Whosoever will, then, let him come to Zacchaeus and give his name to him, and let him hear 
from him the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven. Let him attend to frequent fastings, and 
approve himself in all things, that at the end of these three months he may be baptized on 
the day of the festival. But every one of you shall be baptized in ever flowing waters, the 
name of the Trine Beatitude being invoked over him; he being first anointed with oil sanc- 
tified by prayer, that so at length, being consecrated by these things, he may attain a percep- 
tion of holy things .” 713 


713 This maybe translated, “that he may partake of holy things.” Cotelerius supposes the words “holy things” 
to mean the body and blood of Christ. 


343 



Twelve Sent Before Him. 


Chapter LXVIII. — Twelve Sent Before Him. 

And when he had spoken at length on the subject of baptism, he dismissed the crowd, 
and betook himself to his usual place of abode; and there, while the twelve stood around 
him (viz. Zacchaeus and Sophonias, Joseph and Michaeus, Eleazar and Phineas, Lazarus and 
Eliseus, I Clement and Nicodemus, Niceta and Aquila), he addressed us to the following 
effect: “Let us, my brethren, consider what is right; for it is our duty to bring some help to 
the nations, which are called to salvation. You have yourselves heard that Simon has set 
out, wishing to anticipate our journey. Him we should have followed step by step, that 
wheresoever he tries to subvert any, we might immediately confute him. But since it appears 
to me to be unjust to forsake those who have been already converted to God, and to bestow 
our care upon those who are still afar off, I think it right that I should remain three months 
with those in this city who have been turned to the faith, and should strengthen them; and 
yet that we should not neglect those who are still far off, lest haply, if they be long infected 
with the power of pernicious doctrine, it be more difficult to recover them. Therefore I 
wish (only, however, if you also think it right), that for Zacchaeus, whom we have now or- 
dained bishop, Benjamin the son of Saba be substituted; and for Clement (whom I have re- 
solved to have always by me, because, coming from the Gentiles, he has a great desire to 
hear the word of God) there be substituted Ananias the son of Safra; and for Niceta and 
Aquila, who have been but lately converted to the faith of Christ, Rubelus the brother of 
Zacchaeus, and Zacharias the builder. I wish, therefore, to complete the number of twelve 
by substituting these four for the other four, that Simon may feel that I in them am always 
with him .” 714 


714 [Compare with this chapter the lists in book ii. 1 and in Homily II. 1. The special significance attached 
to the number twelve is peculiar to this passage. — R.] 


344 



Arrangements Approved by All the Brethren. 


Chapter LXIX. — Arrangements Approved by All the Brethren. 

Having therefore separated me, Clement, and Niceta and Aquila, he said to those twelve: 
“I wish you the day after to-morrow to proceed to the Gentiles, and to follow in the footsteps 
of Simon, that you may inform me of all his proceedings. You will also inquire diligently 
the sentiments of every one, and announce to them that I shall come to them without delay; 
and, in short, in all places instruct the Gentiles to expect my coming.” When he had spoken 
these things, and others to the same effect, he said: “You also, my brethren, if you have 
anything to say to these things, say on, lest haply it be not right which seems good to me 
alone.” Then all, with one voice applauding him, said: “We ask you rather to arrange 
everything according to your own judgment, and to order what seems good to yourself; for 
this we think to be the perfect work of piety, if we fulfil what you command.” 


345 



Departure of the Twelve. 


Chapter LXX. — Departure of the Twelve. 

Therefore, on the day appointed, when they had ranged themselves before Peter, they 
said: “Do not think, O Peter, that it is a small grief to us that we are to be deprived of the 
privilege of hearing you for three months; but since it is good for us to do what you order, 
we shall most readily obey. We shall always retain in our hearts the remembrance of your 
face; and so we set out actively, as you have commanded us.” Then he, having poured out 
a prayer to the Lord for them, dismissed them. And when those twelve who had been sent 
forward had gone, Peter entered, according to custom, and stood in the place of disputation. 
And a multitude of people had come together, even a larger number than usual; and all with 
tears gazed upon him, by reason of what they had heard from him the day before, that he 
was about to go forth on account of Simon. Then, seeing them weeping, he himself also 
was similarly affected, although he endeavoured to conceal and to restrain his tears. But 
the trembling of his voice, and the interruption of his discourse, betrayed that he was dis- 
tressed by similar emotion. 


346 



Peter Prepares the Caesareans for His Departure. 


Chapter LXXI. — Peter Prepares the Caesareans for His Departure. 

However, rubbing his forehead with his hand, he said: “Be of good courage, my brethren, 
and comfort your sorrowful hearts by means of counsel, referring all things to God, whose 
will alone is to be fulfilled and to be preferred in all things. For let us suppose for a moment, 
that by reason of the affection that we have towards you, we should act against His will, and 
remain with you, is He not able, by sending death upon me, to appoint to me a longer sep- 
aration from you? And therefore it is better for us to carry out this shorter separation with 
His will, as those to whom it is prescribed to obey God in all things. Hence you also ought 
to obey Him with like submission, inasmuch as you love me from no other reason than on 
account of your love of Him. As friends of God, therefore, acquiesce in His will; but also 
judge yourselves what is right. Would it not have seemed wicked, if, when Simon was de- 
ceiving you, I had been detained by the brethren in Jerusalem, and had not come to you, 
and that although you had Zacchaeus among you, a good and eloquent man? So now also 
consider that it would be wicked, if, when Simon has gone forth to assail the Gentiles, who 
are wholly without a defender, I should be detained by you, and should not follow him. 
Wherefore let us see to it, that we do not, by an unreasonable affection, accomplish the will 
of the wicked one.” 


347 



More Than Ten Thousand Baptized. 


Chapter LXXII. — More Than Ten Thousand Baptized. 

“Meantime I shall remain with you three months, as I promised. Be ye constant in 
hearing the word; and at the end of that time, if any are able and willing to follow us, they 
may do so, if duty will admit of it. And when I say if duty will admit I mean that no one by 
his departure must sadden any one who ought not to be saddened, as by leaving parents 
who ought not to be left, or a faithful wife, or any other person to whom he is bound to afford 
comfort for God’s sake.” Meantime, disputing and teaching day by day, he filled up the 
time appointed with the labour of teaching; and when the festival day arrived, upwards of 
ten thousand were baptized. 


348 



Tidings of Simon. 


Chapter LXXIII. — Tidings of Simon. 

But in those days a letter was received from the brethren who had gone before, in which 
were detailed the crimes of Simon, how going from city to city he was deceiving multitudes, 
and everywhere maligning Peter, so that, when he should come, no one might afford him 
a hearing. For he asserted that Peter was a magician, a godless man, injurious, cunning, 
ignorant, and professing impossible things. “For,” says he, “he asserts that the dead shall 
rise again, which is impossible. But if any one attempts to confute him, he is cut off by secret 
snares by him, through means of his attendants. Wherefore, I also,” says he, “when I had 
vanquished him and triumphed over him, fled for fear of his snares, lest he should destroy 
me by incantations, or compass my death by plots.” They intimated also that he mainly 

71 ^ 

stayed at Tripolis. 


715 [In Homily III. 58 Simon is represented as doing great miracles at Tyre. Peter follows him there, but 
finds that he has gone. The long discussions with him are assigned to Laodicea. See Homilies, xvi., etc. — R.] 

349 



Farewell to Ccesarea. 


Chapter LXXIV. — Farewell to Caesarea. 

Peter therefore ordered the letter to be read to the people; and after the reading of it, he 
addressed them and gave them full instructions about everything, but especially that they 
should obey Zacchaeus, whom he had ordained bishop over them. Also he commended the 
presbyters and the deacons to the people, and not less the people to them. And then, an- 
nouncing that he should spend the winter at Tripolis, he said: “I commend you to the grace 
of God, being about to depart to-morrow, with God’s will. But during the whole three 
months which he spent at Caesarea, for the sake of instruction, whatever he discoursed of 
in the presence of the people in the day-time, he explained more fully and perfectly in the 
night, in private to us, as more faithful and completely approved by him. And at the same 
time he commanded me, because he understood that I carefully stored in my memory what 
I heard, to commit to writing whatever seemed worthy of record, and to send it to you, my 
lord James, as also I did, in obedience to his command.” 


350 



Contents of Clement's Despatches to James. 


Chapter LXXV. — Contents of Clement’s Despatches to James. 

The first book, therefore, of those that I formerly sent to you, contains an account 
of the true Prophet, and of the peculiarity of the understanding of the law, according to 
what the tradition of Moses teacheth. The second contains an account of the beginning, 
and whether there be one beginning or many, and that the law of the Hebrews knows what 
immensity is. The third, concerning God, and those things that have been ordained by 
Him. The fourth, that though there are many that are called gods, there is but one true God, 
according to the testimonies of the Scriptures. The fifth, that there are two heavens, one of 
which is that visible firmament which shall pass away, but the other is eternal and invisible. 
The sixth, concerning good and evil; and that all things are subjected to good by the Father; 
and why, and how, and whence evil is, and that it co-operates with good, but not with a 
good purpose; and what are the signs of good, and what those of evil; and what is the differ- 
ence between duality and conjunction. The seventh, what are the things which the twelve 
apostles treated of in the presence of the people in the temple. The eighth, concerning the 
words of the Lord which seem to be contradictory, but are not; and what is the explanation 
of them. The ninth, that the law which has been given by God is righteous and perfect, and 
that it alone can make pure. The tenth, concerning the carnal birth of men, and concerning 
the generation which is by baptism; and what is the succession of carnal seed in man; and 
what is the account of his soul, and how the freedom of the will is in it, which, seeing it is 
not unbegotten, but made, could not be immoveable from good. Concerning these several 
subjects, therefore, whatever Peter discoursed at Caesarea, according to his command, as I 
have said, I have sent you written in ten volumes. But on the next day, as had been de- 


716 Cotelerius remarks that these ten books previously sent to James (if they ever existed) ought to be distin- 
guished from the ten books of the Recognitions, which were addressed to the same James, but written after those 
now mentioned. 

717 [This chapter furnishes some positive evidence that the Recognitions are based upon an earlier work. The 
topics here named do not correspond with those of the Homilies, except in the most general way. Hence this 
passage does not favour the theory that the author of the Recognitions had the Homilies before him when he 
wrote. Even in xvi.-xix. of the later work, which Uhlhorn regarded as the nucleus of the entire literature, the 
resemblances are slight. As already intimated (see Introductory Notice, p. 71), Uhlhorn has abandoned this 
theory. On the other hand the chapter bears marks of being the conclusion to a complete document. It can 
therefore be urged in support of the new view of Lehmann ( Die Clementinischen Schriften, Gotha, 1869), that 
the Recognitions are made up of two parts (books i.-iii., iv.-x.) by two different authors, both parts being based 
on earlier documents. This chapter is regarded by Hilgenfeld as containing a general outline of the Kerygma 
Petri, a Jewish-Christian document of Roman origin. In i. 27-72 he finds a remnant of this document incorporated 
in the Recognitions. — R.] 



351 



Contents of Clement's Despatches to James. 


termined, we set out from Caesarea with some faithful men, who had resolved to accompany 
Peter. 


352 



Book IV. 


Book IV. 


Chapter I. — Halt at Dora. 

Having set out from Caesarea on the way to Tripolis, we made our first stoppage at a 
small town called Dora, because it was not far distant; and almost all those who had believed 
through the preaching of Peter could scarcely bear to be separated from him, but walked 
along with us, again and again gazing upon him, again and again embracing him, again and 
again conversing with him, until we came to the inn. On the following day we came to 
Ptolemais, where we stayed ten days; and when a considerable number had received the 
word of God, we signified to some of them who seemed particularly attentive, and wished 
to detain us longer for the sake of instruction, that they might, if so disposed, follow us to 
Tripolis. We acted in the same way at Tyre, and Sidon, and Berytus, and announced to 

71 R 

those who desired to hear further discourses, that we were to spend the winter at Tripolis. 
Therefore, as all those who were anxious followed Peter from each city, we were a great 
multitude of elect ones when we entered into Tripolis. On our arrival, the brethren who 
had been sent before met us before the gates of the city; and taking us under their charge, 
conducted us to the various lodgings which they had prepared. Then there arose a commo- 

71 Q 

tion in the city, and a great assemblage of persons desirous to see Peter. 



718 [In books iv.-vi. the scene is laid at Tripolis. The same city is the locality to which Homilies VIII. -XI. 
are assigned. The intervening portion (Homilies IV. -VII.) gives the details of the journey here alluded to, telling 
of various discourses at Tyre. Some of the matter of these discourses occurs in the Recognitions, but under dif- 
ferent circumstances. The heathen disputants are not the same. The parallelisms of the portions assigned to 
Tripolis are as follows: book iv. has its counterpart in Homily VIII. and in much of Homily IX.; book v. has a 
parallel in Homily X. and it, parts of XI.; book vi. in its general outline resembles Homily XI. The discourses of 
the Apostle as given in the Recognitions are more orderly and logical than those in the Homilies. The views 
presented differ somewhat, in accordance with the general character of the two works. Much of the matter in 
the Recognitions occurs in a different order in the Homilies, but the internal evidence seems to point to the pri- 
ority of the former. Both might be different manipulations of a common documentary source, but that theory 
is not necessarily applicable to these portions of the literature. — R.] 

719 [“Maroones,” Homily VIII. 1. — R.] 


353 



Reception in the House of Metro. 


Chapter II. — Reception in the House of Maro. 

And when we had come to the house of Maro, in which preparation had been made for 
Peter, he turned to the crowd, and told them that he would address them the day after to- 
morrow. Therefore the brethren who had been sent before assigned lodgings to all who had 
come with us. Then, when Peter had entered into the house of Maro, and was asked to 
partake of food, he answered that he would by no means do so, until he had ascertained 
whether all those that had accompanied him were provided with lodgings. Then he learned 
from the brethren who had been sent before, that the citizens had received them not only 
hospitably, but with all kindness, by reason of their love towards Peter; so much so, that 
several were disappointed because there were no guests for them; for that all had made such 
preparations, that even if many more had come, there would still have been a deficiency of 
guests for the hosts, not of hosts for the guests. 


354 



Simon's Flight. 


Chapter III. — Simon’s Flight. 

Thereupon Peter was greatly delighted, and praised the brethren, and blessed them, and 
requested them to remain with him. Then, when he had bathed in the sea, and had taken 
food, he went to sleep in the evening; and rising, as usual, at cock-crow, while the evening 
light was still burning, he found us all awake. Now there were in all sixteen of us, viz. Peter 
and I, Clement, Niceta and Aquila, and those twelve who had preceded us. “ Saluting us, 
then, as was his wont, Peter said: “Since we are not taken up with others to-day, let us be 
taken up with ourselves. I shall tell you what took place at Caesarea after your departure, 
and you shall tell us of the doings of Simon here.” And while the conversation was going 
on on these subjects, at daybreak some of the members of the family came in and told Peter 
that Simon, when he heard of Peter’s arrival, departed in the night, on the way to Syria. 
They also stated that the crowds thought that the day which he had said was to intervene 
was a very long time for their affection, and that they were standing in impatience before 
the gate, conversing among themselves about those things which they wished to hear, and 
that they hoped that they should by all means see him before the time appointed; and that 
as the day became lighter the multitudes were increasing, and that they were trusting con- 
fidently, whatever they might be presuming upon, that they should hear a discourse from 
him. “Now then,” said they, “instruct us to tell them what seems good to you; for it is absurd 
that so great a multitude should have come together, and should depart with sadness, through 
no answer being returned to them. For they will not consider that it is they that have not 
waited for the appointed day but rather they will think that you are slighting them.” 


720 [Comp. Homily VIII. 3. — R.] 


355 



The Hcin’est Plenteous. 


Chapter IV. — The Harvest Plenteous. 

79 1 

Then Peter, filled with admiration, said: “You see, brethren, how every word of the 

Lord spoken prophetically is fulfilled. For I remember that He said, ‘The harvest indeed is 
plenteous, but the labourers are few; ask therefore the Lord of the harvest, that He would 
send out labourers into His harvest. Behold, therefore, the things which are foretold in 
a mystery are fulfilled. But whereas He said also, ‘Many shall come from the east and the 
west, from the north and the south, and shall recline in the bosom of Abraham, and Isaac, 
and lacob; this also is, as you see, in like manner fulfilled. Wherefore I entreat you, my 
fellow-servants and helpers, that you would learn diligently the order of preaching, and the 
ways of absolutions, that ye may be able to save the souls of men, which by the secret power 
of God acknowledge whom they ought to love, even before they are taught. For you see 
that these men, like good servants, long for him whom they expect to announce to them the 
coming of their Lord, that they may be able to fulfil His will when they have learned it. The 
desire, therefore, of hearing the word of God, and inquiring into His will, they have from 
God; and this is the beginning of the gift of God, which is given to the Gentiles, that by this 
they may be able to receive the doctrine of truth. 


721 [With chaps. 4-11 compare Homily VIII. 4-11. The correspondence is quite close. — R.] 

722 Matt. ix. 37, 38. 

723 Luke xiii. 29; Matt. viii. 11. 


356 


Moses and Christ. 


Chapter V. — Moses and Christ. 

“For so also it was given to the people of the Hebrews from the beginning, that they 
should love Moses, and believe his word; whence also it is written: ‘The people believed 
God, and Moses His servant.’ What, therefore, was of peculiar gift from God toward the 
nation of the Hebrews, we see now to be given also to those who are called from among the 
Gentiles to the faith. But the method of works is put into the power and will of every one, 
and this is their own; but to have an affection towards a teacher of truth, this is a gift of the 
heavenly Father. But salvation is in this, that you do His will of whom you have conceived 
a love and affection through the gift of God; lest that saying of His be addressed to you which 
He spoke, ‘Why call ye me Lord, Lord, and do not what I say?’ It is therefore the peculiar 
gift bestowed by God upon the Hebrews, that they believe Moses; and the peculiar gift be- 
stowed upon the Gentiles is that they love Jesus. For this also the Master intimated, when 
He said, ‘I will confess to Thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because Thou hast 
concealed these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them to babes. By 
which it is certainly declared, that the people of the Hebrews, who were instructed out of 
the law, did not know Him; but the people of the Gentiles have acknowledged Jesus, and 
venerate Him; on which account also they shall be saved, not only acknowledging Him, but 
also doing His will. But he who is of the Gentiles, and who has it of God to believe Moses, 
ought also to have it of his own purpose to love Jesus also. And again, the Hebrew, who has 
it of God to believe Moses, ought to have it also of his own purpose to believe in Jesus; so 
that each of them, having in himself something of the divine gift, and something of his own 
exertion, may be perfect by both. For concerning such an one our Lord spoke, as of a rich 

79 7 

man, ‘Who brings forth from his treasures things new and old. 


724 Ex. xiv. 31. 

725 Luke vi. 46. 

726 Matt. xi. 25. [Luke x. 21; comp. Homily XVIII. 15-17. — R.] 
Matt. xiii. 52. 


727 


357 


A Congregation. 


Chapter VI. — A Congregation. 

“But enough has been said of these things for time presses, and the religious devotion 
of the people invites us to address them.” And when he had thus spoken, he asked where 

79R 

there was a suitable place for discussion. And Maro said: “I have a very spacious hall 
which can hold more than five hundred men, and there is also a garden within the house; 
or if it please you to be in some public place, all would prefer it, for there is nobody who 
does not desire at least to see your face.” Then Peter said: “Show me the hall, or the garden.” 
And when he had seen the hall, he went in to see the garden also; and suddenly the whole 
multitude, as if some one had called them, rushed into the house, and thence broke through 
into the garden, where Peter was already standing, selecting a fit place for discussion. 


728 Aides, in the singular, probably a temple. 


358 



The Sick Healed. 


Chapter VII. — The Sick Healed. 

But when he saw that the crowds had, like the waters of a great river, poured over the 
narrow passage, he mounted upon a pillar which happened to stand near the wall of the 
garden, and first saluted the people in a religious manner. But some of those who were 
present, and who had been for a long time distressed by demons, threw themselves on the 
ground, while the unclean spirits entreated that they might be allowed but for one day to 
remain in the bodies that they had taken possession of. But Peter rebuked them, and com- 
manded them to depart; and they went out without delay. After these, others who had been 
afflicted with long-standing sicknesses asked Peter that they might receive healing; and he 
promised that he would entreat the Lord for them as soon as his discourse of instruction 
was completed. But as soon as he promised, they were freed from their sicknesses; and 
he ordered them to sit down apart, with those who had been freed from the demons, as after 
the fatigue of labour. Meantime, while this was going on, a vast multitude assembled, attrac- 
ted not only by the desire of hearing Peter, but also by the report of the cures which had 
been accomplished. But Peter, beckoning with his hand to the people to be still, and settling 
the crowds in tranquillity, began to address them as follows: — 


729 [In Homilies VIII. 8, 24, IX. 24, the healing takes place after the discourses. — R.] 


359 



Providence Vindicated. 


Chapter VIII. — Providence Vindicated. 

“It seems to me necessary, at the outset of a discourse concerning the true worship of 
God, first of all to instruct those who have not as yet acquired any knowledge of the subject, 
that throughout the divine providence must be maintained to be without blame, by which 
the world is ruled and governed. Moreover, the reason of the present undertaking, and the 
occasion offered by those whom the power of God has healed, suggest this subject for a be- 
ginning, viz. to show that for good reason very many persons are possessed of demons, that 
so the justice of God may appear. For ignorance will be found to be the mother of almost 
all evils. But now let us come to the reason. 


360 



State of Innocence a State of Enjoyment. 


Chapter IX. — State of Innocence a State of Enjoyment. 

“When God had made man after His own image and likeness, He grafted into His work 
a certain breathing and odour of His divinity, that so men, being made partakers of His 
Only-begotten, might through Him be also friends of God and sons of adoption. Whence 
also He Himself, as the true Prophet, knowing with what actions the Father is pleased, in- 
structed them in what way they might obtain that privilege. At that time, therefore, there 
was among men only one worship of God — a pure mind and an uncorrupted spirit. And 
for this reason every creature kept an inviolable covenant with the human race. For by 
reason of their reverence of the Creator, no sickness, or bodily disorder, or corruption of 
food, had power over them; whence it came to pass, that a life of a thousand years did not 
fall into the frailty of old age. 

— u 

137 


361 



Sin the Cause of Suffering. 


Chapter X. — Sin the Cause of Suffering. 

“But when men, leading a life void of distress, began to think that the continuance of 
good things was granted them not by the divine bounty, but by the chance of things, and 
to accept as a debt of nature, not as a gift of God’s goodness, their enjoyment without any 
exertion of the delights of the divine complaisance, — men, being led by these things into 
contrary and impious thoughts, came at last, at the instigation of idleness, to think that the 
life of gods was theirs by nature, without any labours or merits on their part. Hence they 
go from bad to worse, to believe that neither is the world governed by the providence of 
God, nor is there any place for virtues, since they knew that they themselves possessed the 
fulness of ease and delights, without the assignment of any works previously, and without 
any labours were treated as the friends of God. 


362 



Suffering Salutary. 


Chapter XI. — Suffering Salutary. 

“By the most righteous judgment of God, therefore, labours and afflictions are assigned 
as a remedy to men languishing in the vanity of such thoughts. And when labour and 
tribulations came upon them, they were excluded from the place of delights and amenity. 
Also the earth began to produce nothing to them without labour; and then men’s thoughts 
being turned in them, they were warned to seek the aid of their Creator, and by prayers and 
vows to ask for the divine protection. And thus it came to pass, that the worship of God, 
which they had neglected by reason of their prosperity, they recovered through their adversity; 
and their thoughts towards God, which indulgence had perverted, affliction corrected. So 
therefore the divine providence, seeing that this was more profitable to man, removed from 
them the ways of benignity and abundance, as being hurtful, and introduced the way of 
vexation and tribulation. 


730 [In Homily VIII. 12-16 there is inserted a curious account of the fall of man and angels, and of a race of 
giants. — R.] 


363 



Translation of Enoch. 


Chapter XII. — Translation of Enoch. 

70 1 

“But that He might show that these things were done on account of the ungrateful, 
He translated to immortality a certain one of the first race of men, because He saw that he 
was not unmindful of His grace, and because he hoped to call on the name of God; while 

the rest, who were so ungrateful that they could not be amended and corrected even by la- 
bours and tribulations, were condemned to a terrible death. Yet amongst them also He 
found a certain one, who was righteous with his house, whom He preserved, having en- 
joined him to build an ark, in which he and those who were commanded to go with him 
might escape, when all things should be destroyed by a deluge: in order that, the wicked 
being cut off by the overflow of waters, the world might receive a purification; and he who 
had been preserved for the continuance of the race, being purified by water, might anew 
repair the world. 


731 [Chap. 12 has no exact parallel in the Homilies , but Homily VIII. 17 resembles it. — R.] 

732 There seems to be here a mixing up of the translation of Enoch with the statement that in the days of Enos 
men began to call on the name of the Lord; Gen. iv. 26. 

733 Gen. vi. 9. 


364 


Origin of Idolatry. 


Chapter XIII. — Origin of Idolatry. 

But when all these things were done, men turned again to impiety; and on this ac- 
count a law was given by God to instruct them in the manner of living. But in process of 
time, the worship of God and righteousness were corrupted by the unbelieving and the 
wicked, as we shall show more fully by and by. Moreover, perverse and erratic religions 
were introduced, to which the greater part of men gave themselves up, by occasion of holidays 
and solemnities, instituting drinkings and banquets, following pipes, and flutes, and harps, 
and diverse kinds of musical instruments, and indulging themselves in all kinds of drunk- 
enness and luxury. Hence every kind of error took rise; hence they invented groves and altars, 
fillets and victims, and after drunkenness they were agitated as if with mad emotions. By 
this means power was given to the demons to enter into minds of this sort, so that they 
seemed to lead insane dances and to rave like Bacchanalians; hence were invented the 
gnashing of teeth, and bellowing from the depth of their bowels; hence a terrible countenance 
and a fierce aspect in men, so that he whom drunkenness had subverted and a demon had 
instigated, was believed by the deceived and the erring to be filled with the Deity. 


734 [There is a similar chapter in Homily IX. 7, but in a discourse on the following day. — R.] 


365 



God Both Good and Righteous. 


Chapter XIV. — God Both Good and Righteous. 

nor 

“Hence, since so many false and erratic religions have been introduced into the world, 
we have been sent, as good merchants, bringing unto you the worship of the true God, 
handed down from the fathers, and preserved; as the seeds of which we scatter these words 
amongst you, and place it in your choice to choose what seems to you to be right. For if 
you receive those things which we bring you, you shall not only be able yourselves to escape 
the incursions of the demon, but also to drive them away from others; and at the same time 
you shall obtain the rewards of eternal good things. But those who shall refuse to receive 
those things which are spoken by us, shall be subject in the present life to diverse demons 
and disorders of sicknesses, and their souls after their departure from the body shall be 
tormented for ever. For God is not only good, but also just; for if He were always good, and 
never just to render to every one according to his deeds, goodness would be found to be 
injustice. For it were injustice if the impious and the pious were treated by Him alike. 


735 [With chaps. 14-22 compare Homily IX. 8-18. The general outline is the same, and the resemblances 
quite close in the larger part of both passages. — R.] 


366 



How Demons Get Power Over Men. 


Chapter XV. — How Demons Get Power Over Men. 

“Therefore demons, as we have just said, when once they have been able, by means of 
opportunities afforded them, to convey themselves through base and evil actions into the 
bodies of men, if they remain in them a long time through their own negligence, because 
they do not seek after what is profitable to their souls, they necessarily compel them for the 
future to fulfil the desires of the demons who dwell in them. But what is worst of all, at the 
end of the world, when that demon shall be consigned to eternal fire, of necessity the soul 
also which obeyed him, shall with him be tortured in eternal fires, together with its body 
which it hath polluted. 


367 



Why They Wish to Possess Men. 


Chapter XVI. — Why They Wish to Possess Men. 

“Now that the demons are desirous of occupying the bodies of men, this is the reason. 
They are spirits having their purpose turned to wickedness. Therefore by immoderate eating 
and drinking, and lust, they urge men on to sin, but only those who entertain the purpose 
of sinning, who, while they seem simply desirous of satisfying the necessary cravings of 
nature, give opportunity to the demons to enter into them, because through excess they do 
not maintain moderation. For as long as the measure of nature is kept, and legitimate 
moderation is preserved, the mercy of God does not give them liberty to enter into men. 
But when either the mind falls into impiety, or the body is filled with immoderate meat or 
drink, then, as if invited by the will and purpose of those who thus neglect themselves, they 
receive power as against those who have broken the law imposed by God. 


368 



The Gospel Gives Power Over Demons. 


Chapter XVII. — The Gospel Gives Power Over Demons. 

“You see, then, how important is the acknowledgment of God, and the observance of 
the divine religion, which not only protects those who believe from the assaults of the demon, 
but also gives them command over those who rule over others. And therefore it is necessary 
for you, who are of the Gentiles, to betake yourselves to God, and to keep yourselves from 
all uncleanness, that the demons may be expelled, and God may dwell in you. And at the 
same time, by prayers, commit yourselves to God, and call for His aid against the impudence 
of the demons; for ‘whatever things ye ask, believing, ye shall receive. But even the 
demons themselves, in proportion as they see faith grow in a man, in that proportion they 
depart from him, residing only in that part in which something of infidelity still remains; 
but from those who believe with full faith, they depart without any delay. For when a soul 
has come to the faith of God, it obtains the virtue of heavenly water, by which it extinguishes 
the demon like a spark of fire. 


736 Matt. xxi. 22. 


369 


This Power in Proportion to Faith. 


Chapter XVIII. — This Power in Proportion to Faith. 

“There is therefore a measure of faith, which, if it be perfect, drives the demon perfectly 
from the soul; but if it has any defect, something on the part of the demon still remains in 
the portion of infidelity; and it is the greatest difficulty for the soul to understand when or 
how, whether fully or less fully, the demon has been expelled from it. For if he remains in 
any quarter, when he gets an opportunity, he suggests thoughts to men’s hearts; and they, 
not knowing whence they come, believe the suggestions of the demons, as if they were the 
perceptions of their own souls. Thus they suggest to some to follow pleasure by occasion 
of bodily necessity; they excuse the passionateness of others by excess of gall; they colour 
over the madness of others by the vehemence of melancholy; and even extenuate the folly 
of some as the result of abundance of phlegm. But even if this were so, still none of these 
could be hurtful to the body, except from the excess of meats and drinks; because, when 
these are taken in excessive quantities, their abundance, which the natural warmth is not 
sufficient to digest, curdles into a sort of poison, and it, flowing through the bowels and all 
the veins like a common sewer, renders the motions of the body unhealthy and base. 
Wherefore moderation is to be attained in all things, that neither may place be given to 
demons, nor the soul, being possessed by them, be delivered along with them to be tormented 
in eternal fires. 


370 



Demons Incite to Idolatry. 


Chapter XIX. — Demons Incite to Idolatry. 

“There is also another error of the demons, which they suggest to the senses of men, 
that they should think that those things which they suffer, they suffer from such as are called 
gods, in order that thereby, offering sacrifices and gifts, as if to propitiate them, they may 
strengthen the worship of false religion, and avoid us who are interested in their salvation, 
that they may be freed from error; but this they do, as I have said, not knowing that these 
things are suggested to them by demons, for fear they should be saved. It is therefore in the 
power of every one, since man has been made possessed of free-will, whether he shall hear 
us to life, or the demons to destruction. Also to some, the demons, appearing visibly under 
various figures, sometimes throw out threats, sometimes promise relief from sufferings, 
that they may instil into those whom they deceive the opinion of their being gods, and that 
it may not be known that they are demons. But they are not concealed from us, who know 
the mysteries of the creation, and for what reason it is permitted to the demons to do those 
things in the present world; how it is allowed them to transform themselves into what figures 
they please, and to suggest evil thoughts, and to convey themselves, by means of meats and 
of drink consecrated to them, into the minds or bodies of those who partake of it, and to 
concoct vain dreams to further the worship of some idol. 


371 



Folly of Idolatry. 


Chapter XX. — Folly of Idolatry. 

“And yet who can be found so senseless as to be persuaded to worship an idol, whether 
it be made of gold or of any other metal? To whom is it not manifest that the metal is just 
that which the artificer pleased? How then can the divinity be thought to be in that which 
would not be at all unless the artificer had pleased? Or how can they hope that future things 
should be declared to them by that in which there is no perception of present things? For 
although they should divine something, they should not straightway be held to be gods; for 
divination is one thing, divinity is another. For the Pythons also seem to divine, yet they 
are not gods; and, in short, they are driven out of men by Christians. And how can that be 
God which is put to flight by a man? But perhaps you will say, What as to their effecting 
cures, and their showing how one can be cured? On this principle, physicians ought also 
to be worshipped as gods, for they cure many; and in proportion as any one is more skilful, 
the more he will cure. 


372 



Heathen Oracles. 


Chapter XXI. — Heathen Oracles. 

“Whence it is evident that they since they are demoniac spirits, know some things both 
more quickly and more perfectly than men; for they are not retarded in their learning by 
the heaviness of a body. And therefore they, as being spirits, know without delay and without 
difficulty what physicians attain after a long time and by much labour. It is not wonderful, 
therefore, if they know somewhat more than men do; but this is to be observed, that what 
they know they do not employ for the salvation of souls, but for the deception of them, that 
by means of it they may indoctrinate them in the worship of false religion. But God, that 
the error of so great deception might not be concealed, and that He Himself might not seem 
to be a cause of error in permitting them so great licence to deceive men by divinations, and 
cures, and dreams, has of His mercy furnished men with a remedy, and has made the dis- 
tinction of falsehood and truth patent to those who desire to know. This, therefore, is that 
distinction: what is spoken by the true God, whether by prophets or by diverse visions, is 
always true; but what is foretold by demons is not always true. It is therefore an evident 
sign that those things are not spoken by the true God, in which at any time there is falsehood; 
for in truth there is never falsehood. But in the case of those who speak falsehoods, there 
may occasionally be a slight mixture of truth, to give as it were seasoning to the falsehoods. 


373 



Why They Sometimes Come True. 


Chapter XXII. — Why They Sometimes Come True. 

“But if any one say, What is the use of this, that they should be permitted even sometimes 
to speak truth, and thereby so much error be introduced amongst men? let him take this 
for answer: If they had never been allowed to speak any truth, then they would not foretell 
anything at all; while if they did not foretell, they would not be known to be demons. But 
if demons were not known to be in this world, the cause of our struggle and contest would 
be concealed from us, and we should suffer openly what was done in secret, that is, if the 
power were granted to them of only acting against us, and not of speaking. But now, since 
they sometimes speak truth, and sometimes falsehood, we ought to acknowledge, as I have 
said, that their responses are of demons, and not of God, with whom there is never falsehood. 


374 



Evil Not in Substance. 


Chapter XXIII. — Evil Not in Substance. 

“But if any one, proceeding more curiously, inquire: What then was the use of God’s 
making these evil things, which should have so great a tendency to subvert the minds of 

non 

men? To one proposing such a question, we answer that we must first of all inquire 
whether there is any evil in substance. And although it would be sufficient to say to him 
that it is not suitable that the creature judge the Creator, but that to judge the work of an- 
other belongs to him who is either of equal skill or equal power; yet, to come directly to the 
point, we say absolutely that there is no evil in substance. But if this be so, then the Creator 
of substance is vainly blamed. 


737 [Chaps. 23-26 have no exact parallel in the Homilies-, comp, book iii. 16-26. The questions of the origin 
of evil and of free-will are more fully treated in the Recognitions. — R.] 


375 



Why God Permits Evil. 


Chapter XXIV. — Why God Permits Evil. 

“But you will meet me by saying, Even if it has come to this through freedom of will, 
was the Creator ignorant that those whom He created would fall away into evil? He ought 
therefore not to have created those who, He foresaw, would deviate from the path of right- 
eousness. Now we tell those who ask such questions, that the purpose of assertions of the 
sort made by us is to show why the wickedness of those who as yet were not, did not prevail 
over the goodness of the Creator. For if, wishing to fill up the number and measure of 
His creation, He had been afraid of the wickedness of those who were to be, and like one 
who could find no other way of remedy and cure, except only this, that He should refrain 
from His purpose of creating, lest the wickedness of those who were to be should be ascribed 
to Him; what else would this show but unworthy suffering and unseemly feebleness on the 
part of the Creator, who should so fear the actings of those who as yet were not, that He 
refrained from His purposed creation? 


738 There is considerable variety of reading in this sentence, and the precise meaning is somewhat obscure. 
The general sense, however, is sufficiently evident, that if God had refrained from creating those who He foresaw, 
would fall into evil, this would have been to subject His goodness to their evil. 


376 



Evil Beings Turned to Good Accoun t. 


Chapter XXV. — Evil Beings Turned to Good Account. 

“But, setting aside these things, let us consider this earnestly, that God the Creator of 
the universe, foreseeing the future differences of His creation, foresaw and provided diverse 
ranks and different offices to each of His creatures, according to the peculiar movements 
which were produced from freedom of will; so that while all men are of one substance in 
respect of the method of creation, there should yet be diversity in ranks and offices, according 
to the peculiar movements of minds, to be produced from liberty of will. Therefore He 
foresaw that there would be faults in His creatures; and the method of His j ustice demanded 
that punishment should follow faults, for the sake of amendment. It behoved, therefore, 
that there should be ministers of punishment, and yet that freedom of will should draw 
them into that order. Moreover, those also must have enemies to conquer, who had under- 
taken the contests for the heavenly rewards. Thus, therefore, neither are those things destitute 
of utility which are thought to be evil, since the conquered unwillingly acquire eternal rewards 
for those by whom they are conquered. But let this suffice on these points, for in process 
of time even more secret things shall be disclosed. 


377 



Evil Angels Seducers. 


Chapter XXVI. — Evil Angels Seducers. 

“Now therefore, since you do not yet understand how great darkness of ignorance sur- 
rounds you, meantime I wish to explain to you whence the worship of idols began in this 
world. And by idols, I mean those lifeless images which you worship, whether made of 
wood, or earthenware, or stone, or brass, or any other metals: of these the beginning was 
in this wise. Certain angels, having left the course of their proper order, began to favour 
the vices of men, and in some measure to lend unworthy aid to their lust, in order that 
by these means they might indulge their own pleasures the more; and then, that they might 
not seem to be inclined of their own accord to unworthy services, taught men that demons 
could, by certain arts — that is, by magical invocations — be made to obey men; and so, as 
from a furnace and workshop of wickedness, they filled the whole world with the smoke of 
impiety, the light of piety being withdrawn. 


739 [Comp. Homily VIII. 13.— R.] 


378 



Ham the First Magician. 


Chapter XXVII. — Ham the First Magician. 

“For these and some other causes, a flood was brought upon the world , 740 as we have 
said already, and shall say again; and all who were upon the earth were destroyed, except 
the family of Noah, who survived, with his three sons and their wives. One of these, by 
name Ham, unhappily discovered the magical act, and handed down the instruction of it 
to one of his sons, who was called Mesraim, from whom the race of the Egyptians and 
Babylonians and Persians are descended. Him the nations who then existed called 
Zoroaster , 741 admiring him as the first author of the magic art; under whose name also 
many books on this subject exist. He therefore, being much and frequently intent upon the 
stars, and wishing to be esteemed a god among them, began to draw forth, as it were, certain 
sparks from the stars, and to show them to men, in order that the rude and ignorant might 
be astonished, as with a miracle; and desiring to increase this estimation of him, he attempted 
these things again and again, until he was set on fire, and consumed by the demon himself, 
whom he accosted with too great importunity. 


740 [With chaps. 27-31 compare Homily IX. 3-7. The resemblances are quite close. See also book i. 30, 
31.— R.] 

741 [With chaps. 27-31 compare Homily IX. 3-7. The resemblances are quite close. See also book i. 30, 
31.— R.] 


379 



Tower of Babel. 


Chapter XXVIII. — Tower of Babel. 

“But the foolish men who were then, whereas they ought to have abandoned the opinion 
which they had conceived of him, inasmuch as they had seen it confuted by his mortal 
punishment, extolled him the more. For raising a sepulchre to his honour, they went so far 
as to adore him as a friend of God, and one who had been removed to heaven in a chariot 
of lightning, and to worship him as if he were a living star. Hence also his name was called 
Zoroaster after his death — that is, living star — by those who, after one generation, had been 
taught to speak the Greek language. In fine, by this example, even now many worship those 
who have been struck with lightning, honouring them with sepulchres, and worshipping 
them as friends of God. But this man was born in the fourteenth generation, and died in 
the fifteenth, in which the tower was built, and the languages of men were divided into 
many. 



380 



Fire-Worship of the Persians. 


Chapter XXIX. — Fire-Worship of the Persians. 

“First among whom is named a certain king Nimrod, the magic art having been handed 
down to him as by a flash, whom the Greeks, also called Ninus, and from whom the city of 
Nineveh took its name. Thus, therefore, diverse and erratic superstitions took their beginning 
from the magic art. For, because it was difficult to draw away the human race from the love 
of God, and attach them to deaf and lifeless images, the magicians made use of higher efforts, 
that men might be turned to erratic worship, by signs among the stars, and motions brought 
down as it were from heaven, and by the will of God. And those who had been first deceived, 
collecting the ashes of Zoroaster, — who, as we have said, was burnt up by the indignation 
of the demon, to whom he had been too troublesome, — brought them to the Persians, that 
they might be preserved by them with perpetual watching, as divine fire fallen from heaven, 
and might be worshipped as a heavenly God. 


381 



Hero-Worship. 


Chapter XXX. — Hero-Worship. 

“By a like example, other men in other places built temples, set up statues, instituted 
mysteries and ceremonies and sacrifices, to those whom they had admired, either for some 
arts or for virtue, or at least had held in very great affection; and rejoiced, by means of all 
things belonging to gods, to hand down their fame to posterity; and that especially, because, 
as we have already said, they seemed to be supported by some phantasies of magic art, so 
that by invocation of demons something seemed to be done and moved by them towards 
the deception of men. To these they add also certain solemnities, and drunken banquets, 
in which men might with all freedom indulge; and demons, conveyed into them in the 
chariot of repletion, might be mixed with their very bowels, and holding a place there, might 
bind the acts and thoughts of men to their own will. Such errors, then, having been intro- 
duced from the beginning, and having been aided by lust and drunkenness, in which carnal 
men chiefly delight, the religion of God, which consisted in continence and sobriety, began 
to become rare amongst men, and to be well-nigh abolished. 


382 



Idolatry Led to All Immorality. 


Chapter XXXI. — Idolatry Led to All Immorality. 

“For whereas at first, men worshipping a righteous and all-seeing God, neither dared 
sin nor do injury to their neighbours, being persuaded that God sees the actions and 
movements of every one; when religious worship was directed to lifeless images, concerning 
which they were certain that they were incapable of hearing, or sight, or motion, they began 
to sin licentiously, and to go forward to every crime, because they had no fear of suffering 
anything at the hands of those whom they worshipped as gods. Hence the madness of wars 
burst out; hence plunderings, rapines, captivities, and liberty reduced to slavery; each one, 
as he could, satisfied his lust and his covetousness, although no power can satisfy covetous- 
ness. For as fire, the more fuel it gets, is the more extensively kindled and strengthened, so 
also the madness of covetousness is made greater and more vehement by means of those 
things which it acquires. 


383 



Invitation. 


Chapter XXXII. — Invitation. 

“Wherefore begin now with better understanding to resist yourselves in those things 
which you do not rightly desire; if so be that you can in any way repair and restore in 
yourselves that purity of religion and innocence of life which at first were bestowed upon 
man by God, that thereby also the hope of immortal blessings may be restored to you. And 
give thanks to the bountiful Father of all, by Him whom He has constituted King of peace, 
and the treasury of unspeakable honours, that even at the present time your sins may be 
washed away with the water of the fountain, or river, or even sea: the threefold name of 
blessedness being called over you, that by it not only evil spirits may be driven out, if any 
dwell in you, but also that, when you have forsaken your sins, and have with entire faith 
and entire purity of mind believed in God, you may drive out wicked spirits and demons 
from others also, and maybe able to set others free from sufferings and sicknesses. For the 
demons themselves know and acknowledge those who have given themselves up to God, 
and sometimes they are driven out by the mere presence of such, as you saw a little while 
ago, how, when we had only addressed to you the word of salutation, straightway the demons, 
on account of their respect for our religion, began to cry out, and could not bear our presence 
even for a little. 


742 [To chaps. 32, 33, a close parallel is found in Homily IX. 19-21. — R.] 


384 



The Weakest Christian More Powerful Than the Strongest Demon. 


Chapter XXXIII. — The Weakest Christian More Powerful Than the Strongest Demon. 

“Is it, then, that we are of another and a superior nature, and that therefore the demons 
are afraid of us? Nay, we are of one and the same nature with you, but we differ in religion. 
But if you will also be like us, we do not grudge it, but rather we exhort you, and wish you 
to be assured, that when the same faith and religion and innocence of life shall be in you 
that is in us, you will have equal and the same power and virtue against demons, through 
God rewarding your faith. For as he who has soldiers under him, although he maybe inferior, 
and they superior to him in strength, yet ‘says to this one, Go, and he goeth; and to another, 

'lA'X 

Come, and he cometh; and to another, Do this, and he doeth it;’ and this he is able to do, 

not by his own power, but by the fear of Caesar; so every faithful one commands the demons, 
although they seem to be much stronger than men, and that not by means of his own power, 
but by means of the power of God, who has put them in subjection. For even that which 
we have just spoken of, that Caesar is held in awe by all soldiers, and in every camp, and in 
his whole kingdom, though he is but one man, and perhaps feeble in respect of bodily 
strength, this is not effected but by the power of God, who inspires all with fear, that they 
may be subject to one. 


743 Matt. viii. 9. [Luke vii. 8. — R.] 


385 


Temptation of Christ. 


Chapter XXXIV. — Temptation of Christ. 

“This we would have you know assuredly, that a demon has no power against a man, 
unless one voluntarily submit himself to his desires . 744 Whence even that one who is the 
prince of wickedness, approached Him who, as we have said, is appointed of God King of 
peace, tempting Him, and began to promise Him all the glory of the world; because he knew 
that when he had offered this to others, for the sake of deceiving them, they had worshipped 
him. Therefore, impious as he was, and unmindful of himself, which indeed is the special 
peculiarity of wickedness, he presumed that he should be worshipped by Him by whom he 
knew that he was to be destroyed. Therefore our Lord, confirming the worship of one God, 
answered him: ‘It is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou 
serve .’ 745 And he, terrified by this answer, and fearing lest the true religion of the one and 
true God should be restored, hastened straightway to send forth into this world false 
prophets, and false apostles, and false teachers, who should speak indeed in the name of 
Christ, but should accomplish the will of the demon. 


744 [The close of this discourse, chaps. 34-37, resembles that of the first at Tripolis, in Homily VIII. 21, 24. 
As already indicated, much of Homily IX. finds a parallel in this book. — R.] 

745 Matt. iv. 10. [Luke iv. 8. — R.] 


386 


False Apostles. 


Chapter XXXV. — False Apostles. 

“Wherefore observe the greatest caution, that you believe no teacher, unless he bring 
from Jerusalem the testimonial of James the Lord’s brother, or of whosoever may come after 
him . 746 For no one, unless he has gone up thither, and there has been approved as a fit and 
faithful teacher for preaching the word of Christ, — unless, I say, he brings a testimonial 
thence, is by any means to be received. But let neither prophet nor apostle be looked for by 
you at this time, besides us. For there is one true Prophet, whose words we twelve apostles 
preach; for He is the accepted year of God, having us apostles as His twelve months. But 
for what reason the world itself was made, or what diversities have occurred in it, and why 
our Lord, coming for its restoration, has chosen and sent us twelve apostles, shall be explained 
more at length at another time. Meantime He has commanded us to go forth to preach, 
and to invite you to the supper of the heavenly King, which the Father hath prepared for 
the marriage of His Son, and that we should give you wedding garments, that is, the grace 
of baptism; which whosoever obtains, as a spotless robe with which he is to enter to the 
supper of the King, ought to beware that it be not in any part of it stained with sin, and so 
he be rejected as unworthy and reprobate. 


746 [This is peculiar in this connection. There is, at least, a suggestion of anti- Pauline spirit in its teaching. — R.] 

747 [Matt. xxii. 2-14.] 


387 


The Garments Unspotted. 


Chapter XXXVI. — The Garments Unspotted. 

“But the ways in which this garment may be spotted are these: If any one withdraw 
from God the Father and Creator of all, receiving another teacher besides Christ, who alone 
is the faithful and true Prophet, and who has sent us twelve apostles to preach the word; if 
any one think otherwise than worthily of the substance of the Godhead, which excels all 
things; — these are the things which even fatally pollute the garment of baptism. But the 
things which pollute it in actions are these: murders, adulteries, hatreds, avarice, evil ambi- 
tion. And the things which pollute at once the soul and the body are these: to partake of 
the table of demons, that is, to taste things sacrificed, or blood, or a carcase which is 
strangled, and if there be aught else which has been offered to demons. Be this therefore 

the first step to you of three; which step brings forth thirty commands, and the second sixty, 
and the third a hundred , 749 as we shall expound more fully to you at another time.” 


748 [In Homily VII. 8 a similar injunction is given, at Sidon. The language in both places recalls Acts xv. 20 
and 1 Cor. x. 21. But most of the chapter is peculiar to the Recognitions. — R.] 

749 Matt. xiii. 23. [Comp. Mark iv. 8, 20, where the order of the numbers corresponds with that of the Recog- 
nitions. The interpretation is a fanciful one, indicating not only Judaistic legalism, but the notion of esoteric 
teaching. The passage shows Ebionitic tendencies. — R.] 


388 


The Congregation Dismissed. 


Chapter XXXVII. — The Congregation Dismissed. 

When he had thus spoken, and had charged them to come to the same place in good 
time on the following day, he dismissed the crowds; and when they were unwilling to depart, 
Peter said to them: “Do me this favour on account of the fatigue of yesterday’s journey; and 
now go away, and meet in good time to-morrow.” And so they departed with joy. But Peter, 
commanding me to withdraw a little for the purpose of prayer, afterwards ordered the 

couches to be spread in the part of the garden which was covered with shade; and every one, 
according to custom, recognising the place of his own rank, we took food. Then, as there 
was still some portion of the day left, he conversed with us concerning the Lord’s miracles; 
and when evening was come, he entered his bed-chamber and went to sleep. 


750 Clement, being not yet baptized, is represented as not permitted to join with the disciples, even in prayer. 
[Comp. i. 19, ii. 70-72. This separation is indicated in the Homilies, but more emphasis is placed upon it in the 
Recognitions. — R.] 


389 



BookV. 


Book V. 


Chapter I. — Peter’s Salutation. 

nr i 

But on the following day, Peter rising a little earlier than usual, found us asleep; and 
when he saw it, he gave orders that silence should be kept for him, as though he himself 
wished to sleep longer, that we might not be disturbed in our rest. But when we rose refreshed 
with sleep, we found him, having finished his prayer, waiting for us in his bed-chamber. 
And as it was already dawn, he addressed us shortly, saluting us according to his custom, 
and forthwith proceeded to the usual place for the purpose of teaching; and when he saw 
that many had assembled there, having invoked peace upon them according to the first re- 
ligious form, he began to speak as follows: — 


751 [Book v. has a partial parallel in Homily X., which is assigned to the second day at Tripolis. The matter 
here is more extensive. Chaps. 1, 2, show some resemblance to Homily X. 3-6. — R.] 


390 



Suffering the Effect of Sin. 


Chapter II. — Suffering the Effect of Sin. 

“God, the Creator of all, at the beginning made man after His own image, and gave him 
dominion over the earth and sea, and over the air; as the true Prophet has told us, and as 
the very reason of things instructs us: for man alone is rational, and it is fitting that reason 
should rule over the irrational. At first, therefore, while he was still righteous, he was super- 
ior to all disorders and all frailty; but when he sinned, as we taught you yesterday, and became 
the servant of sin, he became at the same time liable to frailty. This therefore is written, that 
men may know that, as by impiety they have been made liable to suffer, so by piety they 
may be made free from suffering; and not only free from suffering, but by even a little faith 
in God be able to cure the sufferings of others. For thus the true Prophet promised us, saying, 
‘Verily I say to you, that if ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say to this 
mountain, Remove hence, and it shall remove. Of this saving you have yourselves also 
had proofs; for you saw yesterday how at our presence the demons removed and were put 
to flight, with those sufferings which they had brought upon men. 


752 Matt. xvii. 20. 


391 


Faith and Unbelief. 


Chapter III. — Faith and Unbelief. 

“Whereas therefore some men suffer, and others cure those who suffer, it is necessary 
to know the cause at once of the suffering and the cure; and this is proved to be nought else 
than unbelief on the part of the sufferers, and faith on the part of those who cure them. For 
unbelief, while it does not believe that there is to be a judgment by God, affords licence to 
sin, and sin makes men liable to sufferings; but faith, believing that there is to be a judgment 
of God, restrains men from sin; and those who do not sin are not only free from demons 
and sufferings, but can also put to flight the demons and sufferings of others. 


392 



Ignorance the Mother of Evils. 


Chapter IV. — Ignorance the Mother of Evils. 

“From all these things, therefore, it is concluded that all evil springs from ignorance; 
and ignorance herself, the mother of all evils, is sprung from carelessness and sloth, and is 
nourished, and increased, and rooted in the senses of men by negligence; and if any one 
teach that she is to be put to flight, she is with difficulty and indignantly torn away, as from 
an ancient and hereditary abode. And therefore we must labour for a little, that we may 
search out the presumptions of ignorance, and cut them off by means of knowledge, especially 
in those who are preoccupied with some erroneous opinions, by means of which ignorance 
is the more firmly rooted in them, as under the appearance of a certain kind of knowledge; 
for nothing is worse than for one to believe that he knows what he is ignorant of, and to 
maintain that to be true which is false. This is as if a drunk man should think himself to be 
sober, and should act indeed in all respects as a drunk man, and yet think himself to be 
sober, and should wish to be called so by others. Thus, therefore, are those also who do not 
know what is true, yet hold some appearance of knowledge, and do many evil things as if 
they were good, and hasten destruction as if it were to salvation. 


753 [Chaps. 4, 5, resemble somewhat Homily X. 2, which contains a preliminary discourse of the Apostle to 
his followers. — R.] 



393 



Advan tages of Knowledge. 


Chapter V. — Advantages of Knowledge. 

“Wherefore we must, above all things, hasten to the knowledge of the truth, that, as 
with a light kindled thereat, we may be able to dispel the darkness of errors: for ignorance, 
as we have said, is a great evil; but because it has no substance, it is easily dispelled by those 
who are in earnest. For ignorance is nothing else than not knowing what is good for us; 
once know this, and ignorance perishes. Therefore the knowledge of truth ought to be 
eagerly sought after; and no one can confer it except the true Prophet. For this is the gate 
of life to those who will enter, and the road of good works to those going to the city of salva- 
tion. 


394 



Free-Will. 


Chapter VI. — Free-Will. 

“Whether any one, truly hearing the word of of the true Prophet; is willing or unwilling 
to receive it, and to embrace His burden, that is, the precepts of life, he has either in his 
power, for we are free in will . 754 For if it were so, that those who hear had it not in their 
power to do otherwise than they had heard, there were some power of nature in virtue of 
which it were not free to him to pass over to another opinion. Or if, again, no one of the 
hearers could at all receive it, this also were a power of nature which should compel the 
doing of some one thing, and should leave no place for the other course. But now, since it 
is free for the mind to turn its judgment to which side it pleases, and to choose the way 
which it approves, it is clearly manifest that there is in men a liberty of choice. 


754 [Here again the doctrine of free-will is pressed, the Homilies containing no parallel. Chaps. 6-13 have 
no corresponding passage in Homily X. — R.] 


395 



Responsibility of Knowledge. 


Chapter VII. — Responsibility of Knowledge. 

“Therefore, before any one hears what is good for him, it is certain that he is ignorant; 
and being ignorant, he wishes and desires to do what is not good for him; wherefore he is 
not judged for that. But when once he has heard the causes of his error, and has received 
the method of truth, then, if he remain in those errors with which he had been long ago 
preoccupied, he shall rightly be called into judgment, to suffer punishment, because he has 
spent in the sport of errors that portion of life which was given him to be spent in living 
well. But he who, hearing those things, willingly receives them, and is thankful that the 
teaching of good things has been brought to him, inquires more eagerly, and does not cease 
to learn, until he ascertains whether there be truly another world, in which rewards are 
prepared for the good. And when he is assured of this, he gives thanks to God because He 
has shown him the light of truth; and for the future directs his actions in all good works, 
for which he is assured that there is a reward prepared in the world to come; while he con- 
stantly wonders and is astonished at the errors of other men, and that no one sees the truth 
which is placed before his eyes. Yet he himself, rejoicing in the riches of wisdom which he 
hath found, desires insatiably to enjoy them, and is delighted with the practice of good 
works; hastening to attain, with a clean heart and a pure conscience, the world to come, 
when he shall be able even to see God, the king of all. 


396 



Desires of the Flesh to Be Subdued. 


Chapter VIII. — Desires of the Flesh to Be Subdued. 

“But the sole cause of our wanting and being deprived of all these things is ignorance. 
For while men do not know how much good there is in knowledge, they do not suffer the 
evil of ignorance to be removed from them; for they know not how great a difference is in- 
volved in the change of one of these things for the other. Wherefore I counsel every learner 
willingly to lend his ear to the word of God, and to hear with love of the truth what we say, 
that his mind, receiving the best seed, may bring forth joyful fruits by good deeds. For if, 
while I teach the things which pertain to salvation, any one refuses to receive them, and 
strives to resist them with a mind occupied by evil opinions, he shall have the cause of his 
perishing, not from us, but from himself. For it is his duty to examine with just judgment 
the things which we say, and to understand that we speak the words of truth, that, knowing 
how things are, and directing his life in good actions, he may be found a partaker of the 
kingdom of heaven, subjecting to himself the desires of the flesh, and becoming lord of 
them, that so at length he himself also may become the pleasant possession of the Ruler of 
all. 


397 



The Two Kingdoms. 


Chapter IX. — The Two Kingdoms. 

“For he who persists in evil, and is the servant of evil, cannot be made a portion of good 
so long as he persists in evil, because from the beginning, as we have said, God instituted 
two kingdoms, and has given to each man the power of becoming a portion of that kingdom 
to which he shall yield himself to obey. And since it is decreed by God that no one man can 
be a servant of both kingdoms, therefore endeavour with all earnestness to betake yourselves 
to the covenant and laws of the good King. Wherefore also the true Prophet, when He was 
present with us, and saw some rich men negligent with respect to the worship of God, thus 
unfolded the truth of this matter: ‘No one,’ said He, ‘can serve two masters; ye cannot serve 

n rr 

God and mammon; calling riches, in the language of His country, mammon. 


755 Matt. vi. 24. 


398 


Jesus the True Prophet. 


Chapter X. — Jesus the True Prophet. 

“He therefore is the true Prophet, who appeared to us, as you have heard, in Judaea, 
who, standing in public places, by a simple command made the blind see, the deaf hear, cast 
out demons, restored health to the sick, and life to the dead; and since nothing was impossible 
to Him, He even perceived the thoughts of men, which is possible for none but God only. 
He proclaimed the kingdom of God; and we believed Him as a true Prophet in all that He 
spoke, deriving the confirmation of our faith not only from His words, but also from His 
works; and also because the sayings of the law, which many generations before had set forth 
His coming, were fulfilled in Him; and the figures of the doings of Moses, and of the patriarch 
Jacob before him, bore in all respects a type of Him. It is evident also that the time of His 
advent, that is, the very time at which He came, was foretold by them; and, above all, it was 
contained in the sacred writings, that He was to be waited for by the Gentiles. And all these 
things were equally fulfilled in Him. 


399 



The Expectation of the Gentiles. 


Chapter XI. — The Expectation of the Gentiles. 

“But that which a prophet of the Jews foretold, that He was to be waited for by the 
Gentiles, confirms above measure the faith of truth in Him. For if he had said that He 
was to be waited for by the Jews, he would not have seemed to prophesy anything extraordin- 
ary, that He whose coming had been promised for the salvation of the world should be the 
object of hope to the people of the same tribe with Himself, and to His own nation: for that 
this would take place, would seem rather to be a matter of natural inference than one requir- 
ing the grandeur of a prophetic utterance. But now, whereas the prophets say that all that 
hope which is set forth concerning the salvation of the world, and the newness of the kingdom 
which is to be established by Christ, and all things which are declared concerning Him are 
to be transferred to the Gentiles; the grandeur of the prophetic office is confirmed, not ac- 
cording to the sequence of things, but by an incredible fulfilment of the prophecy. For the 
Jews from the beginning had understood by a most certain tradition that this man should 
at some time come, by whom all things should be restored; and daily meditating and looking 
out for His coming, when they saw Him amongst them, and accomplishing the signs and 
miracles, as had been written of Him, being blinded with envy, they could not recognise 
Him when present, in the hope of whom they rejoiced while He was absent; yet the few of 
us who were chosen by Him understood it. 


756 Gen. xlix. 10. [This detailed statement of the call of the Gentiles is peculiar to the Recognitions; comp. i. 
42. Such passages seem to indicate a tendency less anti- Pauline than that of the Homilies , yet the christology 
and soteriology are Ebionitic. — R.] 


400 


Call of the Gentiles. 


Chapter XII. — Call of the Gentiles. 

“But this happened by the providence of God, that the knowledge of this good One 
should be handed over to the Gentiles, and those who had never heard of Him, nor had 
learned from the prophets, should acknowledge Him, while those who had acknowledged 
Him in their daily meditations should not know Him. For, behold, by you who are now 
present, and desire to hear the doctrine of His faith, and to know what, and how, and of 
what sort is His coming, the prophetic truth is fulfilled. For this is what the prophets foretold, 

'7C'7 

that He is to be sought for by you, who never heard of Him. And, therefore, seeing that 

the prophetic sayings are fulfilled even in yourselves, you rightly believe in Him alone, you 
rightly wait for Him, you rightly inquire concerning Him, that you not only may wait for 
Him, but also believing, you may obtain the inheritance of His kingdom; according to what 

yro 

Himself said, that every one is made the servant of him to whom he yields subjection. 

IX 

146 


757 Isa. lxv. 1. 

758 Johnviii. 34. 


401 


Invitation of the Gentiles. 


Chapter XIII. — Invitation of the Gentiles. 

“Wherefore awake, and take to yourselves our Lord and God, even that Lord who is 
Lord both of heaven and earth, and conform yourselves to His image and likeness, as the 
true Prophet Himself teaches, saying, ‘Be ye merciful, as also your heavenly Father is merciful, 
who makes His sun to rise upon the good and the evil, and rains upon the just and the un- 
just. Imitate Him, therefore, and fear Him, as the commandment is given to men, ‘Thou 

shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve. For it is profitable to 
you to serve this Lord alone, that through Him knowing the one God, ye may be freed from 
the many whom ye vainly feared. For he who fears not God the Creator of all, but fears 
those whom he himself with his own hands hath made, what does he do but make himself 
subject to a vain and senseless fear, and render himself more vile and abject than those very 
things, the fear of which he has conceived in his mind? But rather, by the goodness of Him 
who inviteth you, return to your former nobleness, and by good deeds show that you bear 
the image of your Creator, that by contemplation of His likeness ye may be believed to be 
even His sons. 


759 Luke vi. 36; Matt. v. 45. 

760 Deut. vi. 13; Matt. iv. 10. 


402 


Idols Unprofitable. 


Chapter XIV. — Idols Unprofitable. 

n /Ti 

“Begin, therefore, to cast out of your minds the vain ideas of idols, and your useless 
and empty fears, that at the same time you may also escape the condition of unrighteous 
bondage. For those have become your lords, who could not even have been profitable ser- 
vants to you. For how should lifeless images seem fit even to serve you, when they can 
neither hear, nor see, nor feel anything? Yea, even the material of which they are made, 
whether it be gold or silver, or even brass or wood, though it might have profited you for 
necessary uses, you have rendered wholly inefficient and useless by fashioning gods out of 
it. We therefore declare to you the true worship of God, and at the same time warn and 
exhort the worshippers, that by good deeds they imitate Him whom they worship, and 
hasten to return to His image and likeness, as we said before. 


761 [The parallel with Homily X. recurs at this chapter, and continues for several chapters. — R.] 


403 



Folly of Idolatry. 


Chapter XV. — Folly of Idolatry. 

“But I should like if those who worship idols would tell me if they wish to become like 
those whom they worship? Does any one of you wish to see in such sort as they see? or to 
hear after the manner of their hearing? or to have such understanding as they have? Far be 
this from any of my hearers! For this were rather to be thought a curse and a reproach to 
a man, who bears in himself the image of God, although he has lost the likeness. What sort 
of gods, then, are they to be reckoned, the imitation of whom would be execrable to their 
worshippers, and to have whose likeness would be a reproach? What then? Melt your 
useless images, and make useful vessels. Melt the unserviceable and inactive metal, and 
make implements fit for the use of men. But, says one, human laws do not allow us. He 
says well; for it is human laws, and not their own power, that prevents it. What kind of 
gods, then, are those which are defended by human laws, and not by their own energies? 
And so also they are preserved from thieves by watch- dogs and the protection of bolts, at 
least if they be of silver, or gold, or even of brass; for those that are of stone and earthenware 
are protected by their own worthlessness, for no one will steal a stone or a crockery god. 
Hence those seem to be the more miserable whose more precious metal exposes them to 
the greater danger. Since, then, they can be stolen, since they must be guarded by men, 
since they can be melted, and weighed out, and forged with hammers, ought men possessed 
of understanding to hold them as gods? 


762 [This, with the more specific statement of Homily X. 8, points to an early date. — R.] 


404 



God Alone a Fit Object of Worship. 


Chapter XVI. — God Alone a Fit Object of Worship. 

“Oh! into what wretched plight the understanding of men has fallen! For if it is reckoned 
the greatest folly to fear the dead, what shall we judge of those who fear something that is 
worse than the dead are? For those images are not even to be reckoned among the number 
of the dead, because they were never alive. Even the sepulchres of the dead are preferable 
to them, since, although they are now dead, yet they once had life; but those whom you 
worship never possessed even such base life as is in all, the life of frogs and owls. But why 
say more about them, since it is enough to say to him who adores them: Do you not see 
that he whom you adore sees not, hear that he whom you adore hears not, and understand 
that he understands not? — for he is the work of man’s hand, and necessarily is void of un- 
derstanding. You therefore worship a god without sense, whereas every one who has sense 
believes that not even those things are to be worshipped which have been made by God and 
have sense, such as the sun, moon, and stars, and all things that are in heaven and upon 
earth. For they think it reasonable, that not those things which have been made for the 
service of the world, but the Creator of those things themselves, and of the whole world, 
should be worshipped. For even these things rejoice when He is adored and worshipped, 
and do not take it well that the honour of the Creator should be bestowed on the creature. 
For the worship of God alone is acceptable to them, who alone is uncreated, and all things 
also are His creatures. For as it belongs to him who alone is uncreated to be God, so 
everything that has been created is not truly God. 


763 It was a very prevalent opinion among the ancient philosophers, that the heavenly bodies have some kind 
of life and intelligence. 


405 



Suggestions of the Old Serpen t. 


Chapter XVII. — Suggestions of the Old Serpent. 

“Above all, therefore, you ought to understand the deception of the old serpent 764 and 
his cunning suggestions, who deceives you as it were by prudence, and as by a sort of reason 
creeps through your senses; and beginning at the head, he glides through your inner marrow, 
accounting the deceiving of you a great gain. Therefore he insinuates into your minds 
opinions of gods of whatsoever kinds, only that he may withdraw you from the faith of one 
God knowing that your sin is his comfort. For he, for his wickedness, was condemned from 
the beginning to eat dust, for that he caused to be again resolved into dust him who had 
been taken from the dust, even till the time when your souls shall be restored, being brought 
through the fire; as we shall instruct you more fully at another time. From him, therefore, 
proceed all the errors and doubts, by which you are driven from the faith and belief of one 
God. 


764 [Comp, book ii. 45. In Homily X. 10, etc., the influence of the serpent is spoken of, but the discourse here 
is much fuller. There is, however, a general agreement in outline between chaps. 17-22 here and Homily X. 
10-21. — R.] 


406 



His First Suggestion. 


Chapter XVIII. — His First Suggestion. 

“And first of all he suggests to men’s thoughts not to hear the words of truth, by which 
they might put to flight the ignorance of those things which are evils. And this he does, as 
by the presentation of another knowledge, making a show of that opinion which very many 
hold, to think that they shall not be held guilty if they have been in ignorance, and that they 
shall not be called to account for what they have not heard; and thereby he persuades them 
to turn aside from hearing the word. But I tell you, in opposition to this, that ignorance is 
in itself a most deadly poison, which is sufficient to ruin the soul without any aid from 
without. And therefore there is no one who is ignorant who shall escape through his ignor- 
ance, but it is certain that he shall perish. For the power of sin naturally destroys the sinner. 
But since the judgment shall be according to reason, the cause and origin of ignorance shall 
be inquired into, as well as of every sin. For he who is unwilling to know how he may attain 
to life, and prefers to be in ignorance lest he thereby be made guilty, from this very fact is 
judged as if he knew and had knowledge. For he knew what it was that he was unwilling to 
hear; and the cunning obtained by the artifice of the serpent will avail him nothing for an 
excuse, for he will have to do with Him to whom the heart is open. But that you may know 
that ignorance of itself brings destruction, I assure you that when the soul departs from the 
body, if it leave it in ignorance of Him by whom it was created, and from whom in this world 
it obtained all things that were necessary for its uses, it is driven forth from the light of His 
kingdom as ungrateful and unfaithful. 


407 



His Second Suggestion. 


Chapter XIX. — His Second Suggestion. 

“Again, the wicked serpent suggests another opinion to men, which many of you are in 
the habit of bringing forward, — that there is, as we say, one God, who is Lord of all; but 
these also, they say, are gods. For as there is one Caesar, and he has under him many 
judges, — for example, prefects, consuls, tribunes, and other officers, — in like manner we 
think, that while there is one God greater than all, yet still that these gods are ordained in 
this world, after the likeness of those officers of whom we have spoken, subject indeed to 
that greater God, yet ruling us and the things that are in this world. In answer to this, I shall 
show you how, in those very things which you propose for deception, you are confuted by 
the reasons of truth. You say that God occupies the place of Caesar, and those who are called 
gods represent His judges and officers. Hold then, as you have adduced ft, by the example 
of Caesar; and know that, as one of Caesar’s judges or administrators, as prefects, proconsuls, 
generals, or tribunes, may lawfully take the name of Caesar, — or else both he who should 
take it and those who should confer it should be destroyed together, — so also in this case 
you ought to observe, that if any one give the name of God to any but Himself, and he accept 
it, they shall partake one and the same destruction, by a much more terrible fate than the 
servants of Caesar. For he who offends against Caesar shall undergo temporal destruction; 
but he who offends against Him who is the sole and true God, shall suffer eternal punishment, 

n / 'r 

and that deservedly, as having inj ured by a wrongful condition the name which is unique. 


765 The writer means, that insult is offered to that name which belongs to God alone by giving it to others, 
and thus placing it in a position which is unjust to it. 


408 



Egyptian Idolatry. 


Chapter XX. — Egyptian Idolatry. 

“Although this word God is not the name of God, but meantime that word is employed 
by men as His name; and therefore, as I have said, when it is used reproachfully, the reproach 
is referred to the injury of the true name. In short, the ancient Egyptians, who thought that 
they had discovered the theory of the heavenly revolutions and the nature of the stars, nev- 
ertheless, through the demon’s blocking up their senses, subjected the incommunicable 
name to all kinds of indignity. For some taught that their ox, which is called Apis, ought 
to be worshipped; others taught that the he-goat, others that cats, the ibis, a fish also, a ser- 
pent, onions, drains, crepitus ventris, ought to be regarded as deities, and innumerable 
other things, which I am ashamed even to mention.” 


— ^ 
148 


409 



Egyptian Idolatry More Reasonable Than Others. 


Chapter XXI. — Egyptian Idolatry More Reasonable Than Others. 

When Peter was speaking thus, all we who heard him laughed. Then said Peter: “You 
laugh at the absurdities of others, because through long custom you do not see your own. 
For indeed it is not without reason that you laugh at the folly of the Egyptians, who worship 
dumb animals, while they themselves are rational. But I will tell you how they also laugh 
at you; for they say, We worship living animals, though mortal; but you worship and adore 
things which never were alive at all. They add this also, that they are figures and allegories 
of certain powers by whose help the race of men is governed. Taking refuge in this for 
shame, they fabricate these and similar excuses, and so endeavour to screen their error. But 
this is not the time to answer the Egyptians, and leaving the care of those who are present 
to heal the disease of the absent. For it is a certain indication that you are held to be free 
from sickness of this sort, since you do not grieve over it as your own, but laugh at it as that 
of others. 


410 



Second Suggestion Continued. 


Chapter XXII. — Second Suggestion Continued. 

“But let us come back to you, whose opinion it is that God should be regarded as Caesar, 
and the gods as the ministers and deputies of Caesar. Follow me attentively, and I shall 
presently show you the lurking-places of the serpent, which lie in the crooked windings of 
this argument. It ought to be regarded by all as certain and beyond doubt, that no creature 
can be on a level with God, because He was made by none, but Himself made all things; nor 
indeed can any one be found so irrational, as to suppose that the thing made can be compared 
with the maker. If therefore the human mind, not only by reason, but even by a sort of 
natural instinct, rightly holds this opinion, that that is called God to which nothing can be 
compared or equalled, but which exceeds all and excels all; how can it be supposed that that 
name which is believed to be above all, is rightly given to those whom you think to be em- 
ployed for the service and comfort of human life? But we shall add this also. This world 
was undoubtedly made, and is corruptible, as we shall show more fully by and by; meantime 
it is admitted both that it has been made and that it is corruptible. If therefore the world 
cannot be called God, and rightly so, because it is corruptible, how shall parts of the world 
take the name of God? For inasmuch as the whole world cannot be God, much more its 
parts cannot. Therefore, if we come back to the example of Caesar, you will see how far you 
are in error. It is not lawful for any one, though a man of the same nature with him, to be 
compared with Caesar: do you think, then, that any one ought to be compared with God, 
who excels all in this respect, that He was made by none, but Himself made all things? But, 
indeed, you dare not give the name of Caesar to any other, because he immediately punishes 
one who offends against him; you dare give that of God to others, because He delays the 
punishment of offenders against Him, in order to their repentance. 


411 



Third Suggestion. 


Chapter XXIII. — Third Suggestion. 

“Through the mouths of others also that serpent is wont to speak in this wise: We adore 
visible images in honour of the invisible God. Now this is most certainly false. For if 
you really wished to worship the image of God, you would do good to man, and so worship 
the true image of God in him. For the image of God is in every man, though His likeness 
is not in all, but where the soul is benign and the mind pure. If, therefore, you wish truly 
to honour the image of God, we declare to you what is true, that you should do good to and 
pay honour and reverence to man, who is made in the image of God; that you minister food 
to the hungry, drink to the thirsty, clothing to the naked, hospitality to the stranger, and 
necessary things to the prisoner; and that is what will be regarded as truly bestowed upon 
God. And so far do these things go to the honour of God’s image, that he who does not 
these things is regarded as casting reproach upon the divine image. What, then, is that 
honour of God which consists in running from one stone or wooden figure to another, in 
venerating empty and lifeless figures as deities, and despising men in whom the image of 
God is of a truth? Yea, rather be assured, that whoever commits murder or adultery, or 
anything that causes suffering or injury to men, in all these the image of God is violated. 
For to injure men is a great impiety towards God. Whenever, therefore, you do to another 
what you would not have another do to you, you defile the image of God with undeserved 
distresses. Understand, therefore, that that is the suggestion of the serpent lurking within 
you, which persuades you that you may seem to be pious when you worship insensible 
things, and may not seem impious when you injure sensible and rational beings. 


766 [To chaps. 23-36 a parallel is afforded by Homily XI. 4-18. — R.] 


412 



Fourth Suggestion. 


Chapter XXIV. — Fourth Suggestion. 

“But to these things the serpent answers us with another mouth, and says: If God did 
not wish these things to be, then they should not be. I am not telling you how it is that many 
contrary things are permitted to be in this world for the probation of every one’s mind. But 
this is what is suitable to be said in the meantime: If, according to you, everything that was 
to be worshipped ought not to have been, there would have been almost nothing in this 
world. For what is there that you have left without worshipping it? The sun, the moon, the 
stars, the water, the earth, mountains, trees, stones, men; there is no one of these that ye 
have not worshipped. According to your saying, therefore, none of these ought to have 
been made by God, that you might not have anything that you could worship! Yea, He 
ought not even to have made men themselves to be the worshippers! But this is the very 
thing which that serpent which lurks within you desires: for he spares none of you; he would 
have no one of you escape from destruction. But it shall not be so. For I tell you, that not 
that which is worshipped is in fault, but he who worships. For with God is righteous judg- 
ment; and He judges in one way the sufferer, and in another way the doer, of wrong. 


413 



Fifth Suggestion. 


Chapter XXV. — Fifth Suggestion. 

“But you say: Then those who adore what ought not to be adored, should be immediately 
destroyed by God, to prevent others doing the like. But are you wiser than God, that you 
should offer Him counsel? He knows what to do. For with all who are placed in ignorance 
He exercises patience, because He is merciful and gracious; and He foresees that many of 
the ungodly become godly, and that even some of those who worship impure statues and 
polluted images have been converted to God, and forsaking their sins and doing good works, 
attain to salvation. But it is said: We ought never to have come even to the thought of doing 
these things. You do not know what freedom of will is, and you forget that he is good who 
is so by his own intention; but, he who is retained in goodness by necessity cannot be called 
good, because it is not of himself that he is so. Because, therefore, there is in every one 
liberty to choose good or evil, he either acquires rewards, or brings destruction on himself. 
Nay it is said, God brings to our minds whatsoever we think. What mean ye, O men? Ye 
blaspheme. For if He brings all our thoughts into our minds, then it is He that suggests to 
us thoughts of adultery, and covetousness, and blasphemy, and every kind of effeminacy. 
Cease, I entreat of you, these blasphemies, and understand what is the honour worthy of 
God. And say not, as some of you are wont to say, that God needs not honour from men. 
Indeed, He truly is in need of none; but you ought to know that the honour which you bestow 
upon God is profitable to yourselves. For what is so execrable, as for a man not to render 
thanks to his Creator? 


767 Rom. xi. 34. 


414 


Sixth Suggestion. 


Chapter XXVI. — Sixth Suggestion. 

“But it is said: We do better, who give thanks both to Himself, and to all with Him. In 
this you do not understand that there is the ruin of your salvation. For it is as if a sick man 
should call in for his cure at once a physician and poisoners; since these could indeed injure 
him, but not cure him; and the true physician would refuse to mix his remedies with their 
poisons, lest either the man’s destruction should be ascribed to the good, or his recovery, 
to the injurious. But you say: Is God then indignant or envious, if when He benefits us, 
our thanks be rendered to others? Even if He be not indignant, at all events He does not 
wish to be the author of error, that by means of His work credit should be given to a vain 
idol. And what is so impious, so ungrateful, as to obtain a benefit from God, and to render 
thanks to blocks of wood and stone? Wherefore arise, and understand your salvation. For 
God is in need of no one, nor does He require anything, nor is He hurt by anything; but we 
are either helped or hurt, in that we are grateful or ungrateful. For what does God gain from 
our praises, or what does He lose by our blasphemies? Only this we must remember, that 
God brings into proximity and friendship with Himself the soul that renders thanks to Him. 
But the wicked demon possesses the ungrateful soul. 


415 



Creatures Take Vengeance on Sinners. 


Chapter XXVII. — Creatures Take Vengeance on Sinners. 

“But this also I would have you know, that upon such souls God does not take vengeance 
directly, but His whole creation rises up and inflicts punishments upon the impious; and 
although in the present world the goodness of God bestows the light of the world and the 
services of the earth alike upon the pious and the impious, yet not without grief does the 
sun afford his light, and the other elements perform their service, to the impious. And, in 
short, sometimes even in opposition to the goodness of the Creator, the elements are wearied 
out by the crimes of the wicked; and thence it is that either the fruit of the earth is blighted, 
or the composition of the air is vitiated, or the heat of the sun is increased beyond measure, 
or there is an excessive amount of rain or of cold. Thence pestilence, and famine, and death 
in various forms stalk forth, for the creature hastens to take vengeance on the wicked; yet 
the goodness of God restrains it, and bridles its indignation against the wicked, and compels 
it to be obedient to His mercy, rather than to be inflamed by the sins and the crimes of men. 
For the patience of God waiteth for the conversion of men, as long as they are in this body. 


416 



Eternity of Punishments. 


Chapter XXVIII. — Eternity of Punishments. 

“But if any persist in impiety till the end of life, then as soon as the soul, which is immor- 
tal, departs, it shall pay the penalty of its persistence in impiety. For even the souls of the 
impious are immortal, though perhaps they themselves would wish them to end with their 
bodies. But it is not so; for they endure without end the torments of eternal fire, and to their 
destruction they have not the quality of mortality. But perhaps you will say to me, You 
terrify us, O Peter. And how shall we speak to you the things which are in reality? Can we 
declare to you the truth by keeping silence? We cannot state the things which are, otherwise 
than as they are. But if we were silent, we should make ourselves the cause of the ignorance 
that is ruinous to you, and should satisfy the serpent that lurks within you, and blocks up 
your senses, who cunningly suggests these things to you, that he may make you always the 
enemies of God. But we are sent for this end, that we may betray his disguises to you; and 
melting your enmities, may reconcile you to God, that you may be converted to Him, and 
may please Him by good works. For man is at enmity with God, and is in an unreasonable 
and impious state of mind and wicked disposition towards Him, especially when he thinks 
that he knows something, and is in ignorance. But when you lay aside these, and begin to 
be pleased and displeased with the same things which please and displease God, and to will 
what God willeth then ye shall truly be called His friends. 


417 



God's Care of Human Things. 


Chapter XXIX. — God’s Care of Human Things. 

“But perhaps some of you will say, God has no care of human things; and if we cannot 
even attain to the knowledge of Him, how shall we attain to His friendship? That God does 
concern Himself with the affairs of men, His government of the world bears witness: for 
the sun daily waits upon it, the showers minister to it; the fountains, rivers, winds, and all 
elements, attend upon it; and the more these things become known to men, the more do 
they indicate God’s care over men. For unless by the power of the Most High, the more 
powerful would never minister to the inferior; and by this God is shown to have not only a 
care over men, but some great affection, since He has deputed such noble elements to their 
service. But that men may also attain to the friendship of God, is proved to us by the example 
of those to whose prayers He has been so favourable, that He has withheld the heaven from 
rain when they wished, and has again opened it when they prayed. And many other 
things He has bestowed upon those who does His will, which could not be bestowed but 
upon His friends. But you will say, What harm is done to God if these things also are wor- 
shipped by us? If any one of you should pay to another the honour that is due to his father, 
from whom he has received innumerable benefits, and should reverence a stranger and 
foreigner as his father, should you not think that he was undutiful towards his father, and 
most deserving to be disinherited? 


768 1 Kings xvii.; xviii.; Jas. v. 17, 18. 


418 


Religion of Fathers to Be Abandoned. 


Chapter XXX. — Religion of Fathers to Be Abandoned. 

“Others say, It is wicked if we do not worship those idols which have come down to us 
from our fathers, and prove false to the religion bequeathed to us by our ancestors. On this 
principle, if any one’s father was a robber or a base fellow, he ought not to change the 
manner of life handed down to him by his fathers, nor to be recalled from his father’s errors 
to a better way; and it is reckoned impious if one do not sin with his parents, or does not 
persist in impiety with them. Others say, We ought not to be troublesome to God, and to 
be always burdening Him with complaints of our miseries, or with the exigencies of our 
petitions. How foolish and witless an answer! Do you think it is troublesome to God if you 
thank Him for His benefits, while you do not think it troublesome to Him if, for His gifts, 
you render thanks to stocks and stones? And how comes it, that when rain is withheld in 
a long drought, we all turn our eyes to heaven, and entreat the gift of rain from God Almighty, 
and all of us with our little ones pour out prayers on God and entreat His compassion? But 
truly ungrateful souls, when they obtain the blessing, quickly forget: for as soon as they 
have gathered in their harvest or their vintage, straightway they offer the first-fruits to deaf 
and dumb images, and pay vows in temples or groves for those things which God has be- 
stowed upon them, and then offer sacrifices to demons; and having received a favour, deny 
the bestower of the favour. 


769 Literally, “change the bestower of it for another. 


419 



Paganism , Its Enormities. 


Chapter XXXI. — Paganism, Its Enormities. 

“But some say, These things are instituted for the sake of joy, and for refreshing our 
minds; and they have been devised for this end, that the human mind may be relaxed for a 
little from cares and sorrows. See now what a charge you yourselves bring upon the things 
which you practise. If these things have been invented for the purpose of lightening sorrow 
and affording enjoyment, how is it that the invocations of demons are performed in groves 
and woods? What is the meaning of the insane whirlings, and the slashing of limbs, and 
the cutting off of members? How is it that mad rage is produced in them? How is insanity 
produced? How is it that women are driven violently, raging with dishevelled hair? Whence 
the shrieking and gnashing of teeth? Whence the bellowing of the heart and the bowels, 
and all those things which, whether they are pretended or are contrived by the ministration 
of demons, are exhibited to the terror of the foolish and ignorant? Are these things done 
for the sake of lightening the mind, or rather for the sake of oppressing it? Do ye not yet 
perceive nor understand, that these are the counsels of the serpent lurking within you, which 
draws you away from the apprehension of truth by irrational suggestions of errors, that he 
may hold you as slaves and servants of lust and concupiscence and every disgraceful thing? 


420 



True Religion Calls to Sobriety and Modesty. 


Chapter XXXII. — True Religion Calls to Sobriety and Modesty. 

“But I protest to you with the clear voice of preaching, that, on the contrary, the religion 
of God calls you to sobriety and modesty; orders you to refrain from effeminacy and madness, 
and by patience and gentleness to prevent the inroads of anger; to be content with your own 
possessions, and with the virtue of frugality; not even when driven by poverty to plunder 
the goods of others, but in all things to observe justice; to withdraw yourselves wholly from 
the idol sacrifices: for by these things you invite demons to you, and of your own accord 
give them the power of entering into you; and so you admit that which is the cause either 
of madness or of unlawful love. 


421 



Origin of Impiety. 


Chapter XXXIII. — Origin of Impiety. 

“Hence is the origin of all impiety; hence murders, adulteries, thefts; and a nursery is 
formed of all evils and wickednesses, while you indulge in profane libations and odours, 
and give to wicked spirits an opportunity of ruling and obtaining some sort of authority 
over you. For when they invade your senses, what do they else than work the things which 
belong to lust and injustice and cruelty, and compel you to be obedient to all things that are 
pleasing to them? God, indeed, permits you to suffer this at their hands by a certain righteous 
judgment, that from the very disgrace of your doings and your feelings you may understand 
how unworthy it is to be subject to demons and not to God. Hence also, by the friendship 
of demons, men are brought to disgraceful and base deeds; hence, men proceed even to the 
destruction of life, either through the fire of lust, or through the madness of anger through 
excess of grief, so that, as is well known, some have even laid violent hands upon them- 
selves. And this, as we have said, by a just sentence of God they are not prevented from 
doing, that they may both understand to whom they have yielded themselves in subjection, 
and know whom they have forsaken. 


770 The original has here, “as is often known;” that is, as people know from many instances having occurred 
within their own knowledge. 


422 



Who are Worshippers of God? 


Chapter XXXIV. — Who are Worshippers of God? 

“But some one will say, These passions sometimes befall even those who worship God. 
It is not true. For we say, that he is a worshipper of God, who does the will of God, and 
observes the precepts of His law. For in God’s estimation he is not a Jew who is called a Jew 
among men (nor is he a Gentile that is called a Gentile), but he who, believing in God, fulfils 
His law and does His will, though he be not circumcised. He is the true worshipper of 
God, who not only is himself free from passions, but also sets others free from them; though 
they be so heavy that they are like mountains, he removes them by means of the faith with 
which he believes in God. Yea, by faith he truly removes mountains with their trees, if it be 
necessary. But he who seems to worship God, but is neither fortified by a full faith, nor 
by obedience to the commandments, but is a sinner, has given a place in himself, by reason 
of his sins, to passions, which are appointed of God for the punishment of those who sin, 
that they may exact from them the deserts of their sins by means of punishments inflicted, 
and may bring them purified to the general judgment of all, provided always that their faith 
do not fail them in their chastisement. For the chastisement of unbelievers in the present 
life is a judgment, by which they begin to be separated from future blessings; but the chas- 
tisement of those who worship God, while it is inflicted upon them for sins into which they 
have fallen, exacts from them the due of what they have done, that, preventing the judgment, 
they may pay the debt of their sin in the present life, and be freed, at least in half, from the 
eternal punishments which are there prepared. 


771 Rom. ii. 28; Rev. ii. 9. 

772 Matt. xvii. 20; Luke xvii. 6. 


423 


Judgment to Come. 


Chapter XXXV. — Judgment to Come. 

“But he does not receive these things as true who does not believe that there is to be a 
judgment of God, and therefore, being bound by the pleasures of the present life, is shut 
out from eternal good things; and therefore we do not neglect to proclaim to you what we 
know to be necessary for your salvation, and to show you what is the true worship of God, 
that, believing in God, you may be able, by means of good works, to be heirs with us of the 
world to come. But if you are not yet convinced that what we say is true, meantime, in the 
first instance, you ought not to take it amiss and to be hostile to us because we announce 
to you the things which we consider to be good, and because we do not grudge to bestow 
also upon you that which we believe brings salvation to ourselves, labouring, as I have said, 
with all eagerness, that we may have you as fellow-heirs of the blessings which we believe 
are to befall ourselves. But whether those things which we declare to you are certainly true, 
you shall not be able to know otherwise than by rendering obedience to the things which 
are commanded, that you may be taught by the issue of things, and the most certain end of 
blessedness. 


424 



Conclusion of Discourse. 


Chapter XXXVI. — Conclusion of Discourse. 

“And, therefore, although the serpent lurking within you occupies your senses with a 
thousand arts of corruption, and throws in your way a thousand obstacles, by which he may 
turn you away from the hearing of saving instruction, all the more ought you to resist him, 
and despising his suggestions, to come together the more frequently to hear the word and 

770 

receive instruction from us, because nobody can learn anything who is not taught.” 

And when he had done speaking, he ordered those to be brought to him who were op- 
pressed by sickness or demons, and laid his hands upon them with prayer; and so he dis- 
missed the crowds, charging them to resort to the hearing of the word during the days that 
he was to remain there. Therefore, when the crowds had departed, Peter washed his body 
in the waters which ran through the garden, with as many of the others as chose to do so; 
and then ordered the couches to be spread on the ground under a very shady tree, and dir- 
ected us to recline according to the order established at Caesarea. And thus, having taken 
food and given thanks to God after the manner of the Hebrews, as there was yet some portion 
of the day remaining, he ordered us to question him on any matters that we pleased. And 
although we were with him twenty in all, he explained to every one whatever he pleased to 
ask of him; the particulars of which I set down in books and sent to you some time ago. 
And when evening came we entered with him into the lodging, and went to sleep, each one 
in his own place. 


773 [The latter half of this discourse, as already indicated (see note on chap. 23), finds a parallel in Homily 
XI. 4-18, which forms the first half of that discourse. — R.] 


425 



Book VI. 


Book VI. 

Chapter I. — Book VI. Diligence in Study. 

But as soon as day began to advance the dawn upon the retiring darkness, Peter having 
gone into the garden to pray, and returning thence and coming to us, by way of excuse for 
awaking and coming to us a little later than usual, said this: ‘Now that the spring-time 

has lengthened the day, of course the night is shorter; if, therefore, one desires to occupy 

nn c 

some portion of the night in study, he must not keep the same hours for waking at all 
seasons, but should spend the same length of time in sleeping, whether the night be longer 
or shorter, and be exceedingly careful that he do not cut off from the period which he is 
wont to have for study, and so add to his sleep and lessen his time of keeping awake. And 
this also is to be observed, lest haply if sleep be interrupted while the food is still undigested, 
the undigested mass lead the mind, and by the exhalation of crude spirits render the inner 
sense confused and disturbed. It is right, therefore, that that part also be cherished with 
sufficient rest, so that, those things being sufficiently accomplished which are due to it, the 
body may be able in other things to render due service to the mind.” 


774 [Comp, book iii. 31. To this there is no parallel in the Homilies. — R.] 

775 It will be remembered that the hours were variable periods, and began to be reckoned from sunrise. 

426 



Much to Be Done in a Little Tune. 


Chapter II. — Much to Be Done in a Little Time. 

When he had said this, as very many had already assembled in the accustomed place of 
the garden to hear him, Peter went forth; and having saluted the crowds in his usual manner, 

’-jnc. 

began to speak as follows: “Since, indeed, as land neglected by the cultivator necessarily 

produces thorns and thistles, so your sense, by long neglect, has produced a plentiful crop 
of noxious opinions of things and dogmas of false science; there is need now of much care 
in cultivating the field of your mind, that the word of truth, which is the true and diligent 
husbandman of the heart, may cultivate it with continual instructions. It is therefore your 
part to render obedience to it, and to lop off superfluous occupations and anxieties, lest a 
noxious growth choke the good seed of the word. For it may be that a short and earnest 
diligence may repair a long time’s neglect; for the time of every one’s life is uncertain, and 
therefore we must hasten to salvation, lest haply sudden death seize upon him who delays. 


776 [To chaps. 2,3, there is a parallel in the corresponding chapters of Homily XI. Then follows a long passage 
similar to that in book v. 23-36. — R.] 


427 



Righteous Anger. 


Chapter III. — Righteous Anger. 

“And all the more eagerly must we strive on this account, that while there is time, the 
collected vices of evil custom may be cut off. And this you shall not be able to do otherwise, 
than by being angry with yourselves on account of your profitless and base doings. For this 
is righteous and necessary anger, by which every one is indignant with himself, and accuses 
himself for those things in which he has erred and done amiss; and by this indignation a 
certain fire is kindled in us, which, applied as it were to a barren field, consumes and burns 
up the roots of vile pleasure, and renders the soil of the heart more fertile for the good seed 
of the word of God. And I think that you have sufficiently worthy causes of anger, from 
which that most righteous fire may be kindled, if you consider into what errors the evil of 
ignorance has drawn you, and how it has caused you to fall and rush headlong into sin, from 
what good things it has withdrawn you, and into what evils it has driven you, and, what is 
of more importance than all the rest, how it has made you liable to eternal punishments in 
the world to come. Is not the fire of most righteous indignation kindled within you for all 
these things, now that the light of truth has shone upon you; and does not the flame of that 
anger which is pleasing to God rise within you, that every sprout may be burnt up and des- 
troyed from the root, if haply any shoot of evil concupiscence has budded within you? 


428 



Not Peace, But a Sword. 


Chapter IV. — Not Peace, But a Sword. 

Hence, also, He who hath sent us, when He had come, and had seen that all the world 
had fallen into wickedness, did not forthwith give peace to him who is in error, lest He 
should confirm him in evil; but set the knowledge of truth in opposition to the ruins of ig- 
norance of it, that, if haply men would repent and look upon the light of truth, they might 
rightly grieve that they had been deceived and drawn away into the precipices of error, and 
might kindle the fire of salutary anger against the ignorance that had deceived them. On 
this account, therefore, He said, ‘I have come to send fire on the earth; and how I wish that 
it were kindled! There is therefore a certain fight, which is to be fought by us in this life; 
for the word of truth and knowledge necessarily separates men from error and ignorance, 
as we have often seen putrified and dead flesh in the body separated by the cutting knife 
from its connection with the living members. Such is the effect produced by knowledge of 
the truth. For it is necessary that, for the sake of salvation, the son, for example, who has 
received the word of truth, be separated from his unbelieving parents; or again, that the 
father be separated from his son, or the daughter from her mother. And in this manner the 
battle of knowledge and ignorance, of truth and error, arises between believing and unbe- 
lieving kinsmen and relations. And therefore He who has sent us said again, ‘I am not come 

770 

to send peace on earth, but a sword. 


777 [The remaining chapters of this book (4-14) correspond with Homily XI. 19-33. The discourse here is 
somewhat fuller, but the order of topics is the same throughout. — R.] 

778 Luke xii. 49. 


779 Matt. x. 34. 


429 


How the Fight Begins. 


Chapter V. — How the Fight Begins. 

“But if any one say, How does it seem right for men to be separated from their parents? 
I will tell you how. Because, if they remained with them in error, they would do no good 
to them, and they would themselves perish with them. It is therefore right, and very right, 
that he who will be saved be separated from him who will not. But observe this also, that 
this separation does not come from those who understand aright; for they wish to be with 
their relatives, and to do them good, and to teach them better things. But it is the vice pecu- 
liar to ignorance, that it will not bear to have near it the light of truth, which confutes it; 
and therefore that separation originates with them. For those who receive the knowledge 
of the truth, because it is full of goodness, desire, if it be possible, to share it with all, as given 
by the good God; yea, even with those who hate and persecute them: for they know that 
ignorance is the cause of their sin. Wherefore, in short, the Master Himself, when He was 
being led to the cross by those who knew Him not, prayed the Father for His murderers, 
and said, ‘Father, forgive their sin, for they know not what they do! The disciples also, 
in imitation of the Master, even when themselves were suffering, in like manner prayed for 
their murderers. But if we are taught to pray even for our murderers and persecutors, 
how ought we not to bear the persecutions of parents and relations, and to pray for their 
conversion? 


780 Luke xxiii. 34. 

781 Actsvii. 60. 


430 


God to Be Loved More Than Parents. 


Chapter VI. — God to Be Loved More Than Parents. 

“Then let us consider carefully, in the next place, what reason we have for loving our 
parents. For this cause, it is said, we love them, because they seem to be the authors of our 
life. But our parents are not authors of our life, but means of it. For they do not bestow 
life, but afford the means of our entering into this life; while the one and sole author of life 
is God. If, therefore we would love the Author of our life, let us know that it is He that is 
to be loved. But then it is said, We cannot know Him; but them we know, and hold in affec- 
tion. Be it so: you cannot know what God is, but you can very easily know what God is 
not. For how can any man fail to know that wood, or stone, or brass, or other such matter, 
is not God? But if you will not give your mind to consider the things which you might easily 
apprehend, it is certain that you are hindered in the knowledge of God, not by impossibility, 
but by indolence; for if you had wished it, even from these useless images you might have 
been set on the way of understanding. 


431 



The Earth Made for Men. 


Chapter VII. — The Earth Made for Men. 

“For it is certain that these images are made with iron tools; but iron is wrought by fire, 
which fire is extinguished by water. But water is moved by spirit; and spirit has its beginning 
from God. For thus saith the prophet Moses: ‘In the beginning God made the heaven and 
the earth. But the earth was invisible, and unarranged; and darkness was over the deep: 
and the Spirit of God was upon the waters. Which Spirit, like the Creator’s hand, by 
command of God separated light from darkness; and after that invisible heaven produced 
this visible one, that He might make the higher places a habitation for angels, and the lower 
for men. For your sake, therefore, by command of God, the water which was upon the face 
of the earth withdrew, that the earth might produce fruits for you; and into the earth also 
He inserted veins of moisture, that fountains and rivers might flow forth from it for you. 
For your sake it was commanded to bring forth living creatures, and all things which could 
serve for your use and pleasure. Is it not for you that the winds blow, that the earth, conceiv- 
ing by them, may bring forth fruits? Is it not for you that the showers fall, and the seasons 
change? Is it not for you that the sun rises and sets, and the moon undergoes her changes? 
For you the sea offers its service, that all things may be subject to you, ungrateful as you 
are. For all these things shall there not be a righteous punishment of vengeance, because 
beyond all else you are ignorant of the bestower of all these things, whom you ought to ac- 
knowledge and reverence above all? 


782 Gen. i. 1, 2. 


432 


Necessity of Baptism. 


Chapter VIII. — Necessity of Baptism. 

“But now I lead you to understanding by the same paths. For you see that all things are 
produced from waters. But water was made at first by the Only-begotten; and the Almighty 
God is the head of the Only-begotten, by whom we come to the Father in such order as we 
have stated above. But when you have come to the Father you will learn that this is His will, 

r 7Q'2 

that you be born anew by means of waters, which were first created. For he who is regen- 

erated by water, having filled up the measure of good works, is made heir of Him by whom 
he has been regenerated in incorruption. Wherefore, with prepared minds, approach as 
sons to a father, that your sins may be washed away, and it may be proved before God that 
ignorance was their sole cause. For if, after the learning of these things, you remain in un- 
belief, the cause of your destruction will be imputed to yourselves, and not to ignorance. 
And do you suppose that you can have hope towards God, even if you cultivate all piety and 
all righteousness, but do not receive baptism. Yea rather, he will be worthy of greater pun- 
ishment, who does good works not well; for merit accrues to men from good works, but 
only if they be done as God commands. Now God has ordered every one who worships 
Him to be sealed by baptism; but if you refuse, and obey your own will rather than God’s, 
you are doubtless contrary and hostile to His will. 


783 [There is no exact parallel to these statements in the corresponding chapter of the Homilies (xi. 26). — R.] 

433 



Use of Baptism. 


Chapter IX. — Use of Baptism. 

“But you will perhaps say, What does the baptism of water contribute towards the 
worship of God? In the first place, because that which hath pleased God is fulfilled. In the 
second place, because, when you are regenerated and born again of water and of God, the 
frailty of your former birth, which you have through men, is cut off, and so at length you 
shall be able to attain salvation; but otherwise it is impossible. For thus hath the true 
prophet testified to us with an oath: ‘Verily I say to you, That unless a man is born again 

'7QA 

of water, he shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven. Therefore make haste; for there 

is in these waters a certain power of mercy which was borne upon them at the beginning, 
and acknowledges those who are baptized under the name of the threefold sacrament, and 
rescues them from future punishments, presenting as a gift to God the souls that are consec- 
rated by baptism. Betake yourselves therefore to these waters, for they alone can quench 
the violence of the future fire; and he who delays to approach to them, it is evident that the 
idol of unbelief remains in him, and by it he is prevented from hastening to the waters which 
confer salvation. For whether you be righteous or unrighteous, baptism is necessary for 
you in every respect: for the righteous, that perfection may be accomplished in him, and 
he may be born again to God; for the unrighteous, that pardon may be vouchsafed him of 
the sins which he has committed in ignorance. Therefore all should hasten to be born again 
to God without delay, because the end of every one’s life is uncertain. 


784 John iii. 5. [This passage is cited, with additions, in Homily XI. 26. — R.] 


434 


Necessity of Good Works. 


Chapter X. — Necessity of Good Works. 

“But when you have been regenerated by water, show by good works the likeness in you 
of that Father who hath begotten you. Now you know God, honour Him as a father; and 
His honour is, that you live according to His will. And His will is, that you so live as to 
know nothing of murder or adultery, to flee from hatred and covetousness, to put away 
anger, pride, and boasting, to abhor envy, and to count all such things entirely unsuitable 
to you. There is truly a certain peculiar observance of our religion, which is not so much 
imposed upon men, as it is sought out by every worshipper of God by reason of its purity. 
By reason of chastity, I say, of which there are many kinds, but first, that every one be careful 
that he ‘come not near a menstruous woman;’ for this the law of God regards as detestable. 
But though the law had given no admonition concerning these things, should we willingly, 
like beetles, roll ourselves in filth? For we ought to have something more than the animals, 
as reasonable men, and capable of heavenly senses, whose chief study it ought to be to guard 
the conscience from every defilement of the heart. 


435 



Inward and Outward Cleansing. 


Chapter XI. — Inward and Outward Cleansing. 

“Moreover, it is good, and tends to purity, also to wash the body with water. I call it 
good, not as if it were that prime good of the purifying of the mind, but because this of the 
washing of the body is the sequel of that good. For so also our Master rebuked some of the 
Pharisees and scribes, who seemed to be better than others, and separated from the people, 
calling them hypocrites, because they purified only those things which were seen of men, 
but left defiled and sordid their hearts, which God alone sees. To some therefore of 
them — not to all — He said, ‘Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye cleanse 
the outside of the cup and platter, but the inside is full of pollution. O blind Pharisees, first 
make clean what is within, and what is without shall be clean also. For truly, if the mind 
be purified by the light of knowledge, when once it is clean and clear, then it necessarily 
takes care of that which is without a man, that is, his flesh, that it also may be purified. But 
when that which is without, the cleansing of the flesh, is neglected, it is certain that there is 
no care taken of the purity of the mind and the cleanness of the heart. Thus therefore it 
comes to pass, that he who is clean inwardly is without doubt cleansed outwardly also, but 
not always that he who is clean outwardly is also cleansed inwardly — to wit, when he does 
these things that he may please men. 


785 Matt, xxiii. 25, 26. 


436 


Importance of Chastity. 


Chapter XII. — Importance of Chastity. 

“But this kind of chastity is also to be observed, that sexual intercourse must not take 

> 70 /: 

place heedlessly and for the sake of mere pleasure, but for the sake of begetting children. 
And since this observance is found even amongst some of the lower animals, it were a shame 
if it be not observed by men, reasonable, and worshipping God. But there is this further 
reason why chastity should be observed by those who hold the true worship of God, in those 
forms of it of which we have spoken, and others of like sort, that it is observed strictly even 
amongst those who are still held by the devil in error, for even amongst them there is in 
some degree the observance of chastity. What then? Will you not observe, now that you 
are reformed, what you observed when you were in error? 


786 [This chapter is more specific in its statements than Homily XI. 30, to which it has a general resemb- 
lance. — R.] 


437 



Superiority of Christian Morality. 


Chapter XIII. — Superiority of Christian Morality. 

“But perhaps some one of you will say, Must we then observe all things which we did 
while we worshipped idols? Not all. But whatever things were done well, these you ought 
to observe even now; because, if anything is rightly done by those who are in error, it is 
certain that that is derived from the truth; whereas, if anything is not rightly done in the 
true religion, that is, without doubt, borrowed from error. For good is good, though it be 
done by those who are in error; and evil is evil, though it be done by those who follow the 
truth. Or shall we be so foolish, that if we see a worshipper of idols to be sober, we shall 
refuse to be sober, lest we should seem to do the same things which he does who worships 
idols? It is not so. But let this be our study, that if those who err do not commit murder, 
we should not even be angry; if they do not commit adultery, we should not even covet an- 
other’s wife; if they love their neighbours, we should love even our enemies; if they lend to 
those who have the means of paying, we should give to those from whom we do not hope 
to receive anything. And in all things, we who hope for the inheritance of the eternal world 
ought to excel those who know only the present world; knowing that if their works, when 
compared with our works, be found like and equal in the day of judgment, there will be 
confusion to us, because we are found equal in our works to those who are condemned on 
account of ignorance, and had no hope of the world to come. 


438 



Knowledge Enhances Responsibility. 


Chapter XIV. — Knowledge Enhances Responsibility. 

“And truly confusion is our worthy portion, if we have done no more than those who 
are inferior to us in knowledge. But if it be confusion to us, to be found equal to them in 
works, what shall become of us if the examination that is to take place find us inferior and 
worse than them? Hear, therefore, how our true Prophet has taught us concerning these 
things; for, with respect to those who neglect to hear the words of wisdom, He speaks thus: 
‘The queen of the south shall rise in judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it, 
because she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and, behold, 

- r 7Q r 7 

a greater than Solomon is here, and they hear Him not.’ But with respect to those who 
refused to repent of their evil deeds, He spoke thus: ‘The men of Nineve shall rise in the 
judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it; for they repented at the preaching of 

n oo 

Jonas; and, behold, a greater than Jonas is here. You see, therefore, how He condemned 
those who were instructed out of the law, by adducing the example of those who came from 
Gentile ignorance, and showing that the former were not even equal to those who seemed 
to live in error. From all these things, then, the statement that He propounded is proved, 
that chastity, which is observed to a certain extent even by those who live in error, should 
be held much more purely and strictly, in all its forms, as we showed above, by us who follow 
the truth; and the rather because with us eternal rewards are assigned to its observance.” 


787 Matt. xii. 42; Luke xi. 31. 

788 Matt. xii. 41; Luke xi. 32. 


439 


Bishops, Presbyters, Deacons, and Widows Ordained at Tripolis. 


Chapter XV. — Bishops, Presbyters, Deacons, and Widows Ordained at Tripolis. 

When he had said these things, and others to the same effect, he dismissed the crowds; 
and having, according to his custom, supped with his friends, he went to sleep. And while 
in this manner he was teaching the word of God for three whole months, and converting 
multitudes to the faith, at the last he ordered me to fast; and after the fast he conferred on 

r 7QQ 

me the baptism of ever-flowing water, in the fountains which adjoin the sea. And when, 

for the grace of regeneration divinely conferred upon me, we had joyfully kept holiday with 
our brethren, Peter ordered those who had been appointed to go before him, to proceed to 
Antioch, and there to wait three months more. And they having gone, he himself led down 
to the fountains, which, I have said, are near the sea, those who had fully received the faith 
of the Lord, and baptized them; and celebrating 790 the Eucharist with them, he appointed, 
as bishop over them, Maro, who had entertained him in his house, and who was now perfect 
in all things; and with him he ordained twelve presbyters and deacons at the same time. He 
also instituted the order of widows, and arranged all the services of the Church; and charged 
them all to obey Maro their bishop in all things that he should command them. And thus 
all things being suitably arranged, when the three months were fulfilled, we bade farewell 
to those who were at Tripolis, and set out for Antioch. 


789 [Comp. Homily XI. 35, 36, which, however, contain additional matter. — R.] 

790 Literally, “breaking the Eucharist.” 


440 



Book VII. 


Book VII. 

Chapter I. — Journey from Tripolis. 

7Q 1 

At length leaving T ripolis, a city of Phoenicia, we made our first halt at Ortosias, not 

far from Tripolis; and there we remained the next day also, because almost all those that 
had believed in the Lord, unable to part from Peter, followed him thus far. Thence we came 
to Antharadus. But because there were many in our company, Peter said to Niceta and 
Aquila: “As there are immense crowds of brethren with as, and we bring upon ourselves 
no little envy as we enter into every city, it seems to me that we must take means, without 
doing so unpleasing a thing as to prevent their following us, to secure that the wicked one 
shall not stir up envy against us on account of any display! I wish, therefore, that you, Niceta 
and Aquila, would go before us with them, so that you may lead the multitude divided into 
two sections, that we may enter every city of the Gentiles travelling apart, rather than in one 
assemblage. 


791 [The narrative of book vii. is given in Homilies XII., XIII.; chap. 38 including some details of Homily 
XIV. 1. The variations in the narrative portions are unimportant: but the Homilies contain longer discourses 
of the Apostle. Chaps 1-24 here correspond quite exactiy with Homily XII. 1-24; the topics of the respective 
chapters being the same, and the variations mainly in forms of expression. — R.] 


441 



Disciples Divided into Two Bands. 


Chapter II. — Disciples Divided into Two Bands. 

“But I know that you think it sad to be separated from me for the space of at least two 
days. Believe me, that in whatever degree you love me, my affection towards you is tenfold 
greater. But if, by reason of our mutual affection, we will not do the things that are right 
and honourable, such love will appear to be unreasonable. And therefore, without bating 
a little of our love, let us attend to those things which seem useful and necessary; especially 
since not a day can pass in which you may not be present at my discussions. For I purpose 
to pass through the most noted cities of the provinces one by one, as you also know, and to 
reside three months in each for the sake of teaching. Now, therefore, go before me to 
Laodicea, which is the nearest city, and I shall follow you after two or three days, so far as I 
purpose. But you shall wait for me at the inn nearest to the gate of the city; and thence again, 
when we have spent a few days there, you shall go before me to more distant cities. And 
this I wish you to do at every city, for the sake of avoiding envy as much as in us lies, and 
also that the brethren who are with us, finding lodgings prepared in the several cities by 
your foresight, may not seem to be vagabonds.” 


442 



Order of March. 


Chapter III. — Order of March. 

When Peter thus spoke, they of course acquiesced, saying: “It does not greatly sadden 
us to do this, because we are ordered by you, who have been chosen by the foresight of Christ 
to do and to counsel well in all things; but also because, while it is a heavy loss not to see 
our lord Peter for one, or it may be two days, yet it is not intolerable. And we think of our 
twelve brethren who go before us, and who are deprived of the advantage of hearing and 
seeing you for a whole month out of the three that you stay in every city. Therefore we shall 
not delay doing as you order, because you order all things aright.” And thus saying, they 
went forward, having received instructions that they should speak to the brethren who 
journeyed with them outside the city, and request them not to enter the cities in a crowd 
and with tumult, but apart, and divided. 


443 



Clement's Joy at Remaining with Peter. 


Chapter IV. — Clement’s Joy at Remaining with Peter. 

But when they were gone, I Clement rejoiced greatly because he had kept me with 
himself, and I said to him: “I give thanks to God that you have not sent me forward with 
the others, for I should have died through sadness.” Then said Peter: “And what will happen 
if necessity shall demand that you be sent anywhere for the purpose of teaching? Would 
you die if you were separated from me for a good purpose? Would you not put a restraint 
upon yourself, to bear patiently what necessity has laid upon you? Or do you not know that 
friends are always together, and are joined in memory, though they be separated bodily; as, 
on the other hand, some persons are near to one another in body, but are separate in mind?” 


444 



Clement's Affection for Peter. 


Chapter V. — Clement’s Affection for Peter. 

Then I answered: “Think not, my lord, that I suffer these things unreasonably; but there 
is a certain cause and reason of this affection of mine towards you. For I have you alone as 
the object of all my affections, instead of father and mother, and brethren; but above all this, 
is the fact that you alone are the cause of my salvation and knowledge of the truth. And 
also this I do not count of least moment, that my youthful age is subject to the snares of 
lusts; and I am afraid to be without you, by whose sole presence all effeminacy, however ir- 
rational it be, is put to shame; although I trust, by the mercy of God, that even my mind, 
from what it has conceived through your instruction, shall be unable to receive aught else 
into its thoughts. Besides, I remember your saying at Caesarea, ‘If any one wishes to accom- 
pany me, without violating dutifulness, let him accompany me.’ And by this you meant 
that he should not make any one sad, to whom he ought according to God’s appointment 
to cleave; for example, that he should not leave a faithful wife, or parents, or the like. Now 
from these I am entirely free, and so I am fit for following you; and I wish you would grant 
me that I might perform to you the service of a servant.” 


445 



Peter's Simplicity of Life. 


Chapter VI. — Peter’s Simplicity of Life. 

Then Peter, laughing, said: “And do you not think, Clement, that very necessity must 
make you my servant? For who else can spread my sheets, and arrange my beautiful cover- 
lets? Who will be at hand to keep my rings, and prepare my robes, which I must be constantly 
changing? Who shall superintend my cooks, and provide various and choice meats to be 
prepared by most recondite and various art; and all those things which are procured at 
enormous expense, and are brought together for men of delicate up-bringing, yea rather, 
for their appetite, as for some enormous beast? But perhaps, although you live with me, 
you do not know my manner of life. I live on bread alone, with olives, and seldom even 
with pot-herbs; and my dress is what you see, a tunic with a pallium: and having these, I 
require nothing more. This is sufficient for me, because my mind does not regard things 
present, but things eternal, and therefore no present and visible thing delights me. Whence 
I embrace and admire indeed your good mind towards me; and I commend you the more, 
because, though you have been accustomed to so great abundance, you have been able so 
soon to abandon it, and to accommodate yourself to this life of ours, which makes use of 
necessary things alone. For we — that is, I and my brother Andrew — have grown up from 
our childhood not only orphans, but also extremely poor, and through necessity have become 
used to labour, whence now also we easily bear the fatigues of our journeyings. But rather, 
if you would consent and allow it, I, who am a working man, could more easily discharge 
the duty of a servant to you.” 


446 



Peter's Humility. 


Chapter VII. — Peter’s Humility. 

But I trembled when I heard this, and my tears immediately gushed forth, because so 
great a man, who is worth more than the whole world, had addressed such a proposal to 
me. Then he, when he saw me weeping, inquired the reason; and I answered him: “How 
have I so sinned against you, that you should distress me with such a proposal?” Then Peter: 
“If it is evil that I said I should serve you, you were first in fault in saying the same thing to 
me.” Then said I: “The cases are not alike: for it becomes me to do this to you; but it is 
grievous that you, who are sent as the herald of the Most High God to save the souls of men, 
should say it to me.” Then said Peter: “I should agree with you, were it not that our Lord, 
who came for the salvation of the whole world, and who was nobler than any creature, 
submitted to be a servant, that He might persuade us not to be ashamed to perform the 
ministry of servants to our brethren.” Then said I: “It were foolishness in me to suppose 
that I can prevail with you; nevertheless I give thanks to the providence of God, because I 
have merited to have you instead of parents.” 


447 



Clement's Family History. 


Chapter VIII. — Clement’s Family History. 

Then said Peter: “Is there then no one of your family surviving?” I answered: “There 
are indeed many powerful men, coming of the stock of Caesar; for Caesar himself gave a wife 
to my father, as being his relative, and educated along with him, and of a suitably noble 
family. By her my father had twin sons, born before me, not very like one another, as my 
father told me; for I never knew them. But indeed I have not a distinct recollection even of 
my mother; but I cherish the remembrance of her face, as if I had seen it in a dream. My 
mother’s name was Matthidia, my father’s Faustinianus: my brothers’, Faustinus and 
Faustus. Now, when I was barely five years old, my mother saw a vision — so I learned 
from my father — by which she was warned that, unless she speedily left the city with her 
twin sons, and was absent for ten years, she and her children should perish by a miserable 
fate. 


792 [Comp. Homily XII. 8, where the names given are: Mattidia, Faustus (father); Faustinus and Faustinianus, 
the twin sons. With these names some connect the German legend of Faust; see Schaff, History, ii. 442. — R.] 

448 



Disappearance of His Mother and Brothers. 


Chapter IX. — Disappearance of His Mother and Brothers. 

“Then my father, who tenderly loved his sons, put them on board a ship with their 
mother, and sent them to Athens to be educated, with slaves and maid-servants, and a suf- 
ficient supply of money; retaining me only to be a comfort to him, and thankful for this, 
that the vision had not commanded me also to go with my mother. And at the end of a year 
my father sent men to Athens with money for them, desiring also to know how they did; 
but those who were sent never returned. Again, in the third year, my sorrowful father sent 
other men with money, who returned in the fourth year, and related that they had seen 
neither my mother nor my brothers, that they had never reached Athens, and that no trace 
had been found of any one of those who had been with them. 


449 



Disappearance of His Father. 


Chapter X. — Disappearance of His Father. 

“My father hearing this, and confounded with excessive sorrow, not knowing whither 
to go or where to seek, went down with me to the harbour, and began to ask of the sailors 
whether any of them had seen or heard of the bodies of a mother and two little children 
being cast ashore anywhere, four years ago; when one told one story and another another, 
but nothing definite was disclosed to us searching in this boundless sea. Yet my father, by 
reason of the great affection which he bore to his wife and children, was fed with vain hopes, 
until he thought of placing me under guardians and leaving me at Rome, as I was now twelve 
years old, and himself going in quest of them. Therefore he went down to the harbour 
weeping, and going on board a ship, took his departure; and from that time till now I have 
never received any letters from him, nor do I know whether he is alive or dead. But I rather 
suspect that he also has perished, either through a broken heart or by shipwreck; for twenty 
years have now elapsed since then, and no tidings of him have ever reached me.” 


450 



Different Effects of Suffering on Heathens and Christians. 


Chapter XI. — Different Effects of Suffering on Heathens and Christians. 

Peter, hearing this, shed tears of sympathy, and said to his friends who were present: 
“If any man who is a worshipper of God had endured what this man’s father has endured, 
immediately men would assign his religion as the cause of his calamities; but when these 
things happen to miserable Gentiles, they charge their misfortunes upon fate. I call them 
miserable, because they are both vexed with errors here, and are deprived of future hope; 
whereas, when the worshippers of God suffer these things, their patient endurance of them 
contributes to their cleansing from sin.” 


451 



Excursion to Aradus. 


Chapter XII. — Excursion to Aradus. 

After this, one of those present began to ask Peter, that early next day we should go to 
a neighbouring island called Aradus, which was not more than six furlongs off, to see a 
certain wonderful work that was in it, viz. vine-wood columns of immense size. To this 
Peter assented, as he was very complaisant; but he charged us that, when we left the ship, 
we should not rush all together to see it: “for,” said he, “I do not wish you to be noticed by 
the crowd.” When therefore, next day, we reached the island by ship in the course of an 
hour, forthwith we hastened to the place where the wonderful columns were. They were 
placed in a certain temple, in which there were very magnificent works of Phidias, on which 
every one of us gazed earnestly. 


793 Various reading, “glass. 


452 



The Beggar Woman. 


Chapter XIII. — The Beggar Woman. 

But when Peter had admired only the columns, being no wise ravished with the grace 
of the painting, he went out, and saw before the gates a poor woman asking alms of those 
who went in; and looking earnestly at her, he said: “Tell me, O woman, what member of 
your body is wanting, that you subject yourself to the indignity of asking alms, and do not 
rather gain your bread by labouring with your hands which God has given you.” But she, 
sighing, said: “Would that I had hands which could be moved; but now only the appearance 
of hands has been preserved, for they are lifeless, and have been rendered feeble and without 
feeling by my knawing of them.” Then Peter said: “What has been the cause of your inflicting 
so great an injury upon yourself?” “Want of courage,” said she, “and nought else; for if I 
had had any bravery in me, I could either have thrown myself from a precipice, or cast myself 
into the depths of the sea, and so ended my griefs.” 


453 



The Woman's Grief. 


Chapter XIV. — The Woman’s Grief. 

Then Peter said: “Do you think, O woman, that those who destroy themselves are set 
free from torments, and not rather that the souls of those who lay violent hands upon 
themselves are subjected to greater punishments?” Then said she: “I wish I were sure that 
souls live in the infernal regions, for I would gladly embrace the suffering of the penalty of 
suicide, only that I might see my darling children, if it were but for an hour.” Then Peter: 
“What thing is it so great, that effects you with so heavy sadness? I should like to know. 
For if you informed me of the cause, I might be able both to show you clearly, O woman, 
that souls do live in the infernal regions; and instead of the precipice or the deep sea, I might 
give you some remedy, that you may be able to end your life without torment.” 


454 



The Woman's Story. 


Chapter XV. — The Woman’s Story. 

Then the woman, hearing this welcome promise, began to say: “It is neither easy of 
belief, nor do I think it necessary to tell, what is my extraction, or what is my country. It is 
enough only to explain the cause of my grief, why I have rendered my hands powerless by 
gnawing them. Being born of noble parents, and having become the wife of a suitably 
powerful man, I had two twin sons, and after them one other. But my husband’s brother 
was vehemently enflamed with unlawful love towards me; and as I valued chastity above all 
things, and would neither consent to so great wickedness, nor wished to disclose to my 
husband the baseness of his brother, I considered whether in any way I could escape unpol- 
luted, and yet not set brother against brother, and so bring the whole race of a noble family 
into disgrace. I made up my mind, therefore, to leave my country with my two twins, until 
the incestuous love should subside, which the sight of me was fostering and inflaming; and 
I thought that our other son should remain to comfort his father to some extent. 


455 



The Woman 's Story Continued. 


Chapter XVI. — The Woman’s Story Continued. 

“Now in order to carry out this plan, I pretended that I had had a dream, in which some 
deity stood by me in a vision, and told me that I should immediately depart from the city 
with my twins, and should be absent until he should command me to return; and that, if I 
did not do so, I should perish with all my children. And so it was done. For as soon as I 
told the dream to my husband, he was terrified; and sending with me my twin sons, and 
also slaves and maid-servants, and giving me plenty of money, he ordered me to sail to 
Athens, where I might educate my sons, and that I should stay there until he who commanded 
me to depart should give me leave to return. While I was sailing along with my sons, I was 
shipwrecked in the night by the violence of the winds, and, wretch that I am, was driven to 
this place; and when all had perished, a powerful wave caught me, and cast me upon a rock. 
And while I sat there with this only hope, that haply I might be able to find my sons, I did 
not throw myself into the deep, although then my soul, disturbed and drunk with grief, had 
both the courage and the power to do it. 


456 



The Woman 's Story Continued. 


Chapter XVII. — The Woman’s Story Continued. 

“But when the day dawned, and I with shouting and howling was looking around, if I 
could even see the corpses of my unhappy sons anywhere washed ashore, some of those 
who saw me were moved with compassion, and searched, first over the sea, and then also 
along the shores, if they could find either of my children. But when neither of them was 
anywhere found, the women of the place, taking pity on me, began to comfort me, every 
one telling her own griefs, that I might take consolation from the likeness of their calamities 
to my own. But this saddened me all the more; for my disposition was not such that I could 
regard the misfortunes of others as comforts to me. And when many desired to receive me 
hospitably, a certain poor woman who dwells here constrained me to enter into her hut, 
saying that she had had a husband who was a sailor, and that he had died at sea while a 
young man, and that, although many afterwards asked her in marriage, she preferred wid- 
owhood through love of her husband. ‘Therefore,’ said she, ‘we shall share whatever we can 
gain by the labour of our hands.’ 


457 



The Woman 's Story Continued. 


Chapter XVIII. — The Woman’s Story Continued. 

“And, not to detain you with a long and profitless story, I willingly dwelt with her on 
account of the faithful affection which she retained for her husband. But not long after, my 
hands (unhappy woman that I was!), long torn with gnawing, became powerless, and she 
who had taken me in fell into palsy, and now lies at home in her bed; also the affection of 
those women who had formerly pitied me grew cold. We are both helpless. I, as you see, 
sit begging; and when I get anything, one meal serves two wretches. Behold, now you have 
heard enough of my affairs; why do you delay the fulfilment of your promise, to give me a 
remedy, by which both of us may end our miserable life without torment?” 


458 



Peter's Reflections on the Story. 


Chapter XIX. — Peter’s Reflections on the Story. 

While she was speaking, Peter, being distracted with much thought, stood like one 
thunder-struck; and I Clement coming up, said: “I have been seeking you everywhere, and 
now what are we to do?” But he commanded me to go before him to the ship, and there to 
wait for him; and because he must not be gainsayed, I did as he commanded me. But he, 
as he afterwards told me the whole, being struck with a sort of suspicion, asked of the woman 
her family, and her country, and the names of her sons; “and straightway,” he said, “if you 
tell me these things, I shall give you the remedy.” But she, like one suffering violence, because 
she would not confess these things, and yet was desirous of the remedy, feigned one thing 
after another, saying that she was an Ephesian, and her husband a Sicilian, and giving false 
names to her sons. Then Peter, supposing that she had answered truly, said: “Alas! O woman, 

I thought that some great joy should spring up to us to-day; for I suspected that you were 
a certain woman, concerning whom I lately learned certain like things.” But she adjured 
him, saying: “I entreat you to tell me what they are, that I may know if amongst women 
there be one more unfortunate than myself.” 

— ^1 

161 


459 



Peter's Statement to the Woman. 


Chapter XX. — Peter’s Statement to the Woman. 

Then Peter, incapable of deception, and moved with compassion, began to say: “There 
is a certain young man among those who follow me for the sake of religion and sect, a Roman 
citizen, who told me that he had a father and two twin brothers, of whom not one is left to 
him. ‘My mother,’ he said, ‘as I learned from my father, saw a vision, that she should depart 
from the Roman city for a time with her twin sons, else they should perish by a dreadful 
death; and when she had departed, she was nevermore seen.’ And afterwards his father set 
out to search for his wife and sons, and was also lost.” 


460 



A Discovery. 


Chapter XXI. — A Discovery. 

When Peter had thus spoken, the woman, struck with astonishment, fainted. Then 
Peter began to hold her up, and to comfort her, and to ask what was the matter, or what she 
suffered. But she at length, with difficulty recovering her breath, and nerving herself up to 
the greatness of the joy which she hoped for, and at the same time wiping her face, said: “Is 
he here, the youth of whom you speak?” But Peter, when he understood the matter, said: 
“Tell me first, or else you shall not see him.” Then she said: “I am the mother of the youth.” 
Then says Peter: “What is his name?” And she answered: “Clement.” Then said Peter: “It 
is himself; and he it was that spoke with me a little while ago, and whom I ordered to go 
before me to the ship.” Then she fell down at Peter’s feet and began to entreat him that he 
would hasten to the ship. Then Peter said: “Yes, if you will promise me that you will do as 
I say.” Then she said: “I will do anything; only show me my only son, for I think that in 
him I shall see my twins also.” Then Peter said: “When you have seen him, dissemble for 
a little time, until we leave the island.” “I will do so,” she said. 


461 



A Happy Meeting. 


Chapter XXII. — A Happy Meeting. 

Then Peter, holding her hand, led her to the ship. And when I saw him giving his hand 
to the woman, I began to laugh; yet, approaching to do him honour, I tried to substitute my 
hand for his, and to support the woman. But as soon as I touched her hand, she uttered a 
loud scream, and rushed into my embrace, and began to devour me with a mother’s kisses. 
But I, being ignorant of the whole matter, pushed her off as a mad woman; and at the same 
time, though with reverence, I was somewhat angry with Peter. 


462 



A Miracle. 


Chapter XXIII. — A Miracle. 

But he said: “Cease: what mean you, O Clement, my son? Do not push away your 
mother.” But I, as soon as I heard these words, immediately bathed in tears, fell upon my 
mother, who had fallen down, and began to kiss her. For as soon as I heard, by degrees I 
recalled her countenance to my memory; and the longer I gazed, the more familiar it grew 
to me. Mean time a great multitude assembled, hearing that the woman who used to sit 
and beg was recognised by her son, who was a good man . 794 And when we wished to sail 
hastily away from the island, my mother said to me: “My darling son, it is right that I should 
bid farewell to the woman who took me in; for she is poor, and paralytic, and bedridden.” 
When Peter and all who were present heard this, they admired the goodness and prudence 
of the woman; and immediately Peter ordered some to go and to bring the woman in her 
bed as she lay. And when she had been brought, and placed in the midst of the crowd, Peter 
said, in the presence of all: “If I am a preacher of truth, for confirming the faith of all those 
who stand by, that they may know and believe that there is one God, who made heaven and 
earth, in the name of Jesus Christ, His Son, let this woman rise.” And as soon as he had said 
this, she arose whole, and fell down at Peter’s feet; and greeting her friend and acquaintance 
with kisses asked of her was the meaning of it all. But she shortly related to her the whole 
proceeding of the Recognition, so that the crowds standing around wondered. 


794 Perhaps, “a man in good position.” 

795 [This is the title-word of the book, as is evident. Hence the italics here, and not in Homily XII. 23. — R.] 

463 



Departure from Aradus. 


Chapter XXIV — Departure from Aradus. 

Then Peter, so far as he could, and as time permitted, addressed the crowds on the faith 
of God, and the ordinances of religion; and then added, that if any one wished to know more 
accurately about these things, he should come to Antioch, “where,” said he, “we have resolved 
to stay three months, and to teach fully the things which pertain to salvation. For if,” said 
he, “men leave their country and their parents for commercial or military purposes, and do 
not fear to undertake long voyages, why should it be thought burdensome or difficult to 
leave home for three months for the sake of eternal life?” When he had said these things, 
and more to the same purpose, I presented a thousand drachmas to the woman who had 
entertained my mother, and who had recovered her health by means of Peter, and in the 
presence of all committed her to the charge of a certain good man, the chief person in that 
town, who promised that he would gladly do what we demanded of him. I also distributed 
a little money among some others, and among those women who were said formerly to have 
comforted my mother in her miseries, to whom I also expressed my thanks. And after this 
we sailed, along with my mother, to Antaradus. 


464 



Joumeyings. 


Chapter XXV. — Journeyings. 

And when we had come to our lodging, my mother began to ask of me what had 
become of my father; and I told her that he had gone to seek her, and never returned. But 
she, hearing this, only sighed; for her great joy on my account lightened her other sorrows. 
And the next day she journeyed with us, sitting with Peter’s wife; and we came to Balanese, 
where we stayed three days, and then went on to Pathos, and afterwards to Gabala; and so 
we arrived at Laodicea, where Niceta and Aquila met us before the gates, and kissing us, 
conducted us to a lodging. But Peter, seeing that it was a large and splendid city, said that 
it was worthy that we should stay in it ten days, or even longer. Then Niceta and Aquila 
asked of me who was this unknown woman; and I answered: “It is my mother, whom God 
has given back to me by means of my lord Peter.” 


796 [At this point a discourse of the Apostle on “philanthropy” is inserted in the Homilies (xii. 25-33). Homily 

XIII. 1 corresponds with this chapter. — R.] 


465 



Recapitulation. 


Chapter XXVI. — Recapitulation. 

7Q7 

And when I had said this, Peter began to relate the whole matter to them in order, 
and said, “When we had come to Aradus, and I had ordered you to go on before us, the 
same day after you had gone, Clement was led in the course of conversation to tell me of 
his extraction and his family, and how he had been deprived of his parents, and had had 
twin brothers older than himself, and that, as his father told him, his mother once saw a 
vision, by which she was ordered to depart from the city of Rome with her twin sons, else 
she and they should suddenly perish. And when she had told his father the dream, he, loving 
his sons with tender affection, and afraid of any evil befalling them, put his wife and sons 
on board a ship with all necessaries, and sent them to Athens to be educated. Afterwards 
he sent once and again persons to inquire after them, but nowhere found even a trace of 
them. At last the father himself went on the search, and until now he is nowhere to be found. 
When Clement had given me this narrative, there came one to us, asking us to go to the 
neighbouring island of Aradus, to see vine-wood columns of wonderful size. I consented; 
and when we came to the place, all the rest went into the interior of the temple; but I— for 
what reason I know not — had no mind to go farther. 


797 [This account is fuller than that in Homily XIII. 2. — R.] 

798 There is a confusion in the text between Aradus and Antaradus. [Aradus is the name of the Island, Ant- 
aradus that of the neighbouring city. — R.] 


466 



Recapitulation Continued. 


Chapter XXVII. — Recapitulation Continued. 

“But while I was waiting outside for them, I began to notice this woman, and to wonder 
in what part of her body she was disabled, that she did not seek her living by the labour of 
her hands, but submitted to the shame of beggary. I therefore asked of her the reason of it. 
She confessed that she was sprung of a noble race, and was married to a no less noble hus- 
band, ‘whose brother,’ said she, ‘being inflamed by unlawful love towards me, desired to 
defile his brother’s bed. This I abhorring, and yet not daring to tell my husband of so great 
wickedness, lest I should stir up war between the brothers, and bring disgrace upon the 
family, judged it better to depart from my country with my two twin sons, leaving the 
younger boy to be a comfort to his father. And that this might be done with an honourable 
appearance, I thought good to feign a dream, and to tell my husband that there stood by 
me in a vision a certain deity, who told me to set out from the city immediately with my 
two twins, and remain until he should instruct me to return.’ She told me that her husband, 
when he heard this, believed her, and sent her to Athens, with the twin children to be edu- 
cated there; but that they were driven by a terrible tempest upon that island, where, when 
the ship had gone to pieces, she was lifted by a wave upon a rock, and delayed killing herself 
only for this, ‘until,’ said she, ‘I could embrace at least the dead limbs of my unfortunate 
sons, and commit them to burial. But when the day dawned, and crowds had assembled, 
they took pity upon me, and threw a garment over me. But I, miserable, entreated them 
with many tears, to search if they could find anywhere the bodies of my unfortunate sons. 
And I, tearing all my body with my teeth, with wailing and howlings cried out constantly, 
Unhappy woman that I am, where is my Faustus? where my Faustinus?”’ 


467 



More Recognitions. 


Chapter XXVIII. — More Recognitions. 

And when Peter said this , 799 Niceta and Aquila suddenly started up, and being aston- 
ished, began to be greatly agitated, saying: “O Lord, Thou Ruler and God of all, are these 
things true, or are we in a dream?” Then Peter said: “Unless we be mad, these things are 
true.” But they, after a short pause, and wiping their faces, said: “We are Faustinus and 
Faustus: and even at the first, when you began this narrative, we immediately fell into a 
suspicion that the matters that you spoke of might perhaps relate to us; yet again considering 
that many like things happen in men’s lives, we kept silence, although our hearts were struck 
by some hope. Therefore we waited for the end of your story, that, if it were entirely manifest 
that it related to us, we might then confess it.” And when they had thus spoken, they went 
in weeping to our mother. And when they found her asleep, and wished to embrace her, 
Peter prevented them, saying: “Permit me first to prepare your mother’s mind, lest haply 
by the great and sudden joy she lose her reason, and her understanding be disturbed, espe- 
cially as she is now stupefied with sleep.” 


799 [With chaps. 28-36 the narrative in Homily XIII. 3-11 corresponds quite closely. — R.] 


468 



‘Nothing Common or Unclean.” 


Chapter XXIX. — “Nothing Common or Unclean.” 

Therefore, when our mother had risen from her sleep, Peter began to address her, saying: 
“I wish you to know, O woman, an observance of our religion. We worship one God, who 
made the world, and we keep His law, in which He commands us first of all to worship Him, 
and to reverence His name, to honour our parents, and to preserve chastity and uprightness. 
But this also we observe, not to have a common table with Gentiles, unless when they believe, 
and on the reception of the truth are baptized, and consecrated by a certain threefold invoc- 
ation of the blessed name; and then we eat with them . 800 Otherwise, even if it were a father 
or a mother, or wife, or sons, or brothers, we cannot have a common table with them. Since, 
therefore, we do this for the special cause of religion, let it not seem hard to you that your 
son cannot eat with you, until you have the same judgment of the faith that he has.” 


800 [Comp. Homily XIII. 4. — R.] 


469 



Who Can Forbid Water?” 


Chapter XXX. — “Who Can Forbid Water?” 

Then she, when she heard this, said: “And what hinders me to be baptized to-day? For 
even before I saw you I was wholly alienated from those whom they call gods because they 
were not able to do anything for me, although I frequently, and almost daily, sacrificed to 
them. And as to chastity, what shall I say, when neither in former times did pleasures deceive 
me, nor afterwards did poverty compel me to sin? But I think you know well enough how 
great was my love of chastity, when I pretended that dream that I might escape the snares 
of unhallowed love, and that I might go abroad with my two twins, and when I left this my 
son Clement alone to be a comfort to his father. For if two were scarcely enough for me, 
how much more it would have saddened their father, if he had had none at all? For he was 
wretched through his great affection towards our sons, so that even the authority of the 
dream could scarce prevail upon him to give up to me Faustinus and Faustus, the brothers 
of this Clement, and that himself should be content with Clement alone.” 


470 



Too Much Joy. 


Chapter XXXI. — Too Much Joy. 

While she was yet speaking, my brothers could contain themselves no longer, but rushed 
into their mother’s embrace with many tears, and kissed her. But she said: “What is the 
meaning of this?” “Then said Peter: “Be not disturbed, O woman; be firm. These are your 
sons Faustinus and Faustus, whom you supposed to have perished in the deep; but how they 
are alive, and how they escaped in that horrible night, and how the one of them is called 
Niceta and the other Aquila, they will be able to explain to you themselves, and we also shall 
hear it along with you.” When Peter had said this, our mother fainted, being overcome with 
excess of joy; and after some time, being restored and come to herself, she said: “I beseech 
you, darling sons, tell me what has befallen you since that dismal and cruel night.” 


471 



He Bringeth Them Unto Their Desired Haven.” 


Chapter XXXII. — “He Bringeth Them Unto Their Desired Haven.” 

Then Niceta began to say: “On that night, O mother, when the ship was broken up, 
and we were being tossed upon the sea, supported on a fragment of the wreck, certain men, 
whose business it was to rob by sea, found us, and placed us in their boat, and overcoming 
the power of the waves by rowing, by various stretches brought us to Caesarea Stratonis. 
There they starved us, and beat us, and terrified us, that we might not disclose the truth; 
and having changed our names, they sold us to a certain widow, a very honourable women, 
named Justa. She, having bought us, treated us as sons, so that she carefully educated us in 
Greek literature and liberal arts. And when we grew up, we also attended to philosophic 
studies, that we might be able to confute the Gentiles, by supporting the doctrines of the 
divine religion by philosophic disputations. 


472 



Another Wreck Prevented. 


Chapter XXXIII. — Another Wreck Prevented. 

“But we adhered, for friendship’s sake and boyish companionship, to one Simon, a 
magician, who was educated along with us, so that we were almost deceived by him. For 
there is mention made in our religion of a certain Prophet, whose coming was hoped for 
by all who observe that religion, through whom immortal and happy life is promised to be 
given to those who believe in Him. Now we thought that this Simon was he. But these 
things shall be explained to you, O mother, at a more convenient season. Meanwhile, when 
we were almost deceived by Simon, a certain colleague of my lord Peter, Zacchaeus by name, 
warned us that we should not be duped by the magician, but presented us to Peter on his 
arrival, that by him we might be taught the things which were sound and perfect. And this 
we hope will happen to you also, even as God has vouchsafed it to us, that we may be able 
to eat and have a common table with you. Thus therefore it was, O mother, that you believed 
that we were drowned in the sea, while we were stolen by pirates.” 


473 



Baptism Must Be Preceded by Fasting. 


Chapter XXXIV. — Baptism Must Be Preceded by Fasting. 

When Niceta had spoken thus, our mother fell down at Peter’s feet, entreating and be- 
seeching him that both herself and her hostess might be baptized without delay; “that,” said 
she, “I may not even for a single day suffer the loss of the company and society of my sons.” 
In like manner, we her sons also entreated Peter. But he said: “What! Do you think that I 
alone am unpitiful, and that I do not wish you to enjoy your mother’s society at meals? But 
she must fast at least one day first, and so be baptized; and this because I have heard from 
her a certain declaration, by which her faith has been made manifest to me, and which has 
given evidence of her belief; otherwise she must have been instructed and taught many days 
before she could have been baptized.” 


474 



Desiring the Salvation of Others. 


Chapter XXXV. — Desiring the Salvation of Others. 

Then said I: “I pray you, my lord Peter, tell us what is that declaration which you say 
afforded you evidence of her faith?” Then Peter: “It is her asking that her hostess, whose 
kindnesses she wishes to requite, may be baptized along with her. Now she would not ask 
that this grace be bestowed upon her whom she loves, unless she believed that there is some 
great boon in baptism. Whence, also, I find fault with very many, who, when they are 
themselves baptized and believe, yet do nothing worthy of faith with those whom they love, 
such as wives, or children, or friends, whom they do not exhort to that which they themselves 
have attained, as they would do if indeed they believed that eternal life is thereby bestowed. 
In short, if they see them to be sick, or to be subject to any danger bodily, they grieve and 
mourn, because they are sure that in this destruction threatens them. So, then, if they were 
sure of this, that the punishment of eternal fire awaits those who do not worship God, when 
would they cease warning and exhorting? Or, if they refused, how would they not mourn 
and bewail them, being sure that eternal torments awaited them? Now, therefore, we shall 
send for that woman at once, and see if she loves the faith of our religion; and as we find, 
so shall we act. But since your mother has judged so faithfully concerning baptism, let her 
fast only one day before baptism.” 


475 



The Sons' Pleading. 


Chapter XXXVI. — The Sons’ Pleading. 

But she declared with an oath, in presence of my lord Peter’s wife, that from the time 
she recognised her son, she had been unable to take any food from excess of joy, excepting 
only that yesterday she drank a cup of water. Peter’s wife also bore witness, saying that it 
was even so. Then Aquila said: “What, then, hinders her being baptized?” Then Peter, 
smiling, said: “But this is not the fast of baptism, for it was not done in order to baptism.” 
Then Niceta said: “But perhaps God, wishing that our mother, on our recognition, should 
not be separated even for one day from participation of our table, pre-ordained this fasting. 
For as in her ignorance she preserved her chastity, that it might profit her in order to the 
grace of baptism; so she fasted before she knew the reason of fasting, that it might profit her 
in order to baptism, and that immediately, from the beginning of our acquaintance, she 
might enjoy communion of the table with us.” 


476 



Peter Inexorable. 


Chapter XXXVII. — Peter Inexorable. 

QA 1 

Then said Peter: “Let not the wicked one prevail against us, taking occasion from a 

mother’s love; but let you, and me with you, fast this day along with her, and to-morrow 
she shall be baptized: for it is not right that the precepts of truth be relaxed and weakened 
in favour of any person or friendship. Let us not shrink, then, from suffering along with 
her, for it is a sin to transgress any commandment. But let us teach our bodily senses, which 
are without us, to be in subjection to our inner senses; and not compel our inner senses, 
which savour the things that be of God, to follow the outer senses, which savour the things 
that be of the flesh. For to this end also the Lord commanded, saying: ‘Whosoever shall 
look upon a woman to lust after her, hath committed adultery with her already in his heart.’ 
And to this He added: ‘If thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it from thee: for 
it is profitable for thee that one of thy members perish, rather than thy whole body be cast 

OUT 

into hell-fire.’ He does not say, has offended thee, that you should then cast away the 
cause of sin after you have sinned; but if it offend you, that is, that before you sin you should 
cut off the cause of the sin that provokes and irritates you. But let none of you think, 
brethren, that the Lord commended the cutting off of the members. His meaning is, that 
the purpose should be cut off, not the members, and the causes which allure to sin, in order 
that our thought, borne up on the chariot of sight, may push towards the love of God, sup- 
ported by the bodily senses; and not give loose reins to the eyes of the flesh as to wanton 
horses, eager to turn their running outside the way of the commandments, but may subject 
the bodily sight to the judgment of the mind, and not suffer those eyes of ours, which God 
intended to be viewers and witnesses of His work, to become panders of evil desire. And 
therefore let the bodily senses as well as the internal thought be subject to the law of God, 
and let them serve His will, whose work they acknowledge themselves to be.” 


801 [In Homily XIII. 12 the Apostle is represented as thus deferring the baptism; but a longer discourse on 
chastity (chaps. 13-21) is given, assigned to the evening of that day. — R.] 

802 Matt. v. 28, 29. 

803 Here a marginal reading is followed. The reading of the text is: “In order that our thought, borne on the 
chariot of contemplation, may hasten on, invisible to the bodily senses, towards the love of God.” But the 
translation of aspectus by “contemplation” is doubtful. 


477 


Reward of Chastity. 


Chapter XXXVIII. — Reward of Chastity. 

Therefore, as the order and reason of the mystery demanded, on the following day she 
was baptized in the sea , 804 and returning to the lodging, was initiated in all the mysteries 
of religion in their order. And we her sons, Niceta and Aquila, and I Clement, were present. 
And after this we dined with her, and glorified God with her, thankfully acknowledging the 
zeal and teaching of Peter, who showed us, by the example of our mother, that the good of 

one 

chastity is not lost with God; “as, on the other hand,” said he, “unchastity does not escape 
punishment, though it may not be punished immediately, but slowly. But so well pleasing,” 
said he, “is chastity to God, that it confers some grace in the present life even upon those 
who are in error; for future blessedness is laid up for those only who preserve chastity and 
righteousness by the grace of baptism. In short, that which has befallen your mother is an 
example of this, for all this welfare has been restored to her in reward of her chastity, for 
the guarding and preserving of which continence alone is not sufficient; but when any one 
perceives that snares and deceptions are being prepared, he must straightway flee as from 
the violence of fire or the attack of a mad dog, and not trust that he can easily frustrate snares 
of this kind by philosophizing or by humouring them; but, as I have said, he must flee and 
withdraw to a distance, as your mother also did through her true and entire love of chastity. 
And on this account she has been preserved to you, and you to her; and in addition, she has 
been endowed with the knowledge of eternal life.” When he had said this, and much more 
to the same effect, the evening having come, we went to sleep. 


804 [The baptism is narrated in Homily XIV. 1. — R.] 

805 [In Homily XIII. 20, 21, a longer discourse, to the same effect, is recorded; but it is addressed to the 
mother the evening before her baptism. — R.] 


478 



Book VIII. 


Book VIII. 


Chapter I. — The Old Workman. 

Now the next morning Peter took my brothers and me with him, and we went down to 
the harbour to bathe in the sea, and thereafter we retired to a certain secret place for prayer. 
But a certain poor old man, a workman, as he appeared by his dress, began to observe us 

onr 

eagerly, without our seeing him, that he might see what we were doing in secret. And 
when he saw us praying, he waited till we came out, and then saluted us, and said: “If you 
do not take it amiss, and regard me as an inquisitive and importunate person, I should wish 
to converse with you; for I take pity on you, and would not have you err under the appearance 
of truth, and be afraid of things that have no existence; or if you think that there is any truth 
in them, then declare it to me. If, therefore, you take it patiently, I can in a few words instruct 
you in what is right; but if it be unpleasant to you, I shall go on, and do my business.” To 
him Peter answered: “Speak what you think good, and we will gladly hear, whether it be 
true or false; for you are to be welcomed, because, like a father anxious on behalf of his 
children, you wish to put us in possession of what you regard as good.” 


806 [From this point there are considerable variations in the two narratives. The old man becomes, in the 
Recognitions , a prominent participant in the discussions, arguing with Peter, and with Niceta, Aquila, and 
Clement. At the close of these discussions he is recognised first by the sons (ix. 35), and then by his wife, as 
Faustinianus (ix. 37). In the Homilies Peter tells of an interview with the old man (xiv. 2-8), and the recognition 
takes place immediately upon his appearance (xiv. 9). Some discussion with him follows (Homily XV.); but 
soon the main controversy is with Simon Magus (Homilies XVI. -XIX.), in the presence of the father, who is 
convinced by Peter. Book x. contains much matter introduced in Homilies IV. -VII. The correspondences will 
be indicated in the footnotes. — R.] 


479 



Genesis. 


Chapter II. — Genesis. 

Then the old man proceeded to say: “I saw you bathe in the sea, and afterwards retire 
into a secret place; wherefore observing, without your noticing me, what you were doing, I 
saw you praying. Therefore, pitying your error, I waited till you came out, that I might 
speak to you, and instruct you not to err in an observance of this sort; because there is neither 
any God, nor any worship, neither is there any providence in the world, but all things are 
done by fortuitous chance and genesis, as I have discovered most clearly for myself, being 
accomplished beyond others in the discipline of learning. Do not err, therefore: for 
whether you pray, or whether you do not pray, whatever your genesis contains, that shall 
befall you.” Then I Clement was affected, I know not how, in my heart, recollecting many 
things in him that seemed familiar to me; for some one says well, that that which is sprung 
from any one, although it may be long absent, yet a spark of relationship is never extin- 

ono 

guished. Therefore I began to ask of him who and whence he was, and how descended. 
But he, not wishing to answer these questions, said: “What has that to do with what I have 
told you? But first, if you please, let us converse of those matters which we have propounded; 
and afterwards, if circumstances require, we can disclose to one another, as friends to friends, 
our names, and families, and country, and other things connected with these.” Yet we all 
admired the eloquence of the man, and the gravity of his manners, and the calmness of his 
speech. 


807 [In Homily XIV. 2-5 there is a discussion somewhat similar to the beginning of this one, but reported 
by the Apostle to the family of Clement. — R.] 

808 [There are a number of indications, like this, in the narrative, foreshadowing the recognition of the old 
man as the father. In the Homilies nothing similar appears. — R.] 



480 



A Friendly Conference. 


Chapter III. — A Friendly Conference. 

But Peter, walking along leisurely while conversing, was looking out for a suitable place 
for a conference. And when he saw a quiet recess near the harbour, he made us sit down; 
and so he himself first began. Nor did he hold the old man in any contempt, nor did he 
look down upon him because his dress was poor and mean. He said, therefore: “Since you 
seem to me to be a learned man, and a compassionate, inasmuch as you have come to us, 
and wish that to be known to us which you consider to be good, we also wish to expound 
to you what things we believe to be good and right; and if you do not think them true, you 
will take in good part our good intentions towards you, as we do yours towards us.” While 
Peter was thus speaking, a great multitude assembled. Then said the old man: “Perhaps 
the presence of a multitude disconcerts you.” Peter replied: “Not at all, except only on this 
account, that I am afraid lest haply, when the truth is made manifest in the course of our 
discussion, you be ashamed in presence of the multitude to yield and assent to the things 
which you may have understood to be spoken truly.” To this the old man answered: “I am 
not such a fool in my old age, that, understanding what is true, I should deny it for the favour 
of the rabble.” 


481 



The Question Stated. 


Chapter IV. — The Question Stated. 

Then Peter began to say: “Those who speak the word of truth, and who enlighten the 
souls of men, seem to me to be like the rays of the sun, which, when once they have come 
forth and appeared to the world, can no longer be concealed or hidden, while they are not 
so much seen by men, as they afford sight to all. Therefore it was well said by One to the 
heralds of the truth, ‘Ye are the light of the world, and a city set upon a hill cannot be hid; 
neither do men light a candle and put it under a bushel, but upon a candlestick, that it may 
enlighten all who are in the house.’ 809 ” Then said the old man: “He said well, whoever he 
is. But let one of you state what, according to his opinion, ought to be followed, that we 
may direct our speech to a definite aim. For, in order to find the truth, it is not sufficient 
to overthrow the things that are spoken on the other side, but also that one should himself 
bring forward what he who is on the other side may oppose. Therefore, in order that both 
parties may be on an equal footing, it seems to me to be right that each of us should first 
enunciate what opinion he holds. And, if you please, I shall begin first. I say, then, that the 
world is not governed according to the providence of God, because we see that many things 
in it are done unjustly and disorderly; but I say that it is genesis that does and regulates all 
things.” 


809 Matt. v. 14, 15. 


482 


Freedom of Discussion Allowed. 


Chapter V. — Freedom of Discussion Allowed. 

When Peter was about to reply to this, Niceta, anticipating him, said: Would my 

lord Peter allow me to answer to this; and let it not be thought forward that I, a young man, 
should have an encounter with an old man, but rather let me converse as a son with a father.” 
Then said the old man: “Not only do I wish, my son, that you should set forth your opinions; 
but also if any one of your associates, if any one even of the bystanders, thinks that he knows 
anything, let him unhesitatingly state it: we shall gladly hear it; for it is by the contribution 
of many that the things that are unknown are more easily found out.” Then Niceta therefore 
answered: “Do not deem me to have done rashly, my father, because I have interrupted the 
speech of my lord Peter; but rather I meant to honour him by doing this. For he is a man 
of God, full of all knowledge, who is not ignorant even of Greek learning, because he is filled 
with the Spirit of God, to whom nothing is unknown. But because it is suitable to him to 
speak of heavenly things, I shall answer concerning those things which pertain to the babbling 
of the Greeks. But after we have disputed in the Grecian manner, and we have come to that 
point where no issue appears, then he himself, as filled with the knowledge of God, shall 
openly and clearly disclose to us the truth on all matters, so that not we only, but also all 
who are around us as hearers, shall learn the way of truth. And therefore now let him sit as 
umpire; and when either of us shall yield, then let him, taking up the matter, give an unques- 
tionable judgment.” 


810 [The whole arrangement, introducing the brothers as disputants, is peculiar to the Recognitions. The 
several discourses are constructed with much skill. The courtesy of the discussion is in sharp contrast with the 
tone of those in the Homilies, especially those with Simon Magus. — R.] 


483 



The Other Side of the Question Stated. 


Chapter VI. — The Other Side of the Question Stated. 

When Niceta had thus spoken, those who had assembled conversed among themselves: 
“Is this that Peter of whom we heard, the most approved disciple of Him who appeared in 
Judaea, and wrought many signs and miracles?” And they stood gazing upon him with great 
fear and veneration, as conferring upon the Lord the honour of His good servant. Which 
when Peter observed, he said to them: “Let us hear with all attention, holding an impartial 
judgment of what shall be said by each; and after their encounter we also shall add what 
may seem necessary.” And when Peter had said this, the crowds rejoiced. Then Niceta 
began to speak as follows: “You have laid down, my father, that the world is not governed 
by the providence of God, but that all things are subject to genesis, whether the things which 
relate to the dispositions, or those which relate to the doings of every one. This I could answer 
immediately; but because it is right to observe order, we also lay down what we hold, as you 
yourself requested should be done. I say that the world is governed by the providence of 
God, at least in those things which need His government. For He it is alone who holds all 
things in His hand, who also made the world; the just God, who shall at some time render 
to every one according to his deeds. Now, then, you have our position; go on as you please, 
either overthrowing mine or establishing your own, that I may meet your statements. Or 
if you wish me to speak first, I shall not hesitate.” 


484 



The Way Cleared. 


Chapter VII. — The Way Cleared. 

Then the old man answered: “Whether it pleases you, my son, to speak first, or 
whether you prefer that I should speak, makes no difference, especially with those who discuss 
in a friendly spirit. However, speak you first, and I will gladly hear; and I wish you may be 
able even to follow out those things that are to be spoken by me, and to put in opposition 
to them those things that are contrary to them, and from the comparison of both to show 
the truth.” Niceta answered: “If you wish it, I can even state your side of the argument, and 
then answer it.” Then the old man: “Show me first how you can know what I have not yet 
spoken, and so I shall believe that you can follow out my side of the argument.” Then Niceta: 
“Your sect is manifest, even by the proposition which you have laid down, to those who are 
skilled in doctrines of this sort; and its consequence is certain. And because I am not ignorant 
what are the propositions of the philosophers, I know what follows from those things which 
you have propounded; especially because I have frequented the schools of Epicurus in 
preference to the other philosophers. But my brother Aquila has attended more to the 
Pyrrhonists, and our other brother to the Platonists and Aristotelians; therefore you have 

Oil 

to do with learned hearers.” Then said the old man: “You have well and logically informed 

us how you perceived the things that follow from the statements which have been enunciated. 
But I professed something more than the tenet of Epicurus; for I introduced the genesis, and 
asserted that it is the cause of all the doings of men.” 


811 [Comp. Homily XIII. 7. — R.] 


485 



Instincts. 


Chapter VIII — Instincts. 

When the old man had said this, I Clement said to him: “Hear, my father: if my 
brother Niceta bring you to acknowledge that the world is not governed without the 
providence of God, I shall be able to answer you in that part which remains concerning the 
genesis; for I am well acquainted with this doctrine.” And when I had thus spoken, my 
brother Aquila said: “What is the use of our calling him father, when we are commanded 
to call no man father upon earth?” Then, looking to the old man, he said, “Do not take 
it amiss, my father, that I have found fault with my brother for calling you father, for we 
have a precept not to call any one by that name.” When Aquila said that, all the assembly 
of the bystanders, as well as the old man and Peter, laughed. And when Aquila asked the 
reason of their all laughing, I said to him: “Because you yourself do the very thing which 
you find fault with in another; for you called the old man father.” But he denied it, saying: 
“I am not aware that I called him father.” Meantime Peter was moved with certain suspi- 

01 o 

cions, as he told us afterwards; and looking to Niceta, he said, “Go on with what you have 
proposed.” 


812 Matt, xxiii. 9. 

813 [Another foreshadowing of the approaching recognition; peculiar to this narrative. — R.] 


486 


Simple and Compound. 


Chapter IX. — Simple and Compound. 

Q 1 A 

Then Niceta began as follows: “Everything that is, is either simple or compound. 

That which is simple is without number, division, colour, difference, roughness, smoothness, 
weight, lightness, quality, quantity, and therefore without end. But that which is compound 
is either compounded of two, or of three, or even of four elements, or at all events of several; 
and things which are compounded can also of necessity be divided.” The old man, hearing 
this, said: “You speak most excellently and learnedly, my son.” Then Niceta went on: 
“Therefore that which is simple, and which is without any of those things by which that 
which subsists can be dissolved, is without doubt incomprehensible and infinite, knowing 
neither beginning nor end, and therefore is one and alone, and subsisting without an author. 
But that which is compound is subject to number, and diversity, and division, — is necessarily 
compounded by some author, and is a diversity collected into one species. That which is 
infinite is therefore, in respect of goodness, a Father; in respect of power, a Creator. Nor 
can the power of creating cease in the Infinite, nor the goodness be quiescent; but He is 
impelled by goodness to change existing things, and by power to arrange and strengthen 
them. Therefore some things, as we have said, are changed, and composed of two or three, 
some of four, others of more elements. But since our inquiry at present is concerning the 
method of the world and its substance, which, it is agreed, is compounded of four elements, 
to which all those ten differences belong which we have mentioned above, let us begin at 
these lower steps, and come to the higher. For a way is afforded us to intellectual and invisible 
things from those which we see and handle; as is contained in arithmetical instructions, 
where, when inquiry is made concerning divine things, we rise from the lower to the higher 
numbers; but when the method respecting present and visible things is expounded, the order 
is directed from the higher to the lower numbers. Is it not so?” 


814 [The argument of Niceta (chaps. 9-34), while it necessarily includes statements occurring elsewhere in 
this literature, is, as a whole, peculiar to the Recognitions. In order of arrangement and logical force it is much 
superior to most of the discourses. — R.] 


487 



Creation Implies Providence. 


Chapter X. — Creation Implies Providence. 

Then the old man said: “You are following it out exceedingly well.” ThenNiceta: “Now, 
then, we must inquire concerning the method of the world; of which the first inquiry is di- 
vided into two parts. For it is asked whether it has been made or not? And if it has not been 
made, itself must be that Unbegotten from which all things are. But if it has been made, 
concerning this again the question is divided into two parts, whether it was made by itself, 
or by another. And if indeed it was made by itself, then without doubt providence is ex- 
cluded. If providence is not admitted, in vain is the mind incited to virtue, in vain justice 
is maintained, if there be no one to render to the just man according to his merits. But even 
the soul itself will not appear to be immortal, if there be no dispensation of providence to 
receive it after its escape from the body. 


488 



General or Special Providence. 


Chapter XI. — General or Special Providence. 

“Now, if it be taught that there is a providence, and that the world was made by it, other 
questions meet us which must be discussed. For it will be asked, In what way providence 
acts, whether generally towards the whole, or specially towards the parts, or generally also 
towards the parts, or both generally towards the whole, and specially towards the parts? 
But by general providence we mean this: as if God, at first making the world, has given an 
order and appointed a course to things, and has ceased to take any further care of what is 
done. But special providence towards the parts is of this sort, that He exercises providence 
over some men or places, but not over others. But general over all, and at the same time 
special over the parts, is in this wise: if God made all things at first, and exercises providence 
over each individual even to the end, and renders to every one according to his deeds. 


489 



Prayer Inconsistent with Genesis. 


Chapter XII. — Prayer Inconsistent with Genesis. 

“Therefore that first proposition, which declares that God made all things in the begin- 
ning, and having imposed a course and order upon things, takes no further account of them, 
affirms that all things are done according to genesis. To this, therefore, we shall first reply; 
and especially to those who worship the gods and defend genesis. Assuredly, these men, 
when they sacrifice to the gods and pray to them, hope that they shall obtain something in 
opposition to genesis, and so they annul genesis. But when they laugh at those who incite 
to virtue and exhort to continence, and say that nobody can do or suffer anything unless 
what is decreed to him by fate, they assuredly cut up by the roots all worship of the Divinity. 
For why should you worship those from whom you can obtain nothing which the method 
of what is decreed does not allow? Let this suffice in the meantime, in opposition to these 
men. But I say that the world is made by God, and that it is at some time to be destroyed 
by Him, that that world may appear which is eternal, and which is made for this end, that 
it may be always, and that it may receive those who, in the judgment of God, are worthy of 
it. But that there is another and invisible world, which contains this visible world within 
itself, — after we have finished our discussion concerning the visible world, we shall come 
to it also. 


490 



A Creator Necessary. 


Chapter XIII. — A Creator Necessary. 

“Now, in the meantime, that this visible world has been made, very many wise men 
among the philosophers do testify. But that we may not seem to make use of assertions as 
witnesses, as though we needed them, let us inquire, if you please, concerning its principles. 
That this visible world is material, is sufficiently evident from the fact that it is visible. But 
everybody receives one of two Differentiae; for it is either compact and solid, or divided and 
separate. And if the body of which the world was made was compact and solid, and that 
body was parted and divided through diverse species and parts according to its differences, 
there must necessarily be understood to have been some one to separate the body which 
was compact and solid, and to draw it into many parts and diverse forms; or if all this mass 
of the world was compounded and compacted from diverse and dispersed parts of bodies, 
still there must be understood to have been some one to collect into one the dispersed parts, 
and to invest these things with their different species. 


491 



Mode of Creation. 


Chapter XIV. — Mode of Creation. 

“And, indeed, I know that several of the philosophers were rather of this opinion, that 
God the Creator made divisions and distinctions from one body, which they call Matter, 
which yet consisted of four elements, mingled into one by a certain tempering of divine 
providence. Fori think that what some have said is vain, that the body of the world is simple, 
that is, without any conjunction; since it is evident that what is simple can neither be a body, 
nor can be mixed, or propagated, or dissolved; all which, we see, happen to the bodies of 
the world. For how could it be dissolved if it were simple, and had not within it that from 
which it might be resolved and divided? But if bodies seem to be composed of two, or three, 
or even of four elements, — who that has even a small portion of sense does not perceive that 
there must have been some one who collected several into one, and preserving the measure 
of tempering, made a solid body out of diverse parts? This some one, therefore, we call God, 
the Creator of the world, and acknowledge Him as the author of the universe. 


492 



Theories of Creation. 


Chapter XV. — Theories of Creation. 

“For the Greek philosophers, inquiring into the beginnings of the world, have gone, 
some in one way and some in another. In short, Pythagoras says that numbers are the ele- 
ments of its beginnings; Callistratus, that qualities; Alcmaeon, that contrarieties; Anaxim- 
ander, that immensity; Anaxagoras, that equalities of parts; Epicurus, that atoms; Diodorus, 
that dpeprj, that is, things in which there are no parts; Asclepius, that oyKOi, which we may 
call tumours or swellings; the geometricians, that ends; Democritus, that ideas; Thales, that 
water; Heraclitus, that fire; Diogenes, that air; Parmenides, that earth; Zeno, Empedocles, 
Plato, that fire, water, air, and earth. Aristotle also introduces a fifth element, which he 
called aKarovopaarov; that is, that which cannot be named; without doubt indicating Him 
who made the world, by joining the four elements into one. Whether, therefore, there be 
two, or three, or four, or more, or innumerable elements, of which the world consists, in 
every supposition there is shown to be a God, who collected many into one, and again drew 
them, when collected, into diverse species; and by this it is proved that the machine of the 
world could not have subsisted without a maker and a disposer. 


493 



The World Made of Nothing by a Creator. 


Chapter XVI. — The World Made of Nothing by a Creator. 

“But from this fact also, that in the conjunction of the elements, if one be deficient or 
in excess, the others are loosened and fall, is shown that they took their beginning from 
nothing. For if for example, moisture be wanting in any body, neither will the dry stand; 
for dry is fed by moisture, as also cold by heat; in which, as we have said, if one be defective, 
the whole are dissolved. And in this they give indications of their origin, that they were 
made out of nothing. Now if matter itself is proved to have been made, how shall its parts 
and its species, of which the world consists, be thought to be unmade? But about matter 
and its qualities this is not the time to speak: only let it suffice to have taught this, that God 
is the Creator of all things, because neither, if the body of which the world consists was solid 
and united, could it be separated and distinguished without a Creator; nor, if it was collected 
into one from diverse and separate parts, could it be collected and mixed without a Maker. 
Therefore, if God is so clearly shown to be the Creator of the world, what room is there for 
Epicurus to introduce atoms, and to assert that not only sensible bodies, but even intellectual 
and rational minds, are made of insensible corpuscles? 


494 



Doctrine of Atoms Untenable. 


Chapter XVII. — Doctrine of Atoms Untenable. 

“But you will say, according to the opinion of Epicurus, that successions of atoms 
coming in a ceaseless course, and mixing with one another, and conglomerating through 
unlimited and endless periods of time, are made solid bodies. I do not treat this opinion as 
a pure fiction, and that, too, a badly contrived one; but let us examine it, whatever be its 
character, and see if what is said can stand. For they say that those corpuscles, which they 
call atoms, are of different qualities: that some are moist, and therefore heavy, and tending 
downwards; others dry and earthy, and therefore still heavy; but others fiery, and therefore 
always pushing upwards; others cold and inert, and always remaining in the middle. Since 
then some, as being fiery, always tend upward, and others, as being moist and dry, always 
downwards, and others keep a middle and unequal course, how could they meet together 
and form one body? For if any one throw down from a height small pieces of straw, for 
example, and pieces of lead of the same size, will the light straws be able to keep up with the 
pieces of lead, though they be equal in size? Nay; the heavier reach the bottom far more 
quickly. So also atoms, though they be equal in size, yet, being unequal in weight, the 
lighter will never be able to keep pace with the heavier; but if they cannot keep pace, certainly 
neither can they be mixed or form one body. 


495 



The Concourse of Atoms Could Not Make the World. 


Chapter XVIII. — The Concourse of Atoms Could Not Make the World. 

“Then, in the next place, if they are ceaselessly borne about, and always coming, and 
being added to things whose measure is already complete, how can the universe stand, when 
new weights are always being heaped upon so vast weights? And this also I ask: If this ex- 
panse of heaven which we see was constructed by the gradual concurrence of atoms, how 
did it not collapse while it was in construction, if indeed the yawning top of the structure 
was not propped and bound by any stays? For as those who build circular domes, unless 
they bind the fastening of the central top, the whole falls at once; so also the circle of the 
world, which we see to be brought together in so graceful a form, if it was not made at once, 
and under the influence of a single forth-putting of divine energy by the power of a Creator, 
but by atoms gradually concurring and constructing it, not as reason demanded, but as a 
fortuitous issue befell, how did it not fall down and crumble to pieces before it could be 
brought together and fastened? And further, I ask this: What is the pavement on which 
the foundations of such an immense mass are laid? And again, what you call the pavement, 
on what does it rest? And again that other, what supports it? And so I go on asking, until 
the answer comes to nothing and vacuity! 


496 



More Difficulties of the Atomic Theory. 


Chapter XIX. — More Difficulties of the Atomic Theory. 

“But if any one say that atoms of a fiery quality, being joined together, formed a body, 
and because the quality of fire does not tend downwards, but upwards, that the nature of 
fire, always pushing upwards, supports the mass of the world placed upon it; to this we an- 
swer: How could atoms of a fiery quality, which always make for the highest place, descend 
to the lower, and be found in the lowest place of all, so as to form a foundation for all; 
whereas rather the heavier qualities, that is, the earthy or watery, always come before the 
lighter, as we have said; hence, also, they assert that the heaven, as the higher structure, is 
composed of fiery atoms, which are lighter, and always fly upwards? Therefore the world 
cannot have foundations of fire, or any other: nor can there be any association or compacting 
of the heavier atoms with the lighter, that is, of those which are always borne downwards, 
with those that always fly upwards. Thus it is sufficiently shown that the bodies of the world 
are consolidated by the union of atoms; and that insensible bodies, even if they could by 
any means concur and be united, could not give forms and measures to bodies, form limbs, 
or effect qualities, or express quantities; all which, therefore, by their exactness, attest the 
hand of a Maker, and show the operation of reason, which reason I call the Word, and God. 


497 



Plato 's Testimony. 


Chapter XX. — Plato’s Testimony. 

“But some one will say that these things are done by nature. Now, in this, the controversy 
is about a name. For while it is evident that it is a work of mind and reason, what you call 
nature, I call God the Creator. It is evident that neither the species of bodies, arranged with 
so necessary distinctions, nor the faculties of minds, could or can be made by irrational and 
senseless work. But if you regard the philosophers as fit witnesses, Plato testifies concerning 
these things in the Timceus, where, in a discussion on the making of the world, he asks, 
whether it has existed always, or had a beginning, and decides that it was made. ‘For,’ says 
he, ‘it is visible and palpable, and corporeal; but it is evident that all things which are of this 
sort have been made; but what has been made has doubtless an author, by whom it was 
made. This Maker and Father of all, however, it is difficult to discover; and when discovered, 
it is impossible to declare Him to the vulgar.’ Such is the declaration of Plato; but though 
he and the other Greek philosophers had chosen to be silent about the making of the world, 
would it not be manifest to all who have any understanding? For what man is there, having 
even a particle of sense, who, when he sees a house having all things necessary for useful 
purposes, its roof fashioned into the form of a globe, painted with various splendour and 
diverse figures, adorned with large and splendid lights; who is there, I say, that, seeing such 
a structure, would not immediately pronounce that it was constructed by a most wise and 
powerful artificer? And so, who can be found so foolish, as, when he gazes upon the fabric 
of the heaven, perceives the splendour of the sun and moon, sees the courses and beauty of 
the stars, and their paths assigned to them by fixed laws and periods, will not cry out that 
these things are made, not so much by a wise and rational artificer, as by wisdom and reason 
itself? 


498 



Mechanical Theory. 


Chapter XXI. — Mechanical Theory. 

“But if you would rather have the opinions of others of the Greek philosophers, — and 
you are acquainted with mechanical science, — you are of course familiar with what is their 
deliverance concerning the heavens. For they suppose a sphere, equally rounded in every 
direction, and looking indifferently to all points, and at equal distances in all directions from 
the centre of the earth, and so stable by its own symmetry, that its perfect equality does not 
permit it to fall off to any side; and so the sphere is sustained, although supported by no 
prop. Now if the fabric of the world really has this form, the divine work is evident in it. 
But if, as others think, the sphere is placed upon the waters, and is supported by them, or 
floating in them, even so the work of a great contriver is shown in it. 


499 



Motions of the Stars. 


Chapter XXII. — Motions of the Stars. 

“But lest the assertion may seem doubtful respecting things which are not manifest to 
all, let us come to those things of which nobody is ignorant. Who disposed the courses of 
the stars with so great reason, ordained their risings and settings, and appointed to each 
one to accomplish the circuit of the heavens in certain and regular times? Who assigned to 
some to be always approaching to the setting, and others to be returning to the rising? Who 
put a measure upon the courses of the sun, that he might mark out, by his diverse motions, 
hours, and days, and months, and changes of seasons? — that he might distinguish, by the 
sure measurement of his course, now winter, then spring, summer, and afterwards autumn, 
and always, by the same changes of the year, complete the circle with variety, without con- 
fusion? Who, I say, will not pronounce that the director of such order is the very wisdom 
of God? And these things we have spoken according to the relations given us by the Greeks 
respecting the science of the heavenly bodies. 


500 



Providence in Earthly Things. 


Chapter XXIII. — Providence in Earthly Things. 

“But what of those things also which we see on the earth, or in the sea? Are we not 
plainly taught, that not only the work, but also the providence, of God is in them? For 
whereas there are on the earth lofty mountains in certain places, the object of this is, that the 
air, being compressed and confined by them through the appointment of God, may be 
forced and pressed out into winds, by which fruits may germinate, and the summer heat 
may be moderated when the Pleiades glow, fired with the blaze of the sun. But you still say, 
Why that blaze of the sun, that moderating should be required? How, then, should fruits 
be ripened which are necessary for the uses of men? But observe this also, that at the me- 

01 r 

ridian axis, where the heat is greatest, there is no great collection of clouds, nor an 
abundant fall of rain, lest disease should be produced among the inhabitants; for watery 
clouds, if they are acted on by rapid heat, render the air impure and pestilential. And the 
earth also, receiving the warm rain, does not afford nourishment to the crops, but destruc- 
tion. In this who can doubt that there is the working of divine providence? In short, Egypt, 
which is scorched with the heat of ^Ethiopia, in its neighbourhood, lest its air should be in- 
curably vitiated by the effects of showers, its plains do not receive rain furnished to them 
from the clouds, but, as it were, an earthly shower from the overflow of the Nile. 


815 That is, the equator. 


501 



Rivers and Seas. 


Chapter XXIV. — Rivers and Seas. 

“What shall we say of fountains and rivers, which flow with perpetual motion into the 
sea? And, by the divine providence, neither does their abundant supply fail, nor does the 
sea, though it receives so great quantities of water, experience any increase, but both those 
elements which contribute to it and those which are thus contributed remain in the same 
proportion. But you will say to me: The salt water naturally consumes the fresh water which 
is poured into it. Well, in this is manifest the work of providence, that it made that element 
salt into which it turned the courses of all the waters which it had provided for the use of 
men. So that through so great spaces of time the channel of the sea has not been filled, and 
produced a deluge destructive to the earth and to men. Nor will any one be so foolish as to 
think that this so great reason and so great providence has been arranged by irrational 
nature. 


502 



Plants and Animals. 


Chapter XXV. — Plants and Animals. 

“But what shall I say of plants, and what of animals? Is it not providence that has or- 
dained that plants, when they decay by old age, should be reproduced by the suckers or the 
seeds which they have themselves produced, and animals by propagation? And by a certain 
wonderful dispensation of providence, milk is prepared in the udders of the dams for the 
animals before they are born; and as soon as they are born, with no one to guide them, they 
seek out the store of nourishment provided for them. And not only males are produced, 
but females also, that by means of both the race may be perpetuated. But lest this should 
seem, as some think, to be done by a certain order of nature, and not by the appointment 
of the Creator, He has, as a proof and indication of His providence, ordained a few animals 
to preserve their stock on the earth in an exceptional way: for example, the crow conceives 
through the mouth, and the weasel brings forth through the ear; and some birds, such as 
hens, sometimes produce eggs conceived of wind or dust; other animals convert the male 
into the female, and change their sex every year, as hares and hyaenas, which they call 
monsters; others spring from the earth, and get their bodies from it, as moles; others from 
ashes, as vipers; others from putrifying flesh, as wasps from horseflesh, bees from ox-flesh; 
others from cow-dung, as beetles; others from herbs, as the scorpion from the basil; and 
again, herbs from animals, as parsley and asparagus from the horn of the stag or the she 
goat. 


503 



Germination of Seeds. 


Chapter XXVI. — Germination of Seeds. 

“And what occasion is there to mention more instances in which divine providence has 
ordained the production of animals to be effected in various ways, that order being super- 
seded which is thought to be assigned by nature, from which not an irrational course of 
things, but one arranged by his own reason, might be evinced? And in this also is there not 
a full work of providence shown, when seeds sown are prepared by means of earth and water 
for the sustenance of men? For when these seeds are committed to the earth, the soil milks 
upon the seeds, as from its teats, the moisture which it has received into itself by the will of 
God. For there is in water a certain power of the spirit given by God from the beginning, 
by whose operation the structure of the body that is to be begins to be formed in the seed 
itself, and to be developed by means of the blade and the ear; for the grain of seed being 
swelled by the moisture, that power of the spirit which has been made to reside in water, 
running as an incorporeal substance through certain strait passages of veins, excites the 
seeds to growth, and forms the species of the growing plants. By means, therefore, of the 
moist element in which that vital spirit is contained and inborn, it is caused that not only 
is it revived, but also that an appearance and form in all respects like to the seeds that had 
been sown is reproduced. Now, who that has even a particle of sense will think that this 
method depends upon irrational nature, and not upon divine wisdom? Lastly, also these 
things are done in a resemblance of the birth of men; for the earth seems to take the place 
of the womb, into which the seed being cast, is both formed and nourished by the power of 
water and spirit, as we have said above. 


504 



Power of Water. 


Chapter XXVII. — Power of Water. 

“But in this also the divine providence is to be admired, that it permits us to see and 
know the things that are made, but has placed in secrecy and concealment the way and 
manner in which they are done, that they may not be competent to the knowledge of the 
unworthy, but may be laid open to the worthy and faithful, when they shall have deserved 
it. But to prove by facts and examples that nothing is imparted to seeds of the substance of 
the earth, but that all depends upon the element of water, and the power of the spirit which 
is in it, — suppose, for example, that a hundred talents’ weight of earth are placed in a very 
large trough, and that there are sown in it several kinds of seeds, either of herbs or of shrubs, 
and that water enough is supplied for watering them, and that that care is taken for several 
years, and that the seeds which are gathered are stored up, for example of corn or barley 
and other sorts separately from year to year, until the seeds of each sort amount to a hundred 
talents’ weight, then also let the stalks be pulled up by the roots and weighed; and after all 
these have been taken from the trough, let the earth be weighed, it will still give back its 

01 r 

hundred talents’ weight undiminished. Whence, then, shall we say that all that weight, 
and all the quantity of different seeds and stalks, has come? Does it not appear manifestly 
that it has come from the water? For the earth retains entire what is its own, but the water 
which has been poured in all through is nowhere, on account of the powerful virtue of the 
divine condition, which by the one species of water both prepares the substances of so many 
seeds and shrubs, and forms their species, and preserves the kind while multiplying the in- 
crease. 


816 [De Maistre, Soirees , vi. 259.] 


505 



The Human Body. 


Chapter XXVIII. — The Human Body. 

“From all these things I think it is sufficiently and abundantly evident that all things are 
produced; and the universe consists by a designing sense, and not by the irrational operation 
of nature. But let us come now, if you please, to our own substance, that is, the substance 
of man, who is a small world, a microcosm, in the great world; and let us consider with what 
reason it is compounded: and from this especially you will understand the wisdom of the 
Creator. For although man consists of different substances, one mortal and the other im- 
mortal, yet, by the skilful contrivance of the Creator, their diversity does not prevent their 
union, and that although the substances be diverse and alien the one from the other. For 
the one is taken from the earth and formed by the Creator, but the other is given from im- 
mortal substances; and yet the honour of its immortality is not violated by this union. Nor 
does it, as some think, consist of reason, and concupiscence, and passion, but rather such 
affections seem to be in it, by which it may be moved in each of these directions. For the 
body, which consists of bones and flesh, takes its beginning from the seed of a man, which 
is extracted from the marrow by warmth, and conveyed into the womb as into a soil, to 
which it adheres, and is gradually moistened from the fountain of the blood, and so is 
changed into flesh and bones, and is formed into the likeness of him who injected the seed. 


506 



Symmetry of the Body. 


Chapter XXIX. — Symmetry of the Body. 

“And mark in this the work of the Designer, how He has inserted the bones like pillars, 
on which the flesh might be sustained and carried. Then, again, how an equal measure is 
preserved on either side, that is, the right and the left, so that foot answers to foot, hand to 
hand, and even finger to finger, so that each agrees in perfect equality with each; and also 
eye to eye, and ear to ear, which not only are suitable to and matched with each other, but 
also are formed fit for necessary uses. The hands, for instance, are so made as to be fit for 
work; the feet for walking; the eyes, protected with sentinel eyebrows, to serve the purpose 
of sight; the ears so formed for hearing, that, like a cymbal, they vibrate the sound of the 
word that falls upon them, and send it inward, and transmit it even in the understanding 
of the heart; whereas the tongue, striking against the teeth in speaking, performs the part 
of a fiddle-bow. The teeth also are formed, some for cutting and dividing the food, and 
handing it over to the inner ones; and these, in their turn, bruise and grind it like a mill, 
that it may be more conveniently digested when it is conveyed into the stomach; whence 
also they are called grinders. 


507 



Breath and Blood. 


Chapter XXX. — Breath and Blood. 

“The nostrils also are made for the purpose of collecting, inspiring, and expiring air, 
that by the renewal of the breath, the natural heat which is in the heart may, by means of 
the lungs, be either warmed or cooled, as the occasion may require; while the lungs are made 
to abide in the breast, that by their softness they may soothe and cherish the vigour of the 
heart, in which the life seems to abide; — the life, I say, not the soul. And what shall I say of 
the substance of the blood, which, proceeding as a river from a fountain, and first borne 
along in one channel, and then spreading through innumerable veins, as through canals, 
irrigates the whole territory of the human body with vital streams, being supplied by the 
agency of the liver, which is placed in the right side, for effecting the digestion of food and 
turning it into blood? But in the left side is placed the spleen, which draws to itself, and in 
some way cleanses, the impurities of the blood. 


508 



The Intestines. 


Chapter XXXI. — The Intestines. 

“What reason also is employed in the intestines, which are arranged in long circular 
windings, that they may gradually carry off the refuse of the food, so as neither to render 
places suddenly empty, and so as not to be hindered by the food that is taken afterwards! 
But they are made like a membrane, that the parts that are outside of them may gradually 
receive moisture, which if it were poured out suddenly would empty the internal parts; and 
not hindered by a thick skin, which would render the outside dry, and disturb the whole 
fabric of man with distressing thirst. 


509 



Generation. 


Chapter XXXII. — Generation. 

“Moreover, the female form, and the cavity of the womb, most suitable for receiving, 
and cherishing, and vivifying the germ, who does not believe that it has been made as it is 
by reason and foresight? — because in that part alone of her body the female differs from the 
male, in which the foetus being placed, is kept and cherished. And again the male differs 
from the female only in that part of his body in which is the power of injecting seed and 
propagating mankind. And in this there is a great proof of providence, from the necessary 
difference of members; but more in this, where, under a likeness of form there is found to 
be diversity of use and variety of office. For males and females equally have teats, but only 
those of the female are filled with milk; that, as soon as they have brought forth, the infant 
may find nourishment suited to him. But if we see the members in man arranged with such 
method, that in all the rest there is seen to be similarity of form, and a difference only in 
those in which their use requires a difference, and we neither see anything superfluous nor 
anything wanting in man, nor in woman anything deficient or in excess, who will not, from 
all these things, acknowledge the operation of reason, and the wisdom of the Creator? 


510 



Correspondences in Creation. 


Chapter XXXIII. — Correspondences in Creation. 

“With this agrees also the reasonable difference of other animals, and each one being 
suited to its own use and service. This also is testified by the variety of trees and the diversity 
of herbs, varying both in form and in juices. This also is asserted by the change of seasons, 
distinguished into four periods, and the circle closing the year with certain hours, days, 
months, and not deviating from the appointed reckoning by a single hour. Hence, in short, 
the age of the world itself is reckoned by a certain and fixed account, and a definite number 
of years. 


511 



Time of Making the World. 


Chapter XXXIV. — Time of Making the World. 

“But you will say, When was the world made? And why so late? This you might have 
objected, though it had been made sooner. For you might say, Why not also before this? 
And so, going back through unmeasured ages, you might still ask, And why not sooner? 
But we are not now discussing this, why it was not made sooner; but whether it was made 
at all. For if it is manifest that it was made, it is necessarily the work of a powerful and su- 
preme Artificer; and if this is evident, it must be left to the choice and judgment of the wise 
Artificer when He should please to make it; unless indeed you think that all this wisdom, 
which has constructed the immense fabric of the world, and has given to the several objects 
their forms and kinds, assigning to them a habit not only in accordance with beauty, but 
also most convenient and necessary for their future uses, — unless, I say, you think that this 
alone has escaped it, that it should choose a convenient season for so magnificent a work 
of creation. He has doubtless a certain reason and evident causes why, and when, and how 
He made the world; but it were not proper that these should be disclosed to those who are 
reluctant to inquire into and understand the things which are placed before their eyes, and 
which testify of His providence. For those things which are kept in secret, and are hidden 
within the senses of Wisdom, as in a royal treasury, are laid open to none but those who 
have learned of Him, with whom these things are sealed and laid up. It is God, therefore, 
who made all things, and Himself was made by none. But those who speak of nature instead 
of God, and declare that all things were made by nature, do not perceive the mistake of the 
name which they use. For if they think that nature is irrational, it is most foolish to suppose 
that a rational creature can proceed from an irrational creator. But if it is Reason — that is, 
Logos — by which it appears that all things were made, they change the name without 

purpose, when they make statements concerning the reason of the Creator. If you have 
anything to say to these things, my father, say on.” 


817 [Comp. John i. 1-3. The expression seems to be used here with a polemic purpose. — R.] 


512 


A Contest of Hospitality. 


Chapter XXXV. — A Contest of Hospitality. 

When Niceta had thus spoken, the old man answered: “You indeed, my son, have 
conducted your argument wisely and vigorously; so much so, that I do not think the subject 
of providence could be better treated. But as it is now late, I wish to say some things to- 
morrow in answer to what you have argued; and if on these you can satisfy me, I shall confess 
myself a debtor to your favour.” And when the old man said this, Peter rose up. Then one 
of those present, a chief man of the Laodiceans, requested of Peter and us that he might give 

o i o 

the old man other clothes instead of the mean and torn ones that he wore. This man 
Peter and we embraced; and praising him for his honourable and excellent intention, said: 
“We are not so foolish and impious as not to bestow the things which are necessary for 
bodily uses upon him to whom we have committed so precious words; and we hope that he 
will willingly receive them, as a father from his sons, and also we trust that he will share 
with us our house and our living.” While we said this, and that chief man of the city strove 
to take the old man away from us with the greatest urgency and with many blandishments, 
while we the more eagerly strove to keep him with us, all the people cried out that it should 
rather be done as the old man himself pleased; and when silence was obtained, the old man, 
with an oath, said: “To-day I shall stay with no one, nor take anything from any one, lest 
the choice of the one should prove the sorrow of the other; afterwards these things may be, 
if so it seem right.” 


818 [This incident is peculiar to the Recognitions. There seems to be a reminiscence of this chief man in 
Homily IV. 10, where a rich man provides a place for the discussion; comp. chap. 38 here. — R.] 


513 



Arrangements for To-Morrow. 


Chapter XXXVI. — Arrangements for To-Morrow. 

And when the old man had said this, Peter said to the chief man of the city: “Since you 
have shown your good-will in our presence, it is not right that you should go away sorrowful; 
but we will accept from you favour for favour. Show us your house, and make it ready, so 
that the discussion which is to be to-morrow may be held there, and that any who wish to 
be present to hear it maybe admitted.” When the chief man of the city heard this, he rejoiced 
greatly; and all the people also heard it gladly. And when the crowds had dispersed, he 
pointed out his house; and the old man also was preparing to depart. But I commanded 
one of my attendants to follow the old man secretly, and find out where he stayed. And 
when we returned to our lodging, we told our brethren all our dealings with the old man; 
and so, as usual, we supped and went to sleep. 


514 



The Form of Sound Words, Which Ye Have Heard of Me.” 


Chapter XXXVII. — “The Form of Sound Words, Which Ye Have Heard of Me.” 

But on the following day Peter arose early and called us, and we went together to the 
secret place in which we had been on the previous day, for the purpose of prayer. And when, 
after prayer, we were coming thence to the appointed place, he exhorted us by the way, 
saying: “Hear me, most beloved fellow-servants: It is good that every one of you, accord- 

ing to his ability, contribute to the advantage of those who are approaching to the faith of 
our religion; and therefore do not shrink from instructing the ignorant, and teaching accord- 
ing to the wisdom which has been bestowed upon you by the providence of God, yet so that 
you only join the eloquence of your discourse with those things which you have heard from 
me, and which have been committed to you. But do not speak anything which is your own, 
and which has not been committed to you, though it may seem to yourselves to be true; but 
hold forth those things, as I have said, which I myself have received from the true Prophet, 
and have delivered to you, although they may seem to be less full of authority. For thus it 
often happens that men turn away from the truth, while they believe that they have found 
out, by their own thoughts, a form of truth more true and powerful.” 


819 [Peculiar to the Recognitions; there is probably here an anti-Pauline purpose. — R.] 


515 



The Chief Man's House. 


Chapter XXXVIII. — The Chief Man’s House. 

To these counsels of Peter we willingly assented, saying to him that we should do 
nothing but what was pleasing to him. Then said he: “That you may therefore be exercised 
without danger, each of you conduct the discussion in my presence, one succeeding another, 
and each one elucidating his own questions. Now, then, as Niceta discoursed sufficiently 
yesterday, let Aquila conduct the discussion to-day; and after Aquila, Clement; and then I, 
if the case shall require it, will add something.” Meantime, while we were talking in this 
way, we came to the house; and the master of the house welcomed us, and led us to a certain 
apartment, arranged after the manner of a theatre, and beautifully built. There we found 
great crowds waiting for us, who had come during the night, and amongst them the old 
man who had argued with us yesterday. Therefore we entered, having Peter in the midst 
of us, looking about if we could see the old man anywhere; and when Peter saw him hiding 
in the midst of the crowd, he called him to him, saying: “Since you possess a soul more en- 
lightened than most, why do you hide yourself, and conceal yourself in modesty? Rather 
come hither, and propound your sentiments.” 


516 



Recapitulation of Yesterday's Argument. 


Chapter XXXIX. — Recapitulation of Yesterday’s Argument. 

When Peter had thus spoken, immediately the crowd began to make room for the old 
man. And when he had come forward, he thus began: “Although I do not remember 
the words of the discourse which the young man delivered yesterday, yet I recollect the 
purport and the order of it; and therefore I think it necessary, for the sake of those who were 
not present yesterday, to call up what was said, and to repeat everything shortly, that, although 
something may have escaped me, I maybe reminded of it by him who delivered the discourse, 
who is now present. This, then, was the purport of yesterday’s discussion: that all things 
that we see, inasmuch as they consist in a certain proportion, and art, and form, and species, 
must be believed to have been made by intelligent power; but if it be mind and reason that 
has formed them, it follows that the world is governed by the providence of the same reason, 
although the things which are done in the world may seem to us to be not quite rightly 
done. But it follows, that if God and mind is the creator of all things, He must also be just; 
but if He is just, He necessarily judges. If He judges, it is of necessity that men be judged 
with respect to their doings; and if every one is judged in respect of his doings, there shall 
at some time be a righteous separation between righteous men and sinners. This, I think, 
was the substance of the whole discourse. 


820 [The second day’s discussion, in which Aquila is the main speaker, is also of a high order. It is, as already 
indicated, peculiar to the Recognitions, though with the usual incidental correspondences in the Homilies. — R.] 

517 



Genesis. 


Chapter XL. — Genesis. 

“If, therefore, it can be shown that mind and reason created all things, it follows that 
those things which come after are also managed by reason and providence. But if unintelli- 
gent and blind nature produces all things, the reason of judgment is undoubtedly overthrown; 
and there is no ground to expect either punishment of sin or reward of well-doing where 
there is no judge. Since, then, the whole matter depends upon this, and hangs by this head, 
do not take it amiss, if I wish this to be discussed and handled somewhat more fully. For 
in this the first gate, as it were, is shut towards all things which are propounded, and therefore 
I wish first of all to have it opened to me. Now therefore hear what my doctrine is; and if 
any one of you pleases, let him reply to me: for I shall not be ashamed to learn, if I hear that 
which is true, and to assent to him who speaks rightly. The discourse, then, which you de- 
livered yesterday, which asserted that all things consist by art, and measure, and reason, 
does not fully persuade me that it is mind and reason that has made the world; for I have 
many things which I can show to consist by competent measure, and form, and species, and 
which yet were not made by mind and reason. Then, besides, I see that many things are 
done in the world without arrangement, consequence, or justice, and that nothing can be 
done without the course of Genesis. This I shall in the sequel prove most clearly from my 
own case.” 


518 



The Rainbow. 


Chapter XLI. — The Rainbow. 

When the old man had thus spoken, Aquila answered: “As you yourself proposed that 
any one who pleased should have an opportunity of answering to what you might say, my 
brother Niceta permits me to conduct the argument today.” Then the old man: “Go on, 
my son, as you please.” And Aquila answered: “You promised that you would show that 
there are many things in the world which have a form and species arranged by equal reason, 
which yet it is evident were not effected by God as their Creator. Now, then, as you have 
promised, point out these things.” Then said the old man: “Behold, we see the bow in the 
heaven assume a circular shape, completed in all proportion, and have an appearance of 
reality, which perhaps neither mind could have constructed nor reason described; and yet 
it is not made by any mind. Behold, I have set forth the whole in a word: now answer me.” 


519 



Types and Forms. 


Chapter XLII. — Types and Forms. 

Then said Aquila: “If anything is expressed from a type and form, it is at once understood 
that it is from reason, and that it could not be made without mind; since the type itself, 
which expresses figures and forms, was not made without mind. For example, if wax be 
applied to an engraved ring, it takes the stamp and figure from the ring, which undoubtedly 
is without sense; but then the ring, which expresses the figure, was engraven by the hand of 
a workman, and it was mind and reason that gave the type to the ring. So then the bow also 
is expressed in the air; for the sun, impressing its rays on the clouds in the process of rarefac- 
tion, and affixing the type of its circularity to the cloudy moisture, as it were to soft wax, 
produces the appearance of a bow; and this, as I have said, is effected by the reflection of 
the sun’s brightness upon the clouds, and reproducing the brightness of its circle from them. 
Now this does not always take place, but only when the opportunity is presented by the 
rarefaction of moistened clouds. And consequently, when the clouds again are condensed 
and unite, the form of the bow is dissolved and vanishes. Finally, the bow never is seen 
without sun and clouds, just as the image is not produced, unless there be the type, and wax, 
or some other material. Nor is it wonderful if God the Creator in the beginning made types, 
from which forms and species may now be expressed. But this is similar to that, that in the 
beginning God created insensible elements, which He might use for forming and developing 
all other things. But even those who form statues, first make a mould of clay or wax, and 
from it the figure of the statue is produced. And then afterwards a shadow is also produced 
from the statue, which shadow always bears the form and likeness of the statue. What shall 
we say then? That the insensible statue forms a shadow finished with as diligent care as the 
statue itself? Or shall the finishing of the shadow be unhesitatingly ascribed to him who 
has also fashioned the statue? 


520 



Things Apparently Useless and Vile Made by God. 


Chapter XLIII. — Things Apparently Useless and Vile Made by God. 

“If, then, it seems to you that this is so, and what has been said on this subject is enough, 
let us come to inquire into other matters; or if you think that something is still wanting, let 
us go over it again.” And the old man said: “I wish you would go over this again, since 
there are many other things which I see to be made in like manner: for both the fruits of 
trees are produced in like manner, beautifully formed and wonderfully rounded; and the 
appearance of the leaves is formed with immense gracefulness, and the green membrane is 
woven with exquisite art: then, moreover, fleas, mice, lizards, and such like, shall we say 
that these are made by God? Hence, from these vile objects a conjecture is derived concerning 
the superior, that they are by no means formed by the art of mind.” “You infer well,” said 
Aquila, “concerning the texture of leaves, and concerning small animals, that from these 
belief is withdrawn from the superior creatures; but let not these things deceive you, that 
you should think that God, working as it were only with two hands, could not complete all 
things that are made; but remember how my brother Niceta answered you yesterday, and 
truly disclosed the mystery before the time, as a son speaking with his father, and explained 
why and how things are made which seem to be useless.” 


521 



Ordinate and Inordinate. 


Chapter XLIV. — Ordinate and Inordinate. 

Then the old man: “I should like to hear from you why those useless things are made 
by the will of that supreme mind?” “If,” said he, “it is fully manifest to you that there is in 
them the work of mind and reason, then you will not hesitate to say also why they were 
made, and to declare that they have been rightly made.” To this the old man answered: “I 
am not able, my son, to say that those things which seem formed by art are made by mind, 
by reason of other things which we see to be done unjustly and disorderly in the world.” 
“If,” says Aquila, “those things which are done disorderly do not allow you say that they are 
done by the providence of God, why do not those things which are done orderly compel 
you to say that they are done by God, and that irrational nature cannot produce a rational 
work? For it is certain, nor do we at all deny, that in this world some things are done orderly, 
and some disorderly. Those things, therefore, that are done rationally, believe that they are 
done by providence; but those that are done irrationally and inordinately, that they befall 
naturally, and happen accidentally. But I wonder that men do not perceive, that where there 
is sense things may be done ordinately and inordinately, but where there is no sense neither 
the one nor the other can be done; for reason makes order, and the course of order neces- 
sarily produces something inordinate, if anything contrary happen to disturb order.” Then 
the old man: “This very thing I wish you to show me.” 


522 



Motions of the Sun and Moon. 


Chapter XLV. — Motions of the Sun and Moon. 

Says Aquila: “I shall do so without delay. Two visible signs are shown in heaven — one 
of the sun, the other of the moon; and these are followed by five other stars, each describing 
its own separate orbit. These, therefore, God has placed in the heaven, by which the temper- 
ature of the air may be regulated according to the seasons, and the order of vicissitudes and 
alternations may be kept. But by means of the very same signs, if at any time plague and 
corruption is sent upon the earth for the sins of men, the air is disturbed, pestilence is 
brought upon animals, blight upon crops, and a destructive year in every way upon men; 
and thus it is that by one and the same means order is both kept and destroyed. For it is 
manifest even to the unbelieving and unskilful, that the course of the sun, which is useful 
and necessary to the world, and which is assigned by providence, is always kept orderly; but 
the courses of the moon, in comparison of the course of the sun, seem to the unskilful to be 
inordinate and unsettled in her waxings and wanings. For the sun moves in fixed and orderly 
periods: for from him are hours, from him the day when he rises, from him also the night 
when he sets; from him months and years are reckoned, from him the variations of seasons 
are produced; while, rising to the higher regions, he tempers the spring; but when he reaches 
the top of the heaven, he kindles the summer’s heats: again, sinking, he produces the temper 
of autumn; and when he returns to his lowest circle, he bequeaths to us the rigour of winter’s 
cold from the icy binding of heaven. 


523 



Sun and Moon Ministers Both of Good and Evil. 


Chapter XLVI. — Sun and Moon Ministers Both of Good and Evil. 

“But we shall discourse at greater length on these subjects at another time. Now, 
meantime, we remark that though he is that good servant for regulating the changes of the 
seasons, yet, when chastisement is inflicted upon men according to the will of God, he glows 
more fiercely, and burns up the world with more vehement fires. In like manner also the 
course of the moon, and that changing which seems to the unskilful to be disorderly, is ad- 
apted to the growth of crops, and cattle, and all living creatures; for by her waxings and 
wanings, by a certain wonderful contrivance of providence, everything that is born is 
nourished and grows; concerning which we could speak more at length and unfold the 
matter in detail, but that the method of the question proposed recalls us. Yet, by the very 
same appliances by which they are produced, all things are nourished and increased; but 
when, from any just cause, the regulation of the appointed order is changed, corruption and 
distemper arise, so that chastisement may come upon men by the will of God, as we have 
said above. 


524 



Chastisements on the Righteous and the Wicked. 


Chapter XLVII. — Chastisements on the Righteous and the Wicked. 

“But perhaps you will say, What of the fact that, in that common chastisement, like 
things befall the pious and the impious? It is true, and we confess it; but the chastisement 
turns to the advantage of the pious, that, being afflicted in the present life, they may come 
more purified to the future, in which perpetual rest is prepared for them, and that at the 
same time even the impious may somewhat profit from their chastisement, or else that the 
just sentence of the future judgment may be passed upon them; since in the same chastise- 
ments the righteous give thanks to God, while the unrighteous blaspheme. Therefore, since 
the opinion of things is divided into two parts, that some things are done by order and 
others against order, it ought, from those things which are done according to order, to be 
believed that there is a providence; but with respect to those things which are done against 
order, we should inquire their causes from those who have learned them by prophetic 
teaching: for those who have become acquainted with prophetic discourse know when, and 
for what reason, blight, hail, and pestilence, and such like, have occurred in every generation, 
and for what sins these have been sent as a punishment; whence causes of sadness, lament- 
ations, and griefs have befallen the human race; whence also trembling sickness has ensued, 
and that this has been from the beginning the punishment of parricide. 


821 Gen. iv. 12, in LXX. 


525 


Chastisements for Sins. 


Chapter XLVIII. — Chastisements for Sins. 

“For in the beginning of the world there were none of these evils, but they took their 
rise from the impiety of men; and thence, with the constant increase of iniquities, the 
number of evils has also increased. But for this reason divine providence has decreed a 
judgment with respect to all men, because the present life was not such that every one could 
be dealt with according to his deservings. Those things, therefore, which were well and or- 
derly appointed from the beginning, when no causes of evil existed, are not to be judged of 
from the evils which have befallen the world by reason of the sins of men. In short, as an 
indication of the things which were from the beginning, some nations are found which are 
strangers to these evils. For the Seres, because they live chastely, are kept free from them 
all; for with them it is unlawful to come at a woman after she has conceived, or while she is 
being purified. No one there eats unclean flesh, no one knows aught of sacrifices; all are 
judges to themselves according to justice. For this reason they are not chastened with those 
plagues which we have spoken of; they live to extreme old age, and die without sickness. 
But we, miserable as we are, dwelling as it were with deadly serpents — I mean with wicked 

men — necessarily suffer with them the plagues of afflictions in this world, but we cherish 
hope from the comfort of good things to come.” 


822 Ezek. ii. 6. 


526 


God's Precepts Despised. 


Chapter XLIX. — God’s Precepts Despised. 

“If,” said the old man, “even the righteous are tormented on account of the iniquities 
of others, God ought, as foreseeing this, to have commanded men not to do those things 
from which it should be necessary that the righteous be afflicted with the unrighteous; or if 
they did them, He ought to have applied some correction or purification to the world.” 
“God,” said Aquila, “did so command, and gave precepts by the prophets how men ought 
to live; but even these precepts they despised: yea, if any desired to observe them, them they 
afflicted with various injuries, until they drove them from their purposed observance, and 
turned them to the rabble of infidelity, and made them like unto themselves. 


823 This rendering is according to a marginal reading. 


527 



The Flood. 


Chapter L. — The Flood. 

“Wherefore, in short, at the first, when all the earth had been stained with sins, God 
brought a flood upon the world, which you say happened under Deucalion; and at that time 
He saved a certain righteous man, with his sons, in an ark, and with him the race of all plants 
and animals. And yet even those who sprang from them, after a time, again did deeds 
like to those of their predecessors; for those things that had befallen them were forgotten, 
so that their descendants did not even believe that the flood had taken place. Wherefore 
God also decreed that there should not be another flood in the present world, else there 
should have been one in every generation, according to the account of their sins by reason 
of their unbelief; but He rather granted that certain angels who delight in evil should bear 
sway over the several nations — and to them was given power over individual men, yet only 
on this condition, if any one first had made himself subject to them by sinning — until He 
should come who delights in good, and by Him the number of the righteous should be 
completed, and by the increase of the number of pious men all over the world impiety should 
be in some measure repressed, and it should be known to all that all that is good is done by 
God. 



824 [Comp, book iv. 12; Homily VIII. 17. — R.] 


528 



Evils Brought in by Sin. 


Chapter LI. — Evils Brought in by Sin. 

“But by the freedom of the will, every man, while he is unbelieving in regard to things 
to come, by evil deeds runs into evils. And these are the things in the world which seem to 
be done contrary to order, which owe their existence to unbelief. Therefore the dispensation 
of divine providence is withal to be admired, which granted to those men in the beginning, 
walking in the good way of life, to enjoy incorruptible good things; but when they sinned, 
they gave birth to evil by sin. And to every good thing evil is joined as by a certain covenant 
of alliance on the part of sin, since indeed the earth has been polluted with human blood, 
and altars have been lighted to demons, and they have polluted the very air by the filthy 
smoke of sacrifices; and so at length the elements, being first corrupted, have handed over 
to men the fault of their corruption, as roots communicate their qualities to the branches 
and the fruit. 


529 



‘No Rose Without Its Thorn.” 


Chapter LII. — “No Rose Without Its Thorn.” 

“Observe therefore in this, as I have said, how justly divine providence comes to the 
help of things vitiated; that, inasmuch as evils which had derived their origin from sin were 
associated with the good things of God, He should assign two chiefs to these two depart- 
ments. And accordingly, to Him who rejoices in good He has appointed the ordering of 
good things, that He might bring those who believe in Him to the faith of His providence; 
but to him who rejoices in evil, He has given over those things which are done without order 
and uselessly, from which of course the faith of His providence comes into doubt; and thus 
a just division has been made by a just God. Hence therefore it is, that whereas the orderly 
course of the stars produces faith that the world was made by the hand of a designer, on the 
other hand, the disturbance of the air, the pestilent breeze, the uncontrolled fire of the 
lightning, cast doubt upon the work of providence. For, as we have said, every good thing 
has its corresponding contrary evil thing joined with it; as hail is opposite to the fertilizing 
showers, the corruption of mildew is associated with the gentle dew, the whirlwinds of 
storms are joined with the soft winds, unfruitful trees with fruitful, noxious herbs with 
useful, wild and destructive animals with gentle ones. But all these things are arranged by 
God, because that the choice of men’s will has departed from the purpose of good, and fallen 
away to evil. 


825 Compare with chaps. 52-54 the doctrine of pairs as stated in book iii. 59-61; Homily II. 15, etc., iii. 
23.— R.] 


530 



Everything Has Its Corresponding Contrary. 


Chapter LIII. — Everything Has Its Corresponding Contrary. 

“Therefore this division holds in all the things of the world; and as there are pious men, 
so there are also impious; as there are prophets, so also there are false prophets; and amongst 
the Gentiles there are philosophers and false philosophers. Also the Arabian nations, and 
many others, have imitated the circumcision of the Jews for the service of their impiety. So 
also the worship of demons is contrary to the divine worship, baptism to baptism, laws to 
the law, false apostles to apostles, and false teachers to teachers. And hence it is that among 
the philosophers some assert providence, others deny it; some maintain that there is one 
God, others that there are more than one: in short, the matter has come to this, that 
whereas demons are expelled by the word of God, by which it is declared that there is a 
providence, the magical art, for the confirmation of infidelity, has found out ways of imitating 
this by contraries. Thus has been discovered the method of counteracting the poison of 
serpents by incantations, and the effecting of cures contrary to the word and power of God. 
The magic art has also found out ministries contrary to the angels of God, placing the calling 
up of souls and the figments of demons in opposition to these. And, not to prolong the 
discourse by a further enumeration, there is nothing whatever that makes for the belief of 
providence, which has not something, on the other hand, prepared for unbelief; and therefore 
they who do not know that division of things, think that there is no providence, by reason 
of those things in the world which are discordant from themselves. But do you, my father, 
as a wise man, choose from that division the part which preserves order and makes for the 
belief of providence, and do not only follow that part which runs against order and neutralizes 
the belief of providence.” 


531 



An Illustration. 


Chapter LIV. — An Illustration. 

To this the old man answered: “Show me a way, my son, by which I may establish in 
my mind one or other of these two orders, the one of which asserts, and the other denies, 
providence.” “To one having a right judgment,” says Aquila, “the decision is easy. For this 
very thing that you say, order and disorder, may be produced by a contriver, but not by in- 
sensible nature. For let us suppose, by way of illustration, that a great mass were torn from 
a high rock, and cast down headlong, and when clashed upon the ground were broken into 
many pieces, could it in any way happen that, amongst that multitude of fragments, there 
should be found even one which should have any perfect figure and shape?” The old man 
answered: “It is impossible.” “But,” said Aquila, “if there be present a statuary, he can by 
his skilful hand and reasonable mind form the stone cut from the mountain into whatever 
figure he pleases.” The old man said: “That is true.” “Therefore,” says Aquila, “when there 
is not a rational mind, no figure can be formed out of the mass; but when there is a designing 
mind, there may be both form and deformity: for example, if a workman cuts from the 
mountain a block to which he wishes to give a form, he must first cut it out unformed and 
rough; then, by degrees hammering and hewing it by the rule of his art, he expresses the 
form which he has conceived in his mind. Thus, therefore, from informity or deformity, 
by the hand of the workman form is attained, and both proceed from the workman. In like 
manner, therefore, the things which are done in the world are accomplished by the providence 
of a contriver, although they may seem not quite orderly. And therefore, because these two 
ways have been made known to you, and you have heard the divisions of them, flee from 
the way of unbelief, lest haply it lead you to that prince who delights in evils; but follow the 
way of faith, that you may come to that King who delighteth in good men.” 


532 



The Two Kingdoms. 


Chapter LV. — The Two Kingdoms. 

Q'Jf. 

To this the old man answered: “But why was that prince made who delights in evil? 
And from what was he made? Or was he not made?” Aquila said: “The treatment of that 
subject belongs to another time; but that you may not go away altogether without an answer 
to this, I shall give a few hints on this subject also. God, foreseeing all things before the 
creation of the world, knowing that the men who were to be would some of them indeed 
incline to good, but others to the opposite, assigned those who should choose the good to 

Q'1'7 

His own government and His own care, and called them His peculiar inheritance; but 
He gave over the government of those who should turn to evil to those angels who, not by 
their substance, but by opposition, were unwilling to remain with God, being corrupted by 
the vice of envy and pride. Those, therefore, he made worthy princes of worthy subjects; 
yet he so delivered them over to those angels, that they have not the power of doing what 
they will against them, unless they transgress the bounds assigned to them from the begin- 
ning. And this is the bound assigned, that unless one first do the will of the demons, the 
demons have no power over him.” 


826 [On the creation of the evil one, see book x. 3, etc., and the discussion with Simon in Homily XIX. 
2-18.— R.] 

827 Deut. xxxii. 8, in LXX. 


533 


Origin of Evil. 


Chapter LVI. — Origin of Evil. 

Then the old man said: “You have stated it excellently, my son. It now remains only 
that you tell me whence is the substance of evil: for if it was made by God, the evil fruit 
shows that the root is in fault; for it appears that it also is of an evil nature. But if this sub- 
stance was co- eternal with God, how can that which was equally unproduced and co- 
eternal be subject to the other?” “It was not always,” said Aquila; “but neither does it neces- 
sarily follow, if it was made by God, that its Creator should be thought to be such as is that 
which has been made by Him. For indeed God made the substance of all things; but if a 
reasonable mind, which has been made by God, do not acquiesce in the laws of its Creator, 
and go beyond the bounds of the temperance prescribed to it, how does this reflect on the 
Creator? Or if there is any reason higher than this, we do not know it; for we cannot know 
anything perfectly, and especially concerning those things for our ignorance of which we 
are not to be judged. But those things for which we are to be judged are most easy to be 
understood, and are despatched almost in a word. For almost the whole rule of our actions 
is summed up in this, that what we are unwilling to suffer we should not do to others. For 
as you would not be killed, you must beware of killing another; and as you would not have 
your own marriage violated, you must not defile another’s bed; you would not be stolen 
from, neither must you steal; and every matter of men’s actions is comprehended within 
this rule.” 


534 



The Old Man Unconvinced. 


Chapter LVII. — The Old Man Unconvinced. 

Then the old man: “Do not take amiss, my son, what I am going to say. Though your 
words are powerful, yet they cannot lead me to believe that anything can be done apart from 

on o 

Genesis. Fori know that all things have happened to me by the necessity of Genesis, and 

therefore I cannot be persuaded that either to do well or to do ill is in our power; and if we 
have not our actions in our power, it cannot be believed that there is a judgment to come, 
by which either punishments maybe inflicted on the evil, or rewards bestowed on the good. 
In short, since I see that you are initiated in this sort of learning, I shall lay before you a few 
things from the art itself.” “If,” says Aquila, “you wish to add anything from that science, 
my brother Clement will answer you with all care, since he has attended more fully to the 
science of mathematics. For I can maintain in other ways that our actions are in our own 
power; but I ought not to presume upon those things which I have not learned.” 


828 [Comp. Homily XIV. 3, etc. — R.] 


535 



Sitting in Judgment Upon God. 


Chapter LVIII. — Sitting in Judgment Upon God. 

When Aquila had thus spoken, then I Clement said: “To-morrow, my father, you shall 
speak as you please, and we will gladly hear you; for I suppose it will also be gratifying to 
you that you have to do with those who are not ignorant of the science which you profess.” 
When, therefore, it had been settled between the old man and me, that on the following day 
we should hold a discussion on the subject of Genesis — whether all things are done under 
its influence, or there be anything in us which is not done by Genesis, but by the judgment 
of the mind — Peter rose up, and began to speak to the following effect: “To me it is ex- 

ceedingly wonderful, that things which can easily be found out men make difficult by recon- 
dite thoughts and words; and those especially who think themselves wise, and who, wishing 
to comprehend the will of God, treat God as if He were a man, yea, as if He were something 
less than a man: for no one can know the purpose or mind of a man unless he himself reveal 
his thoughts; and neither can any one learn a profession unless he be for a long time instruc- 
ted by a master. How much more must it be, that no one can know the mind or the work 
of the invisible and incomprehensible God, unless He Himself send a prophet to declare 
His purpose, and expound the way of His creation, so far as it is lawful for men to learn it! 
Hence I think it ridiculous when men judge of the power of God in natural ways, and think 
that this is possible and that impossible to Him, or this greater and that less, while they are 
ignorant of everything; who, being unrighteous men, judge the righteous God; unskilled, 
judge the contriver; corrupt, judge the incorruptible; creatures, judge the Creator. 


829 [This discourse of Peter is peculiar to the Recognitions; it resembles somewhat the earlier discourse to 
Clement in book i. — R.] 


536 



The True Prophet. 


Chapter LIX. — The True Prophet. 

But I would not have you think, that in saying this I take away the power of judging 
concerning things; but I give counsel that no one walk through devious places, and rush 
into errors without end. And therefore I advise not only wise men, but indeed all men who 
have a desire of knowing what is advantageous to them, that they seek after the true 
Prophet; for it is He alone who knoweth all things, and who knoweth what and how every 
man is seeking. For He is within the mind of every one of us, but in those who have no 
desire of the knowledge of God and His righteousness, He is inoperative; but He works in 
those who seek after that which is profitable to their souls, and kindles in them the light of 
knowledge. Wherefore seek Him first of all; and if you do not find Him, expect not that 
you shall learn anything from any other. But He is soon found by those who diligently seek 
Him through love of the truth, and whose souls are not taken possession of by wickedness. 
For He is present with those who desire Him in the innocency of their spirits, who bear 
patiently, and draw sighs from the bottom of their hearts through love of the truth; but He 

Oil 

deserts malevolent minds, because as a prophet He knows the thoughts of every one. 
And therefore let no one think that he can find Him by his own wisdom, unless, as we have 
said, he empty his mind of all wickedness, and conceive a pure and faithful desire to know 
Him. For when any one has so prepared himself, He Himself as a prophet, seeing a mind 
prepared for Him, of His own accord offers Himself to his knowledge. 


830 [The introduction of these chapters concerning the true Prophet shows a far more orderly method of 
constructing the entire discussion with the father than that of the Homilies ; comp, book xi. 1, 2. — R.] 

831 Wisd. i. 4. 


537 


His Deliverances Not to Be Questioned. 


Chapter LX. — His Deliverances Not to Be Questioned. 

“Therefore, if any one wishes to learn all things, he cannot do it by discussing them one 
by one; for, being mortal, he shall not be able to trace the counsel of God, and to scan im- 
mensity itself. But if, as we have said, he desires to learn all things, let him seek after the 
true Prophet; and when he has found Him, let him not treat with Him by questions and 
disputations and arguments; but if He has given any response, or pronounced any judgment, 
it cannot be doubted that this is certain. And therefore, before all things, let the true 
Prophet be sought, and His words be laid hold of. In respect to these this only should be 
discussed by every one, that he may satisfy himself if they are truly His prophetic words; 
that is, if they contain undoubted faith of things to come, if they mark out definite times, if 
they preserve the order of things, if they do not relate as last those things which are first, 
nor as first those things which were done last, if they contain nothing subtle, nothing com- 
posed by magic art to deceive, or if they have not transferred to themselves things which 
were revealed to others, and have mixed them with falsehoods. And when, all these things 
having been discussed by right judgment, it is established that they are prophetic words, so 
they ought to be at once believed concerning all things on which they have spoken and 
answered. 


538 



Ignorance of the Philosophers. 


Chapter LXI. — Ignorance of the Philosophers. 

“For let us consider carefully the work of divine providence. For whereas the philo- 
sophers have introduced certain subtile and difficult words, so that not even the terms that 
they use in their discourses can be known and understood by all, God has shown that those 
who thought themselves word-framers are altogether unskilful as respects the knowledge 
of the truth. For the knowledge of things which is imparted by the true Prophet is simple, 
and plain, and brief; which those men walking through devious places, and through the 
stony difficulties of words, are wholly ignorant of. Therefore, to modest and simple minds, 
when they see things come to pass which have been foretold, it is enough, and more than 
enough, that they may receive most certain knowledge from most certain prescience; and 
for the rest may be at peace, having received evident knowledge of the truth. For all other 
things are treated by opinion, in which there can be nothing firm. For what speech is there 
which may not be contradicted? And what argument is there that may not be overthrown 
by another argument? And hence it is, that by disputation of this sort men can never come 
to any end of knowledge and learning, but find the end of their life sooner than the end of 
their questions. 


832 [Comp. Homily XV. 5. — R.] 


539 



End of the Conference. 


Chapter LXII. — End of the Conference. 

“And, therefore, since amongst these philosophers are things uncertain, we must come 
to the true Prophet. Him God the Father wished to be loved by all, and accordingly He has 
been pleased wholly to extinguish those opinions which have originated with men, and in 
regard to which there is nothing like certainty — that He the true Prophet might be the more 

no o 

sought after, and that He whom they had obscured should show to men the way of truth. 

For on this account also God made the world, and by Him the world is filled; whence also 
He is everywhere near to them who seek Him, though He be sought in the remotest ends 
of the earth. But if any one seek Him not purely, nor holily, nor faithfully, He is indeed 
within him, because He is everywhere, and is found within the minds of all men; but, as we 
have said before, He is dormant to the unbelieving, and is held to be absent from those by 
whom His existence is not believed.” And when Peter had said this, and more to the same 
effect, concerning the true Prophet, he dismissed the crowds; and when he very earnestly 
entreated the old man to remain with us, he could prevail nothing; but he also departed, to 
return next day, as had been agreed upon. And after this, we also, with Peter, went to our 
lodging, and enjoyed our accustomed food and rest. 


833 If we were to read quam instead of quem, the sense would be: that He might lay open to men the way of 
truth which they had blocked up. So Whiston. 


540 



Book IX. 


Book IX. 


Chapter I. — An Explanation. 

On the following day, Peter, along with us, hastened early to the place in which the 
discussion had been held the day before; and when he saw that great crowds had assembled 
there to hear, and saw the old man with them, he said to him: Old man, it was agreed 

yesterday that you should confer to-day with Clement; and that you should either show that 
nothing takes place apart from genesis, or that Clement should prove that there is no such 
thing as genesis, but that what we do is in our own power.” To this the old man answered: 
“I both remember what was agreed upon, and I keep in memory the words which you spoke 
after the agreement was made, in which you taught that it is impossible for man to know 
any thing, unless he learn from the true Prophet.” Then Peter said: “You do not know what 
I meant; but I shall now explain to you. I spoke of the will and purpose of God, which He 
had before the world was, and by which purpose He made the world, appointed times, gave 
the law, promised a world to come to the righteous for the rewarding of their good deeds, 
and decreed punishments to the unjust according to a judicial sentence. I said that this 
counsel and this will of God cannot be found out by men, because no man can gather the 
mind of God from conjectures and opinion, unless a prophet sent by Him declare it. I did 
not therefore speak of any doctrines or studies, that they cannot be found out or known 
without a prophet; for I know that both arts and sciences can be known and practised by 
men, which they have learned, not from the true Prophet, but from human instructors. 


834 [The discourses in book ix. are peculiar to the Recognitions not only in their position in the story, but to 
a remarkably large extent in the matter. — R.] 


541 



Preliminaries. 


Chapter II. — Preliminaries. 

“Since, therefore, you profess to be conversant with the position of the stars and the 
courses of the heavenly bodies, and that from these you can convince Clement that all things 
are subject to Genesis, or that you will learn from him that all things are governed by 
providence, and that we have something in our own power, it is now time for you two to 
set about this.” To this the old man answered: “Now indeed it was not necessary to raise 
questions of this kind, if it were possible for us to learn from the true Prophet, and to hear 
in a definite proposition, that anything depends on us and on the freedom of our will; for 
your yesterday’s discourse affected me greatly, in which you disputed concerning the 

oor 

prophetic power. Whence also I assent to and confirm your judgment, that nothing can 
be known by man with certainty, and without doubt, seeing that he has but a short period 
of life, and a brief and slender breath, by which he seems to be kept in life. However, since 
I am understood to have promised to Clement, before I heard anything of the prophetic 
power, that I should show that all things are subject to Genesis, or that I should learn from 
him that there is something in ourselves, let him do me this favour, that he first begin, and 
propound and explain what may be objected: for I, ever since I heard from you a few words 
concerning the power of prophecy, have, I confess, been confounded, considering the 
greatness of prescience; nor do I think that anything ought to be received which is collected 
from conjectures and opinion.” 


835 [Comp, book viii. 58-62. — R.] 


542 



Beginning of the Discussion. 


Chapter III. — Beginning of the Discussion. 

When the old man had said this, I Clement began to speak as follows: “God by His Son 
created the world as a double house, separated by the interposition of this firmament, which 
is called heaven; and appointed angelic powers to dwell in the higher, and a multitude of 
men to be born in this visible world, from amongst whom He might choose friends for His 
Son, with whom He might rejoice, and who might be prepared for Him as a beloved bride 
for a bridegroom. But even till the time of the marriage, which is the manifestation of the 
world to come, He has appointed a certain power, to choose out and watch over the good 
ones of those who are born in this world, and to preserve them for His Son, set apart in a 
certain place of the world, which is without sin; in which there are already some, who are 
there being prepared, as I said, as a bride adorned for the coming of the bridegroom. For 
the prince of this world and of the present age is like an adulterer, who corrupts and violates 
the minds of men, and, seducing them from the love of the true bridegroom, allures them 
to strange lovers. 


543 



Why the Evil Prince Was Made. 


Chapter IV. — Why the Evil Prince Was Made. 

But some one will say, How then was it necessary that that prince should be made, who 

0'2/C 

was to turn away the minds of men from the true prince? Because God, who, as I have 
said, wished to prepare friends for His Son, did not wish them to be such as by necessity of 
nature could not be aught else, but such as should desire of their own choice and will to be 
good; because neither is that praiseworthy which is not desirable, nor is that judged to be 
good which is not sought for with purpose. For there is no credit in being that from which 
the necessity of your nature does not admit of your changing. Therefore the providence of 
God has willed that a multitude of men should be born in this world, that those who should 
choose a good life might be selected from many. And because He foresaw that the present 
world could not consist except by variety and inequality, He gave to each mind freedom of 

o 'I'l 

motions, according to the diversities of present things, and appointed this prince, through 

his suggestion of those things which run contrary, that the choice of better things might 
depend upon the exercise of virtue. 


836 [Comp, book viii. 55, 56; Homily XIX. 2-18. — R.] 

837 [The doctrine of free-will, and the necessity of evil in consequence, appears throughout. Comp, book iii. 
21, v. 6. In the Homilies there is not so much emphasis laid upon this point; but see Homily XI. 8. — R.] 


544 



Necessity of Inequality. 


Chapter V. — Necessity of Inequality. 

“But to make our meaning plainer, we shall explain it by particulars. Was it proper, for 
example, that all men in this world should be kings, or princes, or lords, or teachers, or 
lawyers, or geometers, or goldsmiths, or bakers, or smiths, or grammarians, or rich men, 
or farmers, or perfumers, or fishermen, or poor men? It is certain that all could not be 
these. Yet all these professions, and many more, the life of men requires, and without these 
it cannot be passed; therefore inequality is necessary in this world. For there cannot be a 
king, unless he has subjects over whom he may rule and reign; nor can there be a master, 
unless he has one over whom he may bear sway; and in like manner of the rest. 


545 



Arrangements of the World for the Exercise of Virtue. 

Chapter VI. — Arrangements of the World for the Exercise of Virtue. 

“Therefore the Creator, knowing that no one would come to the contest of his own ac- 
cord, while labour is shunned, — that is, to the practice of those professions which we have 
mentioned, by means of which either the justice or the mercy of every one can be manifes- 
ted, — made for men a body susceptible of hunger, and thirst, and cold, in order that men, 
being compelled for the sake of supporting their bodies, might come down to all the profes- 
sions which we have mentioned, by the necessity of livelihood. For we are taught to cultivate 
every one of these arts, for the sake of food, and drink, and clothing. And in this the purpose 
of each one’s mind is shown, whether he will supply the demands of hunger and cold by 
means of thefts, and murders, and perjuries, and other crimes of that sort; or whether, 
keeping justice and mercy and continence, he will fulfil the service of imminent necessity 
by the practice of a profession and the labour of his hands. For if he supply his bodily wants 
with justice, and piety, and mercy, he comes forth as a victor in the contest set before him, 
and is chosen as a friend of the Son of God. But if he serve carnal lusts, by frauds, iniquities, 
and crimes, he becomes a friend of the prince of this world, and of all demons; by whom he 
is also taught this, to ascribe to the courses of the stars the errors of his own evil doings, al- 
though he chose them of purpose, and willingly. For arts are learned and practised, as we 
have said, under the compulsion of the desire of food and drink; which desire, when the 
knowledge of the truth comes to any one, becomes weaker, and frugality takes its place. 
For what expense have those who use water and bread, and only expect it from God? 



546 



The Old and the New Birth. 


Chapter VII. — The Old and the New Birth. 

“There is therefore, as we have said, a certain necessary inequality in the dispensation 
of the world. Since indeed all men cannot know all things, and accomplish all works, yet 
all need the use and service of almost all. And on this account it is necessary that one work, 
and another pay him for his work; that one be servant, and another be master; that one be 
subject, another be king. But this inequality, which is a necessary provision for the life of 
men, divine providence has turned into an occasion of justice, mercy, and humanity: that 
while these things are transacted between man and man, every one may have an opportunity 
of acting justly with him to whom he has to pay wages for his work; and of acting mercifully 
to him who, perhaps through sickness or poverty, cannot pay his debt; and of acting humanely 
towards those who by their creation seem to be subject to him; also of maintaining gentleness 
towards subjects, and of doing all things according to the law of God. For He has given a 
law, thereby aiding the minds of men, that they may the more easily perceive how they ought 
to act with respect to everything, in what way they may escape evil, and in what way tend 
to future blessings; and how, being regenerate in water, they may by good works extinguish 
the fire of their old birth. For our first birth descends through the fire of lust, and therefore, 
by the divine appointment, this second birth is introduced by water, which may extinguish 

ooo 

the nature of fire, and that the soul, enlightened by the heavenly Spirit, may cast away 
the fear of the first birth: provided, however, it so live for the time to come, that it do not 
at all seek after any of the pleasures of this world, but be, as it were, a pilgrim and a 
stranger, and a citizen of another city. 


838 [Compare Homily XI. 26 on this view of baptism. — R.] 

839 Ps. xxxix. 12. 


547 


Uses of Evils. 


Chapter VIII. — Uses of Evils. 

“But perhaps you will say, that in those things indeed in which the necessity of nature 
demands the service of arts and works, any one may have it in his power to maintain justice, 
and to put what restraint he pleases either upon his desires or his actions; but what shall we 
say of the sicknesses and infirmities which befall men, and of some being harassed with 
demons, and fevers, and cold fits, and some being attacked with madness, or losing their 
reason, and all those things which overwhelm the race of man with innumerable misfortunes? 
To this we say, that if any one consider the reason of the whole mystery, he will pronounce 
these things to be more just than those that we have already explained. For God has given 
a nature to men, by which they may be taught concerning what is good, and to resist evil; 
that is, they may learn arts, and to resist pleasures, and to set the law of God before them in 
all things. And for this end He has permitted certain contrary powers to wander up and 
down in the world, and to strive against us , 840 for the reasons which have been stated before, 
that by striving with them the palm of victory and the merit of rewards may accrue to the 
righteous. 


840 [On the doctrine of demons compare book iv. 14-22; Homily IX. 8-18. — R.] 


548 



Conceived in Sin. 


Chapter IX. — “Conceived in Sin.” 

“From this, therefore, it sometimes happens, that if any persons have acted incontinently, 
and have been willing not so much to resist as to yield, and to give harbour to these demons 
in themselves, by their noxious breath an intemperate, ill-conditioned, and diseased progeny 
is begotten. For while lust is wholly gratified, and no care is taken in the copulation, un- 
doubtedly a weak generation is affected with the defects and frailties of those demons by 
whose instigation these things are done. And therefore parents are responsible for their 
children’s defects of this sort, because they have not observed the law of intercourse. Though 
there are also more secret causes, by which souls are made subject to these evils, which it is 
not to our present purpose to state, yet it behoves every one to acknowledge the law of God, 
that he may learn from it the observance of generation, and avoid causes of impurity, that 
that which is begotten may be pure. For it is not right, while in the planting of shrubs and 
the sowing of crops a suitable season is sought for, and the land is cleaned, and all things 
are suitably prepared, lest haply the seed which is sown be injured and perish, that in the 
case of man only, who is over all these things, there should be no attention or caution in 
sowing his seed. 


549 



Tow Smeared with Pitch. 


Chapter X. — Tow Smeared with Pitch. 

“But what, it is said, of the fact that some who in their childhood are free from any 
bodily defect, yet in process of time fall into those evils, so that some are even violently 
hurried on to death? Concerning these also the account is at hand, and is almost the same: 
for those powers which we have said to be contrary to the human race, are in some way in- 
vited into the heart of every one by many and diverse lusts, and find a way of entrance; and 
they have in them such influence and power as can only encourage and incite, but cannot 
compel or accomplish. If, therefore, any one consents to them, so as to do those things 
which he wickedly desires, his consent and deed shall find the reward of destruction and 
the worst kind of death. But if, thinking of the future judgment, he be checked by fear, and 
reclaim himself, so that he do not accomplish in action what he has conceived in his evil 
thought, he shall not only escape present destruction, but also future punishments. For 
every cause of sin seems to be like tow smeared over with pitch, which immediately breaks 
into flame as soon as it receives the heat of fire; and the kindling of this fire is understood 
to be the work of demons. If, therefore, any one be found smeared with sins and lusts as 
with pitch, the fire easily gets the mastery of him. But if the tow be not steeped in the pitch 
of sin, but in the water of purification and regeneration, the fire of the demons shall not be 
able to be kindled in it. 


550 



Fear: 


Chapter XI. — Fear. 

“But some one will say, And what shall we do now, whom it has already happened to 
us to be smeared with sins as with pitch? I answer: Nothing; but hasten to be washed, that 
the fuel of the fire may be cleansed out of you by the invocation of the holy name, and that 
for the future you may bridle your lusts by fear of the judgment to come, and with all con- 
stancy beat back the hostile powers whenever they approach your senses. But you say, If 
any one fall into love, how shall he be able to contain himself, though he see before his eyes 
even that river of fire which they call Pyriphlegethon? This is the excuse of those who will 
not be converted to repentance. But now I would not have you talk of Pyriphlegethon. 
Place before you human punishments, and see what influence fear has. When any one is 
brought to punishment for the crime of love, and is bound to the stake to be burned, can 
he at that time conceive any desire of her whom he loved, or place her image before his eyes? 
By no means, you will say. You see, then, that present fear cuts off unrighteous desires. 
But if those who believe in God, and who confess the judgment to come, and the penalty of 
eternal fire, — if they do not refrain from sin, it is certain that they do not believe with full 
faith: for if faith is certain, fear also becomes certain; but if there be any detect in faith, fear 
also is weakened, and then the contrary powers find opportunity of entering. And when 
they have consented to their persuasions, they necessarily become subject also to their power, 
and by their instigation are driven to the precipices of sin. 


551 



Astrologers. 


Chapter XII. — Astrologers. 

o 4 1 

“Therefore the astrologers, being ignorant of such mysteries, think that these things 
happen by the courses of the heavenly bodies: hence also, in their answers to those who go 
to them to consult them as to future things, they are deceived in very many instances. Nor 
is it to be wondered at, for they are not prophets; but, by long practice, the authors of errors 
find a sort of refuge in those things by which they were deceived, and introduce certain 
Climacteric Periods, that they may pretend a knowledge of uncertain things. For they rep- 
resent these Climacterics as times of danger, in which one sometimes is destroyed, sometimes 
is not destroyed, not knowing that it is not the course of the stars, but the operation of 
demons, that regulates these things; and those demons, being anxious to confirm the error 
of astrology, deceive men to sin by mathematical calculations, so that when they suffer the 
punishment of sin, either by the permission of God or by legal sentence, the astrologer may 
seem to have spoken truth. And yet they are deceived even in this; for if men be quickly 
turned to repentance, and remember and fear the future j udgment, the punishment of death 
is remitted to those who are converted to God by the grace of baptism. 


841 [On the error of astrology compare book x. 7-12. In Homily XIV. 5 and elsewhere “genesis” and the 
science of astrology are identified.] — R. 


552 



Retribution Here or Hereafter. 


Chapter XIII. — Retribution Here or Hereafter. 

“But some one will say, Many have committed even murder, and adultery, and other 
crimes, and have suffered no evil. This indeed rarely happens to men, but to those who 
know not the counsel of God it frequently seems to happen. But God, who knows all things, 
knows how and why he who sins does sin, and what cause leads each one to sin. This, 
however, is in general to be noticed, that if any are evil, not so much in their mind as in 
their doings, and are not borne to sin under the incitement of purpose, upon them punish- 
ment is inflicted more speedily, and more in the present life; for everywhere and always God 
renders to every one according to his deeds, as He judges to be expedient. But those who 
practise wickedness of purpose, so that they sometimes even rage against those from whom 
they have received benefits, and who take no thought for repentance — their punishment 
He defers to the future. For these men do not, like those of whom we spoke before, deserve 
to end the punishment of their crimes in the present life; but it is allowed them to occupy 
the present time as they will, because their correction is not such as to need temporal chas- 
tisements, but such as to demand the punishment of eternal fire in hell; and there their souls 
shall seek repentance, where they shall not be able to find it. 


553 



Knowledge Deadens Lusts. 


Chapter XIV. — Knowledge Deadens Lusts. 

“But if, while in this life, they had placed before their eyes the punishments which they 
shall then suffer, they would certainly have bridled their lusts, and would in nowise have 
fallen into sin. For the understanding in the soul has much power for cutting off all its desires, 
especially when it has acquired the knowledge of heavenly things, by means of which, having 
received the light of truth, it will turn away from all darkness of evil actions. For as the sun 
obscures and conceals all the stars by the brightness of his shining, so also the mind, by the 
light of knowledge, renders all the lusts of the soul ineffective and inactive, sending out upon 
them the thought of the judgment to come as its rays, so that they can no longer appear in 
the soul. 


554 



Fear of Men and of God. 


Chapter XV. — Fear of Men and of God. 

“But as a proof that the fear of God has much efficacy for the repressing of lusts, take 
the example of human fear. Who is there among men that does not covet his neighbour’s 
goods? And yet they are restrained, and act honestly, through fear of the punishment which 
is prescribed by the laws. Through fear, nations are subject to their kings, and armies obey 
with arms in their hands. Slaves, although they are stronger than their masters, yet through 
fear submit to their masters’ rule. Even wild beasts are tamed by fear; the strongest bulls 
submit their necks to the yoke, and huge elephants obey their masters, through fear. But 
why do we use human examples, when even divine are not wanting? Does not the earth itself 
remain under the fear of precept, which it testifies by its motion and quaking? The sea keeps 
its prescribed bounds; the angels maintain peace; the stars keep their order, and the rivers 
their channels: it is certain also that demons are put to flight by fear. And not to lengthen 
the discourse by too many particulars, see how the fear of God, restraining everything, keeps 
all things in proper harmony, and in their fixed order. How much more, then, may you be 
sure that the lusts of demons which arise in your hearts may be extinguished and wholly 
abolished by the admonition of the fear of God, when even the inciters of lust are themselves 
put to flight by the influence of fear? You know that these things are so; but if you have 
anything to answer, proceed.” 


555 



Imperfect Conviction. 


Chapter XVI. — Imperfect Conviction. 

Then said the old man: “My son Clement has wisely framed his argument, so that he 
has left us nothing to say to these things; but all his discourse which he has delivered on the 
nature of men has this bearing, that along with the fact that freedom of will is in man, there 
is also some cause of evil without him, whereby men are indeed incited by various lusts, yet 
are not compelled to sin; and that for this reason, he said, because fear is much more 
powerful than they, and it resists and checks the violence of desires, so that, although natural 
emotions may arise, yet sin may not be committed, those demons being put to flight who 
incite and inflame these emotions. But these things do not convince me; for I am conscious 
of certain things from which I know well, that by the arrangement of the heavenly bodies 
men become murderers or adulterers, and perpetrate other evils; and in like manner hon- 
ourable and modest women are compelled to act well. 


556 



Astrological Lore. 


Chapter XVII.— Astrological Lore . 842 

“In short, when Mars, holding the centre in his house, regards Saturn quarterly, with 
Mercury towards the centre, the full moon coming upon him, in the daily Genesis, he pro- 

on 

duces murderers, and those who are to fall by the sword, bloody, drunken, lustful, devilish 

men, inquirers into secrets , 844 malefactors, sacrilegious persons, and such like; especially 
when there was no one of the good stars looking on. But again Mars himself, having a 
quarterly position with respect to Venus, in a direction toward the centre, while no good 
star looks on, produces adulterers and incestuous persons. Venus with the Moon, in the 
borders and houses of Saturn, if she was with Saturn, and Mars looking on, produces women 
that are viragos, ready for agriculture, building, and every manly work, to commit adultery 
with whom they please, and not to be convicted by their husbands, to use no delicacy, no 
ointments, nor feminine robes and shoes, but to live after the fashion of men. But the un- 
prop itio us Venus makes men to be as women, and not to act in any respect as men, if she 
is with Mars in Aries; on the contrary, she produces women if she is in Capricorn or 
Aquarius.” 


842 Ch. 17 and ch. 19-29 are taken in an altered form from the writing ascribed to Bardesanes, De Fato. 
[These chapters have no parallel in the Homilies , but the argument of the old man respecting genesis implies 
the same position; comp. Homily XIV. 3-7, 11. — R.] 

843 Conjectural reading, “to kill with the sword.” 

844 That is, violators of the sacred mysteries, which was regarded as one of the most horrid of crimes. 



557 



The Reply. 


Chapter XVIII. — The Reply. 

And when the old man had pursued this subject at great length, and had enumerated 
every kind of mathematical figure, and also the position of the heavenly bodies, wishing 
thereby to show that fear is not sufficient to restrain lusts, I answered again: “Truly, my 
father, you have argued most learnedly and skilfully; and reason herself invites me to say 
something in answer to your discourse, since indeed I am acquainted with the science of 
mathematics, and gladly hold a conference with so learned a man. Listen therefore, while 
I reply to what you have said that you may learn distinctly that Genesis is not at all from the 
stars, and that it is possible for those to resist the assault of demons who have recourse to 
God; and, as I said before, that not only by the fear of God can natural lusts be restrained, 
but even by the fear of men, as we shall now instruct you. 


558 



Refutation of Astrology. 


Chapter XIX. — Refutation of Astrology. 

“There are, in every country or kingdom, laws imposed by men, enduring either by 
writing or simply through custom, which no one easily transgresses. In short, the first Seres, 

o^r 

who dwell at the beginning of the world, have a law not to know murder, nor adultery, 
nor whoredom, and not to commit theft, and not to worship idols; and in all that country, 
which is very large, there is neither temple, nor image, nor harlot, nor adulteress, nor is any 
thief brought to trial. But neither is any man ever slain there; and no man’s liberty of will 
is compelled,